Test of Cyclopyxis eurystoma, copyright Ferry Siemensma.

Belongs within: Tubulinea.
Contains: Difflugia, Hyalospheniidae, Centropyxiidae, Arcella, Microcoryciidae, Plagiopyxidae.

The Arcellinida, testate amoebae, are a group of amoebozoans which contain themselves inside an organic or mineral extracellular test of either self-secreted elements (calcareous, siliceous, or chitinoid) or recycled mineral particles bound together, with a single main opening. Pseudopodia are conical and pointed in species of Phryganellina, and digitate and granular in Difflugina and Arcellina (Adl et al. 2012).

<==Arcellinida [Lampramoebae, Testacealobosia, Testacida, Testalobosina, Thecamoebaea]
    |  i. s.: Paleoarcella athanata SM03
    |         Geamphorella Bonnet 1959 AS12, LT64
    |           `--*G. lucida Bonnet 1959 [=Tracheleuglypha lucida] LT64
    |         Pyxidicula Ehrenberg 1838 C-SCL16, FT93
    |           `--*P. operculata (Agardh 1827) [=Frustrulia operculata, Arcella operculata] LT64
    |--Phryganellina AS12
    |    |--Wailesella Deflandre 1928 AS12, LT64
    |    |    `--*W. eboracensis (Wailes in Wailes & Penard 1911) [=Cryptodifflugia eboracensis] LT64
    |    |--Phryganella Penard 1902 G86 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--*P. nidulus Penard 1902 LT64
    |    |    |--P. acropodia LB90
    |    |    |--P. hemisphaerica LNB03
    |    |    |--P. marinus Chardez 1971 G86
    |    |    `--P. sylvicola (Bonnet & Thomas 1955) [=*Geopyxella sylvicola] LT64
    |    `--Cryptodifflugia Penard 1890 AS12, G86 [incl. Geococcus Francé 1913 non Green 1902 LT64; Cryptodifflugiidae]
    |         |--*C. oviformis Penard 1890 LT64
    |         |--C. brevicolla Golemansky 1979 G86
    |         |--C. lanceolata Golemansky 1970 G86
    |         |--C. operculata C-SCL16
    |         |--C. paludosa Golemansky 1981 G86
    |         `--C. vulgaris (Francé 1913) [=*Geococcus vulgaris] LT64
    `--Difflugina [Arcellacea, Eulobosa] AS12
         |  i. s.: Difflugiidae (see below for synonymy) LT64
         |           |--Difflugia AS12
         |           |--Cucurbitella Penard 1902 (see below for synonymy) LT64
         |           |    `--*C. mespiliformis Penard 1902 LT64
         |           |--Maghrebia Gauthier-Lièvre & Thomas 1958 LT64
         |           |    `--*M. spatulata Gauthier-Lièvre & Thomas 1958 LT64
         |           |--Protocucurbitella Gauthier-Lièvre & Thomas 1960 LT64
         |           |    `--*P. coroniformis Gauthier-Lièvre & Thomas 1960 LT64
         |           |--Pseudopontigulasia Van Oye 1956 LT64
         |           |    `--*P. gessneri Van Oye 1956 LT64
         |           |--Sexangularia Averintsev 1906 LT64
         |           |    `--*S. parvula Averintsev 1906 LT64
         |           |--Loboforamina Jung 1942 (see below for synonymy) LT64
         |           |    |--L. playfairi Loeblich & Tappan 1964 (see below for synonymy) LT64
         |           |    `--*Corona’ cornula Vejdovský 1881 (see below for synonymy) LT64
         |           |--Pontigulasia Rhumbler 1895 LT64
         |           |    |--P. rhumbleri Hopkinson in Cash & Hopkinson 1909 (see below for synonymy) LT64
         |           |    `--P. compressa (Carter 1864) LT64 (see below for synonymy)
         |           `--Prantlitina Vašíček & Růžička 1957 [incl. Prantlitinopsis Vašíček & Růžička 1957] LT64
         |                |--*P. prantli Vašíček & Růžička 1957 LT64
         |                `--P. sturi Vašíček & Růžička 1957 [=P. (*Prantlitinopsis) sturi] LT64
         |         Paraquadrula Deflandre 1932 LT64
         |           `--*P. irregularis (Archer 1877) [=Quadrula irregularis] LT64
         |         Distomatopyxis [Distomatopyxidae] AS12
         |           `--D. couillardi LB90
         |         Bullinaria indica C-SCL16
         |--Heleopera Leidy 1879 NM05, LT64 [Heleoperidae, Heleoperinae]
         |    |--H. sphagni (Leidy 1874) NM05 [=Difflugia (Nebela) sphagni LT64; incl. *H. picta Leidy 1879 LT64]
         |    |--H. petricola LB90
         |    `--H. rosea LB90
         `--+--Hyalospheniidae NM05
            `--+--+--Centropyxiidae NM05
               |  `--Arcellina AS12
               |       |  i. s.: Spumochlamys AS12
               |       |--Arcella NM05
               |       `--Microcoryciidae AS12
               `--+--Plagiopyxidae NM05
                  `--Trigonopyxidae LT64
                       |--Trigonopyxis Penard 1912 NM05, FT93 (see below for synonymy)
                       |    `--*T. arcula (Leidy 1879) [=Difflugia arcula, *Cystidina arcula] LT64
                       |--Silicoplacentina Köváry 1956 LT64
                       |    `--*S. hungarica Köváry 1956 LT64
                       `--Cyclopyxis Deflandre 1929 (see below for synonymy) LT64
                            |--*C. arcelloides (Penard 1902) [=Centropyxis arcelloides] LT64
                            |--C. ambigua LB90
                            |--C. arenata (Cushman 1930) [=Pseudarcella arenata, *Leptodermella arenata] LT64
                            |--C. cylindrica LT64
                            |--C. eurystoma [incl. C. eurystoma var. parvula] LB90
                            `--C. puteus LB90

