Reconstruction of Archaeopteris, from here.

Belongs within: Tracheophyta.
Contains: Medullosales, Spermatophyta.

The Lignophyta comprises the clade of wood-producing plants, defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the most inclusive clade characterised by a bifascial vascular cambium (a meristematic layer producing secondary xylem on the inner face and secondary phloem on the outer face) homologous with that of Pinus sylvestris. Synapomorphies of lignophytes also include a periderm-producing cork cambium, and cortical fibre strands (lost in most derived subgroups; Cantino et al. 2007).

<==Lignophyta (see below for synonymy)
    |--Aneurophytales CD07
    |--Tetraxylopteris FC07
    `--+--+--Cecropteris FC07
       |  `--Archaeopteris Dawson 1871 FC07, C81 [Archaeopteridales]
       |       |--*A. hibernica C81, CWC87 [=Cyclopteris hibernicus Forbes 1854 C81]
       |       |--A. changyangensis CWC87
       |       |--A. fimbricata C81
       |       |--A. fissilis CWC87
       |       |--A. gothani [=Adiantites gothani] C81
       |       |--A. halliana CWC87
       |       |--A. howitti F71
       |       |--A. hubeiensis CWC87
       |       |--A. jacksoni CWC87
       |       |--A. latifolia C81
       |       |--A. macilenta CWC87
       |       |--A. mapaensis [=Cardiopteridium mapaense] C81
       |       |--A. obtusa CWC87
       |       |--A. roemeriana (Goeppert) Lesquereux 1880 (see below for synonymy) CWC87
       |       |--A. rogersi CWC87
       |       |--A. sphenophyllifolia CWC87
       |       `--A. wilkinsoni Feistmantel 1878-1879 F71
       `--+--Elkinsia polymorpha FC07, MM12
          `--+--Laceya FC07
             `--+--+--Bilignea FC07
                |  `--Lyrasperma FC07
                `--Apo-Spermatophyta [Gymnospermae, Spermatophytata] CD07
                     |  i. s.: Dicksonites pluckeneti T30
                     |         Rienitsia variabilis M01
                     |--Heterangium FC07
                     |--+--Medullosales FC07
                     |  `--+--Callistophyton [Callistophytaceae] FC07
                     |     |    `--C. proxyloides RMH-C05
                     |     `--Spermatophyta FC07
                     `--Lyginopteridaceae D98
                          |--Lyginopteris FC07
                          |--Pecopteris VA01
                          |    |--P. obscura Dun 1897 F71
                          |    `--P. plumosa A38
                          |--Rhacopteris VA01
                          |    |--R. fertilis VA01
                          |    |--R. intermedia F71
                          |    |--R. lindsaeformis VA01
                          |    |--R. paniculifera VA01
                          |    `--R. septentrionalis Feistmantel 1878-1879 F71
                          `--Sphenopteris VA01
                               |--S. bifida VA01
                               |--S. eocenica S89
                               |--S. grandis Dun 1898 F71
                               |--S. marginata [incl. S. rotundifolia] A38
                               |--S. obtusiloba CWC87
                               `--S. valida [incl. S. artemisiae-folioides] A38

Lignophyta incertae sedis:
  Botrychiopsis Z02
  Genselia uberis VA01
  Triphyllopteris [Calamopityaceae] VA01
  Alisporites YB02
    |--A. bilateralis Rouse 1959 YB02
    `--A. similis (Balme) Dettmann 1963 YB02
  Ephedripites YB02
    |--E. eocaenicus (Selling) Yi & Batten 2002 [=Schizaea eocaenica Selling 1944] YB02
    |--E. huanghuaensis Ke & Shi 1978 YB02
    |--E. irregularis Herngreen 1973 I02
    |--E. jansonii (Pocock) Muller 1968 YB02
    |--E. multicostatus Brenner 1963 YB02
    |--E. multipartitus (Chlonova) Gao & Zhao 1976 YB02
    |--E. ovalis Muller 1968 I02
    `--E. praeclarus (Chlonova) Yi & Batten 2002 [=Schizaea praeclara Chlonova 1961] YB02
  Inaperturopollenites YB02
    |--I. dubius (Potonié & Venitz) Thomson & Pflug 1953 YB02
    |--I. hiatus (Potonié) Thomson & Pflug 1953 YB02
    `--I. laevigatus Takahashi 1957 YB02
  Cedripites parvus Norton in Norton & Hall 1969 YB02
  Phyllocladidites YB02
    |--P. inchoatus (Pierce) Norris 1967 YB02
    `--P. mawsonii Cookson 1947 RC02
  Pinuspollenites labdacus YB02
    |--P. l. f. labdacus YB02
    `--P. l. f. maximus Potonié 1958 YB02
  Podocarpidites YB02
    |--P. minutus Wang 1975 YB02
    `--P. nageiaformis (Zaklinskaya) Takahashi 1964 YB02
  Rugubivesiculites YB02
    |--R. convolutus Pierce 1961 YB02
    |--R. reductus Pierce 1961 YB02
    `--P. rugosus Pierce 1961 YB02
  Protopityales CD07
  Crossia SS04

