Archamoebae

Stained trophozoite of Entamoeba histolytica, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The solid purple circle is an ingested red blood cell.


Belongs within: Amoebozoa.

The Archamoebae are a group of amoebozoans in which the mitochondria have been converted into nonaerobic organelles (Adl et al. 2012).

See also: Archamoebae: the apogee (or nadir) or amoebozoan evolution.

<==Archamoebae [Archamoebea, Entamoebea, Pelobiontea, Pelomyxidae, Testamoebidae]
    |--Pelobiontida KB05
    |    |--Pelomyxa Greef 1874 KB05, AS12 [Caryoblastea, Peloflagellata]
    |    |    `--P. palustris KB05
    |    `--Entamoeba Casagrandi & Barbagallo 1895 KB05, LT64 [Entamoebida, Entamoebidae, Entamoebinae]
    |         |  i. s.: E. coli KB05
    |         |         E. dispar PHK96
    |         |         E. invadens BL01
    |         |         E. terrapinae SS02
    |         |--E. polecki HA01
    |         `--+--E. gingivalis HA01
    |            `--+--E. hartmanni HA01
    |               `--+--E. histolytica HA01
    |                  `--E. moshkovskii HA01
    `--Mastigamoebaea [Mastigamoebida, Mastigamoebidae, Rhizoflagellida, Rhizomastigidae] KB05
         |  i. s.: Tricholimax WDE06
         |         Mastigina hylae AS12, MM98
         |--+--Phreatamoeba Ch√†vez et al. 1986 KB05, WDE06 [Phreatamoebida]
         |  |    `--P. balamuthi KB05 [=Mastigamoeba balamuthi C-SCO04]
         |  `--Mastigella Frenzel 1897 KB05, WDE06
         |       |--M. commutans WDE06
         |       |--M. simplex LB90
         |       `--M. unica SX97
         `--+--Endolimacidae C-SCO04
            |    |--Endolimax Kuenen & Swellengrebel 1913 KB05, C-SCO04
            |    |    `--E. nana WDE06
            |    `--Endamoeba Leidy 1879 C-SCO04, LT64 [Endamoebida, Endamoebidae, Endamoebinae]
            |         `--E. blattae PHK96
            `--Mastigamoeba Schulze 1875 KB05, WDE06
                 |--*M. aspera Schulze 1875 WDE06
                 |--M. commutans OS03
                 |--M. invertens Klebs 1892 (n. d.) WDE06
                 |--M. psammobia WDE06
                 |--M. punctachlora C-SCO04
                 |--M. reptans LB90
                 |--M. schizophrenia C-SCO04
                 `--M. simplex KB05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. LukeŇ°, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[BL01] Biron, D., P. Libros, D. Sagi, D. Mirelman & E. Moses. 2001. ‘Midwives’ assist dividing amoebae. Nature 410: 430.

[C-SCO04] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E.-Y. Chao & B. Oates. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of Amoebozoa and the evolutionary significance of the unikont Phalansterium. European Journal of Protistology 40: 21–48.

[HA01] Hackstein, J. H. P., A. Akhmanova, F. Voncken, A. van Hoek, T. van Alen, B. Boxma, S. Y. Moon-van der Staay, G. van der Staay, J. Leunissen, M. Huynen, J. Rosenberg & M. Veenhuis. 2001. Hydrogenosomes: convergent adaptations of mitochondria to anaerobic environments. Zoology 104: 290–302.

[KB05] Kudryavtsev, A., D. Bernhard, M. Schlegel, E. E-Y. Chao & T. Cavalier-Smith. 2005. 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Cochliopodium (Himatismenida) and the phylogeny of Amoebozoa. Protist 156: 215–224.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LB90] Lousier, J. D., & S. S. Bamforth. 1990. Soil protozoa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 97–136. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[OS03] O’Kelly, C. J., J. D. Silberman, L. A. Amaral Zettler, T. A. Nerad & M. L. Sogin. 2003. Monopylocystis visvesvarai n. gen., n. sp. and Sawyeria marylandensis n. gen., n. sp.: two new amitochondrial heterolobosean amoebae from anoxic environments. Protist 154 (2): 281–290.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[SS02] Silberman, J. D., A. G. B. Simpson, J. Kulda, I. Cepicka, V. Hampl, P. J. Johnson & A. J. Roger. 2002. Retortamonad flagellates are closely related to diplomonads—implications for the history of mitochondrial function in eukaryote evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 (5): 777–786.

[SX97] Song B. & Xie P. 1997. Preliminary studies on the community structure of the planktonic protozoa from the outlet of Lake Dongting. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica 21 (Suppl): 60–68.

[WDE06] Walker, G., J. B. Dacks & T. M. Embley. 2006. Ultrastructural description of Breviata anathema n. gen., n. sp., the organism previously studied as “Mastigamoeba invertens”. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 53: 65–78.

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