Frullania rostrata, photographed by John E. Braggins.

Belongs within: Jungermanniales.

Frullania is a large genus of liverworts, species of which are often found in relatively dry habitats.

Characters (from Hodgson 1949): Plants small to large, creeping, matted or semi-tufted, red-brown to very dark or blackish, olive or pale green, sometimes tinted rose. Stems regularly to irregularly pinnately or bipinnately branched, branches laterally arising from axils of the leaves. Leaves incubous, alternate, shortly inserted, usually with a ligulate or rounded dorsal appendix, entire, suborbicular, ovate or oval, ventral lobe or lobule helmet-shaped, campanulate, or cylindrical-clavate opening downwards, or narrowed and extended downwards in a curve, on the side further from the stem, the opening ± obliquely facing the stem; sometimes explanate. Stylus sometimes present between the lobule and the stem. Stipules always present, variously shaped with rhizoids only rarely adhering. Cells small to medium, sometimes vittate at base of leaf, walls often sinuous. Involucre leaves larger, lobule always explanate, with or without lateral laciniae, invol. stipule may be connate on both sides with leaves. Perianth free, emergent or exserted, obovate to oblong, tri- or tetragonous (third angle postical), maybe with supplementary keels, margins waved, straight or toothed; inflated, cylindrical, subspherical or ventrally concave, rough or smooth, contracted at the apex to a tubular beak, irregularly ruptured by the exsertion of the capsule. Capsule on a short stalk, elaters unispiral, adhering to the capsule valves after dehiscence. Male inflorescence lateral, globose to oblong, bracts saccate, closely imbricate, subequally bilobed.

<==Frullania Raddi 1820 H49 [Frullaniaceae]
    |--F. subg. Diastoloba H49
    |    |--F. (sect. Graciles) H49
    |    |    |--F. congesta H49
    |    |    `--F. rostrata (Tayl.) Syn. Hep. 1844-1847 (see below for synonymy) H49
    |    |--F. (sect. Lucidae) ptychantha [=Jungermannia ptychantha; incl. J. myosota Tayl. 1844] H49
    |    `--F. (sect. Pictae) aterrima (Tayl.) Syn. Hep. 1844-1847 [=Jungermannia aterrima Tayl. 1844] H49
    |         |--F. a. var. aterrima H49
    |         `--F. a. var. lepida Hodgson 1949 H49
    `--F. subg. Trachycolea Spruce 1885 [incl. F. subg. Galeiloba Steph. 1910] H49
         |--F. sect. Acutilobae H49
         |    |--F. acutiloba H49
         |    |--F. allani Hodgson 1949 H49
         |    |--F. hampeana [incl. F. novae-zelandiae] H49
         |    |--F. monocera H49
         |    |--F. spinifera Tayl. 1846 H49
         |    `--F. subhampeana Hodgson 1949 H49
         |--F. sect. Brevilobulae H49
         |    |--F. cranialis [=Jungermannia cranialis Tayl. 1845; incl. F. macraeana] H49
         |    |--F. pentapleura Tayl. 1846 [incl. F. quinqueplicata St. 1910] H49
         |    |    |--F. p. var. pentapleura H49
         |    |    `--F. p. var. integristipula H49
         |    |--F. reptans H49
         |    `--F. solanderiana Colenso 1888 [incl. F. decurviloba St. 1910] H49
         |--F. sect. Campanulatae H49
         |    |--F. anomola Hodgson 1949 H49
         |    |--F. fugax (Tayl.) Syn. Hep. 1844-1847 [=Jungermannia fugax Tayl. 1845] H49
         |    |    |--F. f. var. fugax H49
         |    |    `--F. f. var. media Hodgson 1949 H49
         |    `--F. incumbens H49
         |--F. sect. Discilobae H49
         |    |--F. kirkii St. 1894 H49
         |    |--F. patula H49
         |    `--F. subdeplanata St. 1910 H49
         |--F. (sect. Irregulares) deplanata Mitt. 1855 [incl. F. curnowiii, F. grayana] H49
         `--F. sect. Vulgares H49
              |--F. falciloba (Tayl.) Syn. Hep. 1844 (see below for synonymy) H49
              |    |--F. f. var. falciloba H49
              |    `--F. f. var. setchellii (Pears.) Hodgson 1949 H49
              |--F. nicholsonii Hodgson 1949 [=F. berggrenii Nichols. 1925 non St. 1924] H49
              |--F. pycnantha (Tayl.) Syn. Hep. 1844-1847 (see below for synonymy) H49
              |--F. rostellata Mitt. 1867 H49
              |--F. squarrosa H49
              |    |--F. s. var. squarrosa H49
              |    `--F. s. var. planescens H49
              |         |--F. s. var. p. f. planescens H49
              |         `--F. s. var. p. f. campanuloides H49
              `--F. squarrosula (Tayl.) Syn. Hep. 1844-1847 (see below for synonymy) H49