Archaeopteris roemeriana (Goeppert) Lesquereux 1880 [=Cyclopteris roemeriana Goeppert 1859; incl. A. guangdongensis Feng 1977, A. mutatoformis Li 1984, A. tonglingiana Li 1984, A. zhongmingiana Li 1984] CWC87

Lignophyta [Cycadophytanae, Lignophytia, Pan-Spermatophyta, Progymnospermida, Progymnospermophyta, Progymnospermopsida, Radiatopses]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A38] Alcock, F. J. 1938. Geology of Saint John region, New Brunswick. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 216: 1-65.

[C81] Cai C.-Y. 1981. On the occurrence of Archaeopteris in China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 20 (1): 75-80.

[CWC87] Cai C.-Y., Wen Y.-G. & Chen P.-Q. 1987. Archaeopteris florula from Upper Devonian of Xinhui County, central Guangdong and its stratigraphical significance. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 26 (1): 55-64.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D98] Doyle, J. A. 1998. Phylogeny of vascular plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 567-599.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[FC07] Friis, E. M., P. R. Crane, K. R. Pedersen, S. Bengtson, P. C. J. Donoghue, G. W. Grimm & M. Stampanoni. 2007. Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links Cretaceous seed with Gnetales and Bennettitales. Nature 450: 549-552.

[I02] Ibrahim, M. I. A. 2002. Late Albian-Middle Cenomanian palynofacies and palynostratigraphy, Abu Gharadig-5 well, Western Desert, Egypt. Cretaceous Research 23: 775-788.

[MM12] Mao, K., R. I. Milne, L. Zhang, Y. Peng, J. Liu, P. Thomas, R. R. Mill & S. S. Renner. 2012. Distribution of living Cupressaceae reflects the breakup of Pangea. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (20): 7793-7798.

[M01] McLoughlin, S. 2001. The breakup history of Gondwana and its impact on pre-Cenozoic floristic provincialism. Australian Journal of Botany 49: 271-300.

[RC02] Riding, J. B., & J. A. Crame. 2002. Aptian to Coniacian (Early–Late Cretaceous) palynostratigraphy of the Gustav Group, James Ross Basin, Antarctica. Cretaceous Research 23: 739-760.

[RMH-C05] Rothwell, G. W., G. Mapes & G. R. Hernandez-Castillo. 2005. Hanskerpia gen. nov. and phylogenetic relationships among the most ancient conifers (Voltziales). Taxon 54 (3): 733-750.

[SS04] Schneider, H., E. Schuettpelz, K. M. Pryer, R. Cranfill, S. Magallón & R. Lupia. 2004. Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms. Nature 428: 553-557.

[S89] Squinabol, S. 1889. Res Ligusticae. VII.—Cenno preliminare sulla flora fossile di Santa Giustina. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 73-76.

[T30] Thomas, H. H. 1930. Further observations on the cuticle structure of Mesozoic cycadean fronds. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 5-7.

[VA01] Vega, J. C., & S. Archangelsky. 2001. Austrocalyxaceae, a new pteridosperm family from Gondwana. Palaeontographica Abt. B 257: 1-16.

[YB02] Yi, S., & D. J. Batten. 2002. Palynology of Upper Cretaceous (uppermost Campanian-Maastrichtian) deposits in the South Yellow Sea Basin, offshore Korea. Cretaceous Research 23: 687-706.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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