Brachininae

Pheropsophus verticalis, copyright Peter Halasz.


Belongs within: Conjunctae.

The Brachininae, bombadier beetles, are a group of ground beetles capable of explosively emitting a defensive spray from the abdominal apex.

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Head with one pair of supraorbital setiferous punctures; mandible with setiferous puncture in concavity (scrobe) along outer edge; elytra truncate, exposing one abdominal tergite; abdomen with 7 or 8 ventrites.

Brachininae [Brachinides, Brachinini] B12
    |  i. s.: Mastax B55
    |           |--M. burgeoni B55
    |           `--M. ornatellus B55
    |--+--Aptinus OM08
    |  |    |--A. alpinus OM08
    |  |    `--A. displosor OM08
    |  `--+--Styphlodromus OM08
    |     `--Styphlomerus OM08
    |          |--S. ludicrus [incl. S. ludicrus var. grandis] B55
    |          `--S. vittaticollis OM08
    `--+--Crepidogaster [Crepidigastrini] OM08
       |    |--C. (Tyronia) ambreana OM08
       |    |--C. atrata OM08
       |    `--C. picipennis B55
       `--+--Brachinus OM08
          |    |--B. (Metabrachinus) armiger OM08 [incl. Metabrachinus armiger var. natalicus B55]
          |    |--B. bimaculatus B35
          |    |--B. caligatus Bates 1889 B89
          |    |--B. crepitans I92
          |    |--B. frontalis B89
          |    |--B. (Neobrachinus) hirsutus OM08
          |    `--B. oblongus G89
          `--Pheropsophus Solier 1833 [Pherapsophina] B12
               |  i. s.: P. aequinoctialis (Linnaeus 1763) B14
               |         P. africanus [=Brachinus africanus] G89
               |         P. alexandrae Giachino 2003 B12
               |         P. arcanus B55
               |         P. darwini Giachino 2003 B12
               |         P. dimidiatus B55
               |         P. gregoryi Giachino 2003 B12
               |         P. jessoensis LB91
               |         P. livingstonei B55
               |         P. macleayi Sloane 1895 B12
               |         P. minor B55
               |         P. straneoi Giachino 2003 B12
               |         P. windjanae Baehr 2012 B12
               |--P. (Pheropsophus) B12
               |    |--*P. (P.) madagascariensis (Dejean 1831) [=Brachinus madagascariensis] B12
               |    `--P. (P.) complanatus (Fabricius 1775) LM87 [=Carabus complanatus LM87, Nebria complanata L02]
               `--P. (Stenaptinus Maindron 1906) [incl. Parapheropsophus Hubenthal 1914] LM87
                    |--P. (*S.) krichna (Maindron 1914) [=*Stenaptinus krichna] LM87
                    `--P. (S.) verticalis (Dejean 1825) LM87 (see below for synonymy) LM87

Pheropsophus (Stenaptinus) verticalis (Dejean 1825) LM87 [=Brachinus verticalis LM87, P. (*Parapheropsophus) verticalis LM87; incl. P. australis Castelnau 1867 LM87, P. baliothorax Heller 1910 LM87, P. hypoxanthus Chaudoir 1876 LM87, P. (Parapheropsophus) intermedius Hubenthal 1914 LM87, Aptinus jamissoni B35, P. (Pa.) niger Hubenthal 1914 LM87, P. papuensis Macleay 1877 LM87]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B12] Baehr, M. 2012. A new species of the genus Pheropsophus (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Brachininae) from northern Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 62–67.

[B55] Basilewsky, P. 1955. Carabidae (Coleoptera) de l’Angola (première partie). Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 91–137.

[B89] Bates, H. W. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmani e regioni vicine. XVI.—On some Carabidae from Burma collected by Mr. L. Fea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 100–111.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[OM08] Ober, K. A., & D. R. Maddison. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of tribes within Harpalinae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as inferred from 28S ribosomal DNA and the wingless gene. Journal of Insect Science 8: 63.

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