Frullania incertae sedis:
  F. amplexicaulis Colenso 1886 H49
  F. arecae G06
  F. atrosanguinea J87
  F. berggrenii St. 1924 H49
  F. boveana Massal. 1885 E03
  F. chilensis D03
  F. curvirostris Colenso 1888 H49
  F. dilatata H49
  F. diplota E03
  F. duthiana G06
  F. ericoides J87
  F. fertilis E03
  F. gaudichaudii G06
  F. gracilis H49
  F. hattoriantha G06
  F. hypoleuca H49
  F. inflata SS07
    |--F. i. var. inflata SS07
    `--F. i. var. dioca SS07
  F. intermixta Colenso 1888 H49
  F. lobulata D03
  F. lyallii M49
  F. magellanica H49
  F. nepalensis G06
  F. neurota G06
  F. physantha G06
  F. platyphylla Colenso 1888 H49
  F. polyclada Colenso 1888 H49
  F. retusa G06
  F. scabriseta Colenso 1886 H49
  F. schensiana G06
  F. sharpantha G06
  F. stipatiloba D03
  F. tamarisci SF01
  F. tongariroense Colenso 1888 H49

Frullania falciloba (Tayl.) Syn. Hep. 1844 [=Frullania falciloba Tayl. 1844; incl. F. colensoana St. 1910, F. delicatula Colenso 1886, F. falcata, F. minutissima Colenso 1886] H49

Frullania pycnantha (Tayl.) Syn. Hep. 1844-1847 [=Jungermannia pycnantha Tayl. 1844; incl. F. banksiana, F. diffusa, F. echinella, F. laciniaeflora] H49

Frullania rostrata (Tayl.) Syn. Hep. 1844-1847 [=Jungermannia rostrata Tayl. 1845; incl. F. dissitifolia St. 1910] H49

Frullania squarrosula (Tayl.) Syn. Hep. 1844-1847 [=Jungermannia squarrosula Tayl. 1845; incl. F. cunninghamiana, F. ichthyostoma, F. pulvinata, F. rotundifolia, F. viridis] H49

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D03] Dus̩n, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 РBotany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[E03] Evans, A. W. 1903. Hepaticae collected in southern Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 35-62. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G06] Ghosh, J. P. 2006. A preliminary check-list of hepatics of West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 73-102.

[H49] Hodgson, E. A. 1949. New Zealand Hepaticae (liverworts). VI. A review of the New Zealand species of the genus Frullania. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 361-389.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[M49] Martin, W. 1949. The bryophytes of Stewart Island.—Part I. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 257-277.

[SS07] Singh, S. K. & D. K. Singh. 2007. A preliminary census of Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of Doon Valley. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 1-14.

[SF01] Stech, M., & W. Frey. 2001. CpDNA-relationship and classification of the liverworts (Hepaticophytina, Bryophyta). Nova Hedwigia 72 (1-2): 45-58.

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