Andreaea rupestris, photographed by Michael Lüth.

Belongs within: Bryophyta.

As recognised here, the Andreaeopsida comprise a small assemblage of basal mosses in which the spores are released from the capsule via dehiscence through longitudinal slits, rather than via an operculum as in other mosses (Smith & Davison 1993). The monophyly of the Andreaeopsida is uncertain, with many authors regarding its members as a paraphyletic grade dividing the basal Sphagnopsida from the remaining mosses. The position of Takakia, a distinctive moss genus found in eastern Asia and north-west North America, has been particularly contentious, but it has been linked to Andreaeobryum by features such as the presence of secondary protonemata and of massed beaked mucilage-producing papillae. Takakia is otherwise distinguished by erect shoots arising from a stolon, terete leaves with oil droplets and slime hairs, and naked lateral gametangia. Species of Andreaeaceae are epilithic: Andreaea typically grows on granite or other acidic rocks while Andreaeobryum macrosporum grows on limestone (Flora of North America).

    |--Takakia [Takakiaceae, Takakiales, Takakiidae] FHH01
    |    `--T. ceratophylla FHH01
    `--Andreaeaceae [Andreaeales, Andreaeidae] FHH01
         |--Andreaeobryum macrosporum FHH01
         |--Acroschisma wilsoni D03
         `--Andreaea Hedw. 1801 SK02
              |  i. s.: A. acutifolia Hooker & Wilson 1844 SK02
              |           |--A. a. ssp. acutifolia SK02
              |           `--A. a. ssp. acuminata (Mitt.) Vitt 1980 SK02 [=A. petrophila var. acuminata D24]
              |         A. amblyophylla Müll.Hal. ex Broth. 1895 SK02
              |         A. appendiculata D03
              |         A. asperula Mitt. 1860 [incl. A. muelleri (nom. inv.)] SK02
              |         A. australis Mitt. 1856 SK02
              |         A. erubescens Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02
              |           |--A. e. var. erubescens SK02
              |           `--A. e. var. nigrita Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02
              |         A. eximia Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02
              |         A. flabellata Müll.Hal. 1883 SK02
              |         A. flexuosa R.Br.bis 1893 SK02
              |         A. gainii Cardot 1911 SK02
              |         A. heinemannii Hampe & Müll.Hal. 1846 SK02
              |         A. julicaulis Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02
              |         A. laxifolia D03
              |         A. marginata D03
              |         A. microvaginata Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02
              |         A. montana Mitt. 1859 SK02
              |         A. mutabilis Hooker & Wilson 1844 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
              |         A. nitida Hooker & Wilson 1844 SK02
              |         A. pseudo-alpina D03
              |         A. subulata Harv. ex Hooker 1840 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |           |--A. s. var. subulata D03
              |           `--A. s. var. perichaetialis D03
              |         A. tasmanica Rodway 1916 SK02
              |         A. tenera Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02
              |         A. thedenii H04
              |--A. (subg. Chasmocalyx) nivalis D24
              |    |--A. n. var. nivalis D24
              |    `--A. n. var. fuscescens D24
              `--A. subg. Eu-Andraea D24
                   |--A. alpina Hedw. 1801 D24, SK02 [=Jungermannia alpina D24]
                   |    |--A. a. var. alpina D24
                   |    `--A. a. var. flavicans D24
                   |--A. crassinervia D24
                   |    |--A. c. var. crassinervia D24
                   |    `--A. c. var. huntii D24
                   |--A. obovata D24
                   |--A. rothii D24
                   |    |--A. r. var. rothii D24
                   |    |--A. r. var. falcata D24
                   |    |--A. r. var. grimsulana D24
                   |    `--A. r. var. hamata D24
                   `--A. rupestris Hedw. 1801 [incl. A. petrophila] SK02
                        |--A. r. var. rupestris D24
                        |--A. ‘petrophila’ var. alpestris D24
                        |--A. ‘petrophila’ var. flaccida D24
                        |--A. ‘petrophila’ var. gracilis D24
                        |--A. ‘petrophila’ var. sparsifolia D24
                        `--A. ‘petrophila’ var. sylvicola D24

Nomina nuda: Andreaea loricata Dusén 1903 D03
             Andreaea pulvinatula Dusén 1903 D03
             Andreaea purpurascens Dusén 1903 D03
             Andreaea vermicularis Dusén 1903 D03

Andreaea mutabilis Hooker & Wilson 1844 SK02 [incl. A. amblyophylla var. attenuata SK02, A. amblyophylla var. bullata SK02, A. petrophila var. homomalla D24, SK02]

Andreaea subulata Harv. ex Hooker 1840 [incl. A. pseudosubulata, A. subulata var. rigida, A. subulatissima] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

Smith, D. K., & P. G. Davison. 1993. Antheridia and sporophytes in Takakia ceratophylla (Mitt.) Grolle: evidence for reclassification among the mosses. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 73: 263-271.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Last updated: 11 January 2018.

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