*Corona’ cornula Vejdovský 1881 [incl. Difflugia proteiformis globularis var. corona Wallich 1864] LT64

Cucurbitella Penard 1902 [incl. Cingodifflugia Jung 1942 (n. n.), Eustoma Jung 1942 (n. n.) nec Piette 1855 nec Beneden 1871 nec Girard 1893] LT64

Cyclopyxis Deflandre 1929 [incl. Cylindropyxis Kufferath 1932 (n. n.), Leptodermella Rhumbler 1935] LT64

Difflugiidae [Cingodifflugiidae, Difflugiida, Difflugiina, Difflugiinae, Diffluginae, Planodifflugiidae, Pontigulasiidae] LT64

Loboforamina Jung 1942 [incl. Corona Vejdovský 1881 nec Albers 1850 nec Récluz 1850, Pseudocucurbitella Gauthier-Lièvre & Thomas 1960 (n. n.)] LT64

Loboforamina playfairi Loeblich & Tappan 1964 [=Difflugia lobostoma var. globulus Playfair 1918 non Arcella globulus Enrenberg 1848] LT64

Phryganella Penard 1902 G86 [=Phryanella (l. c.) LT64; incl. Geopyxella Bonnet & Thomas 1955 LT64; Phryganellidae LT64]

Pontigulasia compressa (Carter 1864) LT64 [=Difflugia compressa LT64, D. pyriformis var. compressa W86]

Pontigulasia rhumbleri Hopkinson in Cash & Hopkinson 1909 [=*P. compressa Rhumbler 1905 non Difflugia compressa Carter 1864] LT64

Trigonopyxis Penard 1912 NM05, FT93 [=Cystidina Volz 1929 LT64, Trigonopsis (l. c.) non Perty 1833 LT64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[C-SCL16] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E. Chao & R. Lewis. 2016. 187-gene phylogeny of protozoan phylum Amoebozoa reveals a new class (Cutosea) of deep-branching, ultrastructurally unique, enveloped marine Lobosa and clarifies amoeba evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 99: 275–296.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G86] Golemansky, V. G. 1986. Rhizopoda: Testacea. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 5–16. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[LNB03] Ledeganck, P., I. Nijs & L. Beyens. 2003. Plant functional group diversity promotes soil protist diversity. Protist 154 (2): 239–249.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LB90] Lousier, J. D., & S. S. Bamforth. 1990. Soil protozoa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 97–136. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[NM05] Nikolaev, S. I., E. A. D. Mitchell, N. B. Petrov, C. Berney, J. Fahrni & J. Pawlowski. 2005. The testate lobose amoebae (order Arcellinida Kent, 1880) finally find theit home within Amoebozoa. Protist 156: 191–202.

[SM03] Schlegel, M., & R. Meisterfeld. 2003. The species problem in protozoa revisited. European Journal of Protistology 39 (4): 349–355.

[W86] Whitelegge, T. 1886. List of the freshwater Rhizopoda of N. S. Wales. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 497–504.

Last updated: 29 November 2017.

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