Verbeekinidae

Equatorial section of Neoschwagerina, from here.


Belongs within: Loeblichiidae.

The Verbeekinidae are a group of fusulinids known from the Permian, with closely spaced foramina through the bases of all septa. The foramina are bordered by parachomata throughout the test in members of the Upper Permian subfamily Neoschwagerininae; in earlier genera of the subfamily Verbeekininae, the parachomata are discontinuous in earlier volutions of the test, becoming continuous only in later volutions (and throughout the test in later genera of this subfamily). Neoschwagerininae are further characterised by the presence of at least transverse septula, and sometimes also axial septula (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Shell of medium size, spherical, ellipsoidal to elongate-ellipsoidal, or distinctly fusiform. Closely spaced foramina through the bases of all septa. Parachomata discontinuous in early forms, becoming extended completely across chambers in later forms. Axial and transverse septula hang from spirotheca of some later genera. Axial fillings present in most forms, becoming prominent in some. Spirotheca composed of tectum and keriotheca in early members of family but in later genera may be composed of single homogeneous layer.

<==Verbeekinidae [Neoschwagerinidae] LT64
    |--Verbeekininae [Doliolininae, Misellininae] LT64
    |    |--Eoverbeekina Lee 1933 LT64
    |    |    `--*E. intermedia Lee 1933 LT64
    |    |--Brevaxina Schenck & Thompson 1940 LT64
    |    |    `--*B. compressa (Deprat 1915) [=Doliolina compressa] LT64
    |    |--Verbeekina Staff 1909 [incl. Armenina Miklukho-Maklay 1955, Paraverbeekina Miklukho-Maklay 1955] LT64
    |    |    |--*V. verbeeki (Geinitz in Geinitz & von der Marck 1876) [=Fusulina verbeeki] LT64
    |    |    |--V. grabaui LT64
    |    |    |--V. karinae (Miklukho-Maklay 1955) [=*Armenina karinae] LT64
    |    |    `--V. pontica (Miklukho-Maklay 1955) [=*Paraverbeekina pontica] LT64
    |    |--Misellina Schenck & Thompson 1940 (see below for synonymy) LT64
    |    |    |--*M. ovalis (Deprat 1915) [=Doliolina ovalis] LT64
    |    |    |--M. claudiae (Deprat 1912) ZL04
    |    |    |--M. confraspira Leven 1967 ZL04
    |    |    `--‘Schwagerina’ lepida Schwager 1883 [=*Doliolina lepida, *Moellerina lepida] LT64
    |    `--Pseudodoliolina Yabe & Hanzawa 1932 [incl. Metadoliolina Ishii & Nogami 1961] LT64
    |         |--*P. ozawai Yabe & Hanzawa 1932 LT64
    |         |--P. lettensis [=Doliolina lettensis, Misellina lettensis] DX84
    |         `--P. pseudolepida LT64
    |              |--P. g. pseudolepida LT64
    |              `--P. p. gravitesta Kanmera 1954 [=*Metadoliolina gravitesta] LT64
    `--Neoschwagerininae [Lepidolininae, Sumatrininae] LT64
         |--Cancellina Hayden 1909 LT64
         |    `--*C. primigenia (Hayden 1909) [=Neoschwagerina primigenia] LT64
         |--Presumatrina Tumanskaya 1950 (see below for synonymy) LT64
         |    `--*P. schellwieni (Deprat 1913) [=Doliolina schellwieni, *Praesumatrina schellwieni] LT64
         |--Sumatrina Volz 1904 [incl. Pseudolepidolina Tumanskaya 1953] LT64
         |    |--*S. annae Volz 1904 LT64
         |    `--S. longissima (Deprat 1914) (see below for synonymy) LT64
         |--Afghanella Thompson 1946 [=Avganella Miklukho-Maklay 1953; incl. Pseudosumatrina Tumanskaya 1950] LT64
         |    |--*A. schencki Thompson 1946 [=*Avganella schencki] LT64
         |    `--A. sumatrinaeformis (Gubler 1935) (see below for synonymy) LT64
         |--Yabeina Deprat 1914 [=Jabeina Miklukho-Maklay 1953] LT64
         |    |--*Y. inouyei (Deprat 1914) [=Neoschwagerina (*Yabeina) inouyei, *Jabeina inouyei] LT64
         |    |--Y. globosa [=Neoschwagerina globosa] C40
         |    |    |--Y. g. globosa C40
         |    |    `--Y. g. kotoi C40
         |    |--Y. texana RR79
         |    `--Y. yasubaensis RR79
         |--Lepidolina Lee 1933 [incl. Gublerina Minato & Honjo 1959 non Kiko├»ne 1948] LT64
         |    |--*L. multiseptata (Deprat 1912) [=Neoschwagerina (Sumatrina) multiseptata] LT64
         |    |--L. elongata (Gubler 1935) [=Neoschwagerina elongata, *Gublerina elongata] LT64
         |    |--L. kumaensis RR79
         |    |--L. shiraiwensis RR79
         |    `--L. toriyamai RR79
         |--Colania Lee 1933 LT64
         |    |--*C. kwangsiana Lee 1933 [=Lepidolina kwangsiana] LT64
         |    `--C. douvillei VH01
         `--Neoschwagerina Yabe 1903 (see below for synonymy) LT64
              |--*N. craticulifera (Schwager 1883) [=Schwagerina craticulifera] LT64
              |--N. douvillei YJ04
              |--N. gifuensis (Honjo 1959) [=*Gifuella gifuensis] LT64
              |--N. haydeni LT64
              |--N. kueichowensis YJ04
              |--N. margaritae RR79
              |--N. megasphaerica YJ04
              |--N. nipponica Ozawa 1927 [=N. (Cancellina) nipponica, *Minoella nipponica] LT64
              |--N. ovalis (Minato & Honjo 1958) [=*Metaschwagerina ovalis] LT64
              |--N. simplex YJ04
              `--N. verae (Tumanskaya 1953) [=*Crimellina verae] LT64

