Spirochaetes

Scanning electron micrograph of Treponema pallidum cells, copyright Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Belongs within: Life.

The Spirochaetes are a distinctive group of helically coiled, motile bacteria. Some species are notorious pathogens.

Characters (from Garrity & Holt 2001a): Gram-negative, helically shaped, highly flexible cells. Motility by periplasmic flagella. Chemoorganotrophic. Anaerobic, microaerophilic, facultatively anaerobic, or aerobic. Free-living or associated with host animals.

<==Spirochaetes [Endoflagellata, Spirochaetae, Spirochaetales]
    |--Serpulinaceae GH01a
    |    |--Serpulina GH01a
    |    `--Brachyspira GH01a
    |--Leptospiraceae [Leptospirae] GH01a
    |    |--Leptonema illini GH01a, PHK96
    |    `--Leptospira GH01a
    |         |--L. interrogans PHK96
    |         `--L. wolbachii HP98
    `--Spirochaetaceae [Euspirochaetae] GH01a
         |  i. s.: Cristispira GH01a
         |         Brevinema GH01a
         |         Clevelandina GH01a
         |         Diplocalyx GH01a
         |         Pillotina GH01a
         |--Serpula hyodysenteriae PHK96
         `--+--Spirochaeta PHK96
            |    |--S. aurantia GH01b
            |    |--S. halophila GH01b
            |    |--S. litoralis PHK96
            |    |--S. stenostrepta PHK96
            |    `--S. zulzerae WR03
            |--Borrelia PHK96
            |    |--B. afzelii PHK96
            |    |--B. burgdorferi PHK96
            |    |--B. duttonii PHK96
            |    |--B. garinii PHK96
            |    |--B. lusitaniae GK01
            |    |--B. persica K91
            |    |--B. recurrentis GE05
            |    `--B. valaisiana GK01
            `--Treponema PHK96
                 |--T. caroteum E83
                 |--T. denticola PHK96
                 |--T. maltophilum WR03
                 |--T. oralis PHK96
                 |--T. pallidum HP98
                 |--T. parvum Wyss et al. 2001 JC08
                 |--T. pertenue E83
                 |--T. saccharophilum PHK96
                 `--T. zuelzerae PHK96

Nomen invalidum: Borrelia sinica Masuzawa et al. 2001 JC08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E83] Ewald, P. W. 1983. Host-parasite relations, vectors, and the evolution of disease severity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 14: 465-485.

[GH01a] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001a. The road map to the Manual. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria (Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity, eds) pp. 119-166. Springer.

[GH01b] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001b. Phylum BIX. Deferribacteres phy. nov. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria (Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity, eds) pp. 465-471. Springer.

[GK01] Gray, J. S., & O. Kahl. 2001. Ticks as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in Europe. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 547-551. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HP98] Hugenholtz, P., C. Pitulle, K. L. Hershberger & N. R. Pace. 1998. Novel division level bacterial diversity in a Yellowstone hot spring. Journal of Bacteriology 180 (2): 366-376.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755-1763.

[K91] Kryuchechnikov, V. N. 1991. Protective responses of Ixodoidea hemocytes. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 331-334. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[WR03] Wenzel, M., R. Radek, G. Brugerolle & H. König. 2003. Identification of the ectosymbiotic bacteria of Mixotricha paradoxa involved in movement symbiosis. European Journal of Protistology 39 (1): 11-23.

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