Devil's Hole pupfishes Cyprinodon diabolis, photographed by Olin Feuerbacher.

Belongs within: Atherinomorpha.
Contains: Fundulidae, Poeciliidae.

The Cyprinodontiformes, killifishes and related forms, are a cosmopolitan group of small fishes usually found in estuarine or marine environments (Bond 1996).

Characters (from Bond 1996). Soft-rayed physoclists with abdominal pelvic fins. Single dorsal fin set behind middle of body. Caudal fin with varying number of rays, never forked. Orbitosphenoid, mesocoracoid, and basisphenoid absent; maxillaries excluded from border of mouth by premaxillaries. Lateral line canal system incomplete or not well formed on head and body.

Cyprinodontiformes [Microcyprini]
    |  i. s.: Aplocheilichthys MWW89
    |           |--A. johnstoni CS77
    |           `--A. spilauchen MWW89
    |--Aplocheilidae [Aplocheilinae, Aplocheiloidei] B-RB13
    |    |--Fundulopanchax B96
    |    |--Aphiosemion B96
    |    |--Epiplatys B96
    |    |--Pachypanchax playfairii B96, ND13
    |    `--Aplocheilus L91
    |         |--A. latipes L91
    |         `--A. panchax CS77
    `--Cyprinodontoidei B-RB13
         |  i. s.: Profundulus B96 [Profundulidae B-RB13]
         |           `--P. hildebrandi B96
         |         Valencia B96 [Valenciidae B-RB13]
         |           `--V. hispanica B96
         |         Anablepidae B-RB13
         |           |--Jenynsia [Jenynsiidae] B96
         |           |    `--J. multidentata (Jenyns 1842) MGV06
         |           `--Anableps LD09
         |                |--A. anableps (Linnaeus 1758) LD09 [incl. A. tetrophthalmus Günther 1866 F16]
         |                `--A. microleps Müller & Troschel 1844 PC01
         |         Goodeidae B-RB13
         |           |  i. s.: Tapatia occidentalis G88
         |           |--Goodeinae B96
         |           `--Empetrichthyinae B96
         |                |--Crenichthys B96
         |                `--Empetrichthys B96
         |                     |--E. erdisi G88
         |                     `--E. latos USDI77
         |         Nothobranchius B96 [Nothobranchiidae B-RB13]
         |           `--N. rachowi B96
         |         Rivulidae B-RB13
         |           |--Pterolebias B96
         |           |--Cynolebias B96
         |           `--Rivulus R88
         |                |--R. cylindraceus R88
         |                |--R. garciai R88
         |                |--R. harti [=Haplochilus harti; incl. R. micropus Günther 1866] F16
         |                |--R. heyei R88
         |                |--R. insulaepinorum R88
         |                |--R. isthmensis F15
         |                |--R. marmoratus R86
         |                `--R. roloffi R88
         |--+--Fundulidae ND13
         |  `--Poeciliidae ND13
         `--Cyprinodontidae A02
              |--Kosswigichthys B96
              |--Jordanella floridae B96, ND13
              |--Floridichthys carpio B96, R86
              |--Prolebias G88
              |--Cubanichthys B96
              |    |--C. cubensis R88
              |    `--C. pengelleyi R88
              |--Aphanius CA00
              |    |--A. dispar (Rüppell 1829) CA00
              |    |--A. ginaonis (Holly 1929) CA00
              |    |--A. mento (Heckel 1843) CA00
              |    |--A. persicus (Jenkins 1910) CA00
              |    |--A. sophiae (Heckel 1849) CA00
              |    `--A. vladykovi Coad 1988 CA00
              `--Cyprinodon ND13
                   |--C. atrorus S92
                   |--C. beltrani HB81
                   |--C. bifasciatus S92
                   |--C. bondi R88
                   |--C. diabolis B96
                   |--C. dispar CS77
                   |--C. elegans USDI77
                   |--C. laciniatus R88
                   |--C. maya HB81
                   |--C. nevadensis USDI77
                   |    |--C. n. nevadensis USDI77
                   |    |--C. n. calidae USDI77
                   |    `--C. n. pectoralis USDI77
                   |--C. pecosensis B96
                   |--C. radiosis B96
                   `--C. variegatus Lacépède 1803 D83 [incl. C. baconi R86, C. dearborni R86, C. jamaicensis R86]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A02] Able, K. W. 2002. Killifishes. Family Fundulidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 292–297. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[B-RB13] Betancur-R., R., R. E. Broughton, E. O. Wiley, K. Carpenter, A. López, C. Li, N. I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J. C. Cureton, II, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M. A. Campbell, J. A. Ballesteros, A. Roa-Varon, S. Willis, W. C. Borden, T. Rowley, P. C. Reneau, D. J. Hough, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia & G. Ortí. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents Tree of Life April 18 2013. doi: 10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[CA00] Coad, B. W., & A. Abdoli. 2000. Systematics of an isolated population of tooth-carp from northern Iran (Actinopterygii: Cyprinodontidae). Zoology in the Middle East 21: 87–102.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D83] Darovec, J. E. 1983. Sciaenid fishes (Osteichthyes: Perciformes) of western penisular Florida. Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (3): 1–73.

[F15] Fowler, H. W. 1915. Cold-blooded vertebrates from Florida, the West Indies, Costa Rica, and eastern Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 243–269.

[F16] Fowler, H. W. 1916. The fishes of Trinidad, Grenada, and St. Lucia, British West Indies. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 520–548.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[HB81] Humphries, J. M., F. L. Bookstein, B. Chernoff, G. R. Smith, R. L. Elder & S. G. Poss. 1981. Multivariate discrimination by shape in relation to size. Systematic Zoology 30 (3): 291–308.

[LD09] Li, B., A. Dettaï, C. Cruaud, A. Couloux, M. Desoutter-Meniger & G. Lecointre. 2009. RNF213, a new nuclear marker for acanthomorph phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50: 345–363.

[L91] Liehne, P. F. S. 1991. An Atlas of the Mosquitoes of Western Australia. Health Department of Western Australia.

[MGV06] Mai, A. C. G., A. M. Garcia & J. P. Vieira. 2006. Ecologia alimentar do barrigudinho Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842) (Pisces: Cyprinodontiformes) no estuário da Laguna dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Comunicações do Museo de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Serie Zoologia 19 (1): 3–18.

[MWW89] Miller, P. J., J. Wright & P. Wongrat. 1989. An Indo-Pacific goby (Teleostei: Gobioidei) from West Africa, with systematic notes on Butis and related eleotridine genera. Journal of Natural History 23: 311–324.

[ND13] Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, R. I. Eytan, B. P. Keck, W. L. Smith, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, S. A. Price, F. T. Burbrink, M. Friedman & P. C. Wainwright. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (31): 12738–12743.

[PC01] Pichelin, S., & T. H. Cribb. 2001. The status of the Diplosentidae (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala) and a new family of acanthocephalans from Australian wrasses (Pisces: Labridae). Folia Parasitologica 48: 289–303.

[R88] Rauchenberger, M. 1988. Historical biogeography of poeciliid fishes in the Caribbean. Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 356–365.

[R86] Rivas, L. R. 1986. Comments on Briggs (1984): freshwater fishes and biogeography of Central America and the Antilles. Systematic Zoology 35 (4): 633–639.

[S92] Smith, G. R. 1992. Introgression in fishes: significance for paleontology, cladistics, and evolutionary rates. Systematic Biology 41 (1): 41–57.

[USDI77] United States Department of the Interior. 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

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