Afghanella sumatrinaeformis (Gubler 1935) [=Neoschwagerina sumatrinaeformis, *Pseudosumatrina sumatrinaeformis] LT64

Misellina Schenck & Thompson 1940 [incl. Doliolina Schellwien 1902 non Borgert 1894, Moellerina Schellwien 1898 non Ulrich 1886] LT64

Neoschwagerina Yabe 1903 [incl. Crimellina Tumanskaya 1953, Gifuella Honjo 1959, Metaschwagerina Minato & Honjo 1958, Minoella Honjo 1959] LT64

Presumatrina Tumanskaya 1950 [=Praesumatrina Miklukho-Maklay, Rauzer-Chernousova & Rozovskaya in Rauzer-Chernousova & Fursenko 1959] LT64

Sumatrina longissima (Deprat 1914) [=Neoschwagerina (Sumatrina) longissima, *Pseudolepidolina longissima] LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[DX84] Ding Y., Xia G., Duan C., Li W., Liu X. & Liang Z. 1984. Study on the early Permian stratigraphy and fauna in Zhesi district, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu (Inner Mongolia). Bulletin Tianjin Institure Geol. Min. Res. 10.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[RR79] Ross, C. A., & J. R. P. Ross. 1979. Permian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A291–A350. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[VH01] Vachard, D., M. Hauser, R. Martini, L. Zaninetti, A. Matter & T. Peters. 2001. New algae and problematica of algal affinity from the Permian of the Aseelah Unit of the Batain Plain (East Oman). Geobios 34 (4): 375–404.

[YJ04] Yang X., Jin X., Ji Z., Wang Y., Yao J. & Yang H. 2004. New materials of the Shanita-Hemigordius assemblage (Permian foraminifers) from the Baoshan Block, western Yunnan. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 78: 15–21.

[ZL04] Zhou, Z., & M. Liengjarern. 2004. Lower Permian perrinitid ammonoid faunas from Thailand. Journal of Paleontology 78: 317–339.

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