Myxogastrea

Physarum polycephalum, copyright Stephanie Davidson.


Belongs within: Mycetozoa.
Contains: Trichiacea.

The Myxogastrea include the plasmodial slime moulds, amoeboid organisms that form a dispersed plasmodium in the nutritive phase of their life cycle, aggregating to form fruiting bodies in the reproductive phase.

Characters (from Cavalier-Smith et al. 2004): Life cycle with lamellipodial/filopodial amoeba, flagellate, and (usually) plasmodial phases; flagellate phase with two centrioles, each with two microtubular bands, biciliate or sometimes uniciliate; mitochondria typically with central rod-shaped nucleoid; with multilayered cysts or with spores (developing within plasmodia) borne on fruiting bodies; flagellate state with inner microtubular cone attached apically to microtubule nucleating centre at end of fibrillar root emanating from anterior centriolar base.

Myxogastrea (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Hyperamoeba flagellata KB05
    |         Cladostelium bisporum [=Echinostelium bisporum] C-SCO04
    |         Craterium FRS83
    |           |--C. leucocephalum FRS83
    |           `--C. minutum FRS83
    |         Protophysarum phloiogenum FRS83
    |--Protosporangiida AS12
    |    |--Protosporangiidae AS12
    |    |    |--Clastostelium AS12
    |    |    `--Protosporangium AS12
    |    `--Ceratiomyxa Schr√∂ter 1889 AS12
    |         `--C. fructiculosa LB90
    `--Myxogastria (see below for synonymy) AS12
         |  i. s.: Barbyella AS12
         |         Calomyxa metallica AS12, SK03
         |         Comatricha AS12
         |           |--C. acanthodes SK03
         |           |--C. ellae SK03
         |           `--C. nigra SK03
         |         Diderma AS12
         |           |--D. chondrioderma SK03
         |           |--D. effusum SK03
         |           `--D. hemisphaericum SK03
         |         Leocarpus AS12
         |         Lepidoderma tigrinum AS12, H04
         |         Macbrideola AS12
         |           |--M. cornea SK03
         |           `--M. scintillans SK03
         |         Oligonema AS12
         |         Willkommlangea AS12
         |--Trichiacea LT64
         `--Stemonitacea (see below for synonymy) LT64
              |--Echinosteliida C-SCO04
              |    |--Echinostelium SK03 [Echinosteliaceae, Echinosteliidae LT64]
              |    |    `--E. minutum SK03
              |    `--Clastodermidae C-SCO04
              |         |--Barbeyella C-SCO04
              |         `--Clastoderma C-SCO04
              |--Stemonitidae (see below for synonymy) LT64
              |    |  i. s.: Enerthenema papillatum SK03
              |    |         Raciborskia Berlese in Saccardo 1888 FT93
              |    |         Diachea leucopodia LB90
              |    |         Lamproderma AS12
              |    |--Colloderminae LT64
              |    |--Amaurochaetinae LT64
              |    `--Stemonitinae [Brefeldiei] LT64
              |         |--Stemonitis S03
              |         |    |--S. flavogenita KB05
              |         |    |--S. fusca SK03
              |         |    `--S. smithii SK03
              |         `--Brefeldia AS12
              `--Physarida (see below for synonymy) C-SCO04
                   |--Elaeomyxidae [Elaeomyxaceae] C-SCO04
                   |--+--Hyperamoeba dachnaya KB05
                   |  `--Didymium (see below for synonymy) C-SCO04
                   |       |--D. farinaceum H04
                   |       |--D. iridis FF02
                   |       `--D. nigripes KB05
                   `--Physaridae [Physarinae] LT64
                        |--Fuligo septica C-SCO04, BL04
                        |--Physarella LT64
                        |--Badhamia C-SCO04
                        |    |--B. panicea H04
                        |    `--B. rugulosa SK03
                        `--Physarum SK03
                             |--P. crateriforme SK03
                             |--P. didermoides H04
                             |--P. flavicomum PHK96
                             |--P. nutans SK03
                             |--P. plumbeum H04
                             `--P. polycephalum SK03

Didymium [Didymiacea, Didymiaceae, Didymeae, Didymidae, Didymieae, Didymiei, Didymiinae, Didymiidae, Spumariei] C-SCO04

Myxogastrea [Enteridiea, Eumycetozoina, Myxomycetales, Myxogasteres, Myxogastrales, Myxogastres, Myxomycetes, Myxomycota, Trichospermi]

Myxogastria [Atrichae, Columelliferae, Endosporea, Endosporeae, Endosporei, Endosporinei, Endotrichea, Euplasmodida] AS12

Physarida [Aethalini, Calcareae, Calcarinea, Calcarineae, Cienkowskiaceae, Lithodermeae, Physaraceae, Physaracei, Physarae, Physarales, Physarea, Physareae, Physarei, Physariineae, Physarina, Physaroidea, Physaroinae, Spumariaceae]

Stemonitacea [Amaurochaetides, Amaurosporae, Amaurosporales, Amaurosporeae, Amaurosporei, Stemonitei, Stemonitidides, Stemonitioidea] LT64

Stemonitidae [Amaurochaetacea, Amaurochaetaceae, Amaurochaeteae, Amaurochaetene, Amaurochaetinea, Amaurochaetineae, Amaurochaetoinae, Brefeldiaceae, Brefeldiidae, Collodermaceae, Collodermataceae, Enerthenemaceae, Enerthenemea, Lamprodermaceae, Lamprodermae, Lamprodermeae, Leptonemeae, Raciborskiaceae, Stemonitaceae, Stemonitacei, Stemonitae, Stemonitales, Stemonitea, Stemonitida, Stemonitina]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. LukeŇ°, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[BL04] Bullians, M. S., & R. A. B. Leschen. 2004. Noteucinetus new genus from New Zealand and Chile and notes on Eucinetus stewarti (Broun) (Coleoptera: Eucinetidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 29–38.

[C-SCO04] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E.-Y. Chao & B. Oates. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of Amoebozoa and the evolutionary significance of the unikont Phalansterium. European Journal of Protistology 40: 21–48.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[FF02] Foster, K. R., A. Fortunato, J. E. Strassmann & D. C. Queller. 2002. The costs and benefits of being a chimera. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 269: 2357–2362.

[FRS83] Frederick, L., I. L. Roth & R. Simons. 1983. SEM studies on operculum structure in the myxomycete Trichia crateriformis. Mycologia 75 (1): 46–52.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[KB05] Kudryavtsev, A., D. Bernhard, M. Schlegel, E. E-Y. Chao & T. Cavalier-Smith. 2005. 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Cochliopodium (Himatismenida) and the phylogeny of Amoebozoa. Protist 156: 215–224.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LB90] Lousier, J. D., & S. S. Bamforth. 1990. Soil protozoa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 97–136. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[SK03] Snell, K. L., & H. W. Keller. 2003. Vertical distribution and assemblages of corticolous myxomycetes on five tree species in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Mycologia 95 (4): 565–576.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS