Corbicula fluminea, from here.

Belongs within: Neoheterodontei.

The Corbiculidae are a family of bivalves found in brackish or fresh water in the modern environment though some fossil representatives lived in marine environments. Corbiculids are remarkable in their diversity of reproductive strategies, including androgenesis (loss of genetic material from the female parent so the developing embryo is effectively a clone of the male parent). In the widespread genus Corbicula, found in tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World, the shell is thick and solid, often with concentric sculpture on the outside and a violaceous tinge to the interior (Pilsbry & Bequaert 1927).

Characters (from Pilsbry & Bequaert 1927, as Cyrenidae): Shell trigonal to oval, moderately or very solid, porcellanous, covered with a yellow to olivaceous or brown periostracum; hinge-plate developed, bearing two or three cardinal teeth diverging from the beaks in each valve, and anterior and posterior lateral teeth. Ligament external. Mantle free except posteriorly where a partition divides off a siphonal cavity. Siphons quite short and separate or represented by mere orifices. Gills concrescent posteriorly. Labial palpi rather short, triangular. Oviparous so far as known.

Corbiculidae [Corbiculadae, Cyrenidae]
    |--Tetoria yokoyamai KC02
    |--Neocorbicula Fischer 1887 GFK07
    |--Cyanocyclas Blainville 1818 GFK07
    |--Egetaria Mörch 1861 GFK07
    |--Pseudocyrena Bourguignat 1854 GFK07
    |--Cyrenobatissa Suzuki & Oyama 1943 GFK07
    |--Cyrenodonax Dall 1903 GFK07
    |--Posostrea Bogan & Bouchet 1998 GFK07
    |--Corbiculina Dall 1903 GFK07
    |--Leptesthes G88
    |--Filosina JB12
    |--Villorita Gray in Griffith & Pidgeon 1834 GFK07
    |    `--V. cyprinoides Gray 1834 [incl. Corbicula cochinensis Preston 1916] GFK07
    |--Soleilletia Bourguignat 1885 GFK07
    |    |--*S. abbadiana Bourguignat 1885 PB27
    |    `--S. hamyana Bourguignat 1885 PB27
    |--Geloina Gray 1840 GFK07
    |    |--*G. coaxans (Gmelin 1791) GFK07
    |    `--G. erosa (Solander 1786) [=Polymesoda (Geloina) erosa] TTP89
    |--Polymesoda Rafinesque 1820 GFK07
    |    |--P. caroliniana (Bosc 1901) TTP89
    |    |--P. cordata (Martens 1865) [=Cyrena cordata] GFK07
    |    `--P. subarata GK02
    |         |--P. s. subarata GK02
    |         `--P. s. sowerbii (Basterot 1825) GK02
    |--Batissa Gray 1853 GFK07
    |    |--B. angulata Reinhardt 1886 GFK07
    |    |--B. finschi Reinhardt 1886 GFK07
    |    |--B. schmidti Martens 1903 GFK07
    |    |--B. subtrigona Thiele 1928 GFK07
    |    |--B. triquetra Deshayes 1854 H09
    |    `--B. violacea (see below for synonymy) GFK07
    `--Corbicula Megerle von Mühlfeld 1811 GFK07 [incl. Cyrena Lamarck 1818 GFK07, Veloritina Meek 1872 W77]
         |--*C. fluminalis (Müller 1774) PB27, GFK07 (see below for synonymy)
         |--‘Cyrena’ acuta Pr. 1862 C64
         |--C. africana Krauss 1848 GFK07 [=Cyrena africana PB27; incl. Cy. gauritziana Krauss 1848 PB27]
         |--C. artini Pallary 1903 (see below for synonymy) PB27
         |--C. astartina (Martens 1860) GFK07 [=Cyrena astartina GFK07; incl. Co. giraudi Bourguignat 1889 (n. n.) PB27]
         |--C. audoini Germain 1909 PB27
         |--C. bitruncata Martens 1908 GFK07
         |--‘Cyrena’ californica Pr. 1860 [incl. C. subquadrata Desh. 1854 (preoc.)] C64
         |--C. callipyga Bourguignat 1885 PB27
         |--‘Venus’ coaxans Gmelin 1791 [=Cyrena coaxans] H09
         |--C. consobrina Cailliaud 1827 GFK07 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--C. c. consobrina PB27
         |    `--C. ‘radiata’ edwardi Pilsbry & Bequaert 1927 PB27
         |--C. convexa Desh. 1854 [incl. C. ventricosa] C64
         |--‘Cyrena’ cumingii Desh. 1854 C64
         |--C. cunningtoni Smith 1906 PB27
         |--C. delessertiana Prime 1870 PB27
         |--C. difficilis Prime 1864 PB27
         |--C. doufilei de Rochebrune & Germain 1904 PB27
         |--C. durkeei (Meek 1870) ZZ88 [=Cyrena (Corbicula) durkeei W77, Co. (Veloritina) durkeei W77]
         |--C. fischeri Germain 1907 PB27
         |--C. fluminea (Müller 1774) [incl. C. elatior Marten 1905] GFK07
         |--C. foai Mabille 1901 PB27
         |--C. gabonensis Preston 1909 PB27
         |--C. gravieriana Bourguignat 1885 PB27
         |--C. gustaviana Martens 1900 GFK07
         |--C. heuglini Clessin 1879 PB27
         |--C. inaequilateralis Prime 1864 PB27
         |--C. insignis Desh. 1854 C64
         |--C. irawadica TC89
         |--C. japonica Prime 1864 [incl. C. biformis Reinhardt 1877] GFK07
         |--C. javanica (Mousson 1849) [=Cyrena orientalis var. javanica] GFK07
         |--C. jilinensis Zhu & Zhou 1988 ZZ88
         |--C. kirkii Prime 1864 PB27
         |--C. lacoini Germain 1905 [incl. C. lacoini var. castanea Germain 1905] PB27
         |--C. largillierti Philippi 1844 GFK07
         |--C. leana Prime 1864 GFK07
         |--C. linduensis GFK07
         |--C. loehensis B50
         |--C. madagascariensis Smith 1882 [incl. C. sikorae Ancey 1890] GFK07
         |--C. mahalonensis B50
         |--C. manilensis GFK07 [=C. (Corbiculina) manilensis M66; incl. C. sayana Prime 1864 GFK07]
         |--‘Cyrena’ maritima C64
         |--C. masapensis B50
         |--C. matannensis Sarasin & Sarasin 1898 [=C. matanensis (l. c.)] GFK07
         |--C. meridionalis Clessin 1879 PB27
         |--‘Cyrena’ mexicana Sby. 1829 [incl. C. aequilateralis Desh. 1854, C. fragilis, C. varians] C64
         |--‘Cyrena’ moluccensis Martens 1897 GFK07
         |--C. natalensis Krauss in Clessin 1879 PB27
         |--C. nilotica Clessin 1879 PB27
         |--C. nitens [incl. C. papyracea var. colorata Martens 1905] GFK07
         |--C. noetlingi Martens 1899 [incl. C. notlingi bakmio Counts 1991 (n. n.)] GFK07
         |--C. oblonga Clessin 1879 [=C. oblongata] GFK07
         |--C. oliphantensis Craven 1880 PB27
         |--C. oxiana (Martens 1876) [=Cyrena (Corbicula) fluminalis var. oxiana] GFK07
         |--‘Cyrena’ panamensis Pr. 1860 [incl. C. inflata Desh. 1854 (preoc.)] C64
         |--C. pisum TC89
         |--C. possoensis Sarasin & Sarasin 1898 GFK07
         |--C. producta Martens 1905 GFK07
         |--‘Cyrena’ prona Martens 1908 GFK07
         |--‘Cyrena’ pullastra Mörch 1860 C64
         |--C. pullata Philippi 1850 GFK07
         |--‘Cyrena’ radiata Hanley 1844 C64
         |--‘Cyrena’ recluzii [incl. C. cordiformis Recl. 1853 (preoc.)] C64
         |--C. regia Clessin 1878 GFK07
         |--C. sandai Reinhardt 1878 GFK07
         |--C. senegalensis Clessin 1879 PB27
         |--C. soleilleti Bourguignat 1885 PB27
         |--‘Cyrena’ solida Phil. 1846 C64
         |--‘Cyrena’ sordida Hanl. 1844 C64
         |--C. squalida [incl. C. crosseana Prime 1864] GFK07
         |--C. straminea Reinhardt 1877 GFK07
         |--C. subplanata Martens 1897 [incl. C. celebensis Martens 1897] GFK07
         |--C. subtruncata Bourguignat in Germain 1906 (see below for synonymy) PB27
         |--C. sumatrana [incl. C. angulifera Martens 1897, C. gibba Martens 1897, C. lacustris Martens 1897] GFK07
         |--C. tanganyicensis Crosse 1881 [=C. radiata var. tanganyicensis, C. tanganikana Bourguignat 1885] PB27
         |--C. tobae Martens 1900 GFK07
         |--C. towutensis B50
         |--C. transversa (Martens 1877) [=Cyrena (Corbicula) transversa] GFK07
         |--‘Cyrena’ triangula de Busch 1849 [incl. C. altilis Gld. 1852] C64
         |--C. trapezoidea Martens 1897 GFK07
         `--‘Cyrena’ tumida [incl. C. angulata Desh. 1854 (preoc.)] C64

Nomina nuda: Corbicula gauritziana Krauss 1848 GFK07
             Cyrena fontainei Desh. in Carpenter 1864 C64

Batissa violacea [incl. B. v. var. celebensis Martens 1897, B. v. var. discoidea Martens 1897, B. v. var. extensa Martens 1897, B. v. var. macassarica Martens 1897] GFK07

Corbicula artini Pallary 1903 [incl. C. artini var. albina Pallary 1903, C. lavigeriana Bourguignat in Germain 1906, C. consobrina var. lavigeriei Germain 1906] PB27

Corbicula consobrina Cailliaud 1827 GFK07 [=Co. fluminalis consobrina GFK07; incl. Co. africana var. albida Krauss 1848 GFK07, Cyrena africana var. albida PB27, Co. bithydea Bourguignat in Pallary 1904 (n. n.) PB27, Co. chlora Bourguignat in Pallary 1904 (n. n.) PB27, Co. eucistaera Bourguignat in Pallary 1904 (n. n.) PB27, Co. jickeli Clessin 1878 GFK07, Co. laurenti Bourguignat in Pallary 1904 (n. n.) PB27, Co. nyassana Bourguignat 1889 PB27, Co. africana var. olivacea Krauss 1848 GFK07, Cyrena africana var. olivacea PB27, Co. pusilla Philippi 1846 GFK07, Cy. pusilla PB27, Co. radiata Philippi 1846 GFK07, Cy. radiata non Hanley 1844 PB27, Co. tchadiensis Germain 1916 PB27, Co. tsadiana Martens 1903 GFK07, Co. zelebori Jickeli 1874 GFK07]

*Corbicula fluminalis (Müller 1774) PB27, GFK07 [=Tellina fluminalis PB27, Cyrena (Corbicula) fluminalis PB27; incl. Corbicula cameroni Bourguignat in Germain 1906 PB27, Co. cor Lamarck 1818 PB27, Co. degousei Germain 1906 PB27, Co. fuscata Lamarck 1818 PB27, Co. jouberti Bourguignat in Germain 1907 PB27, Co. kynganica Bourguignat in Germain 1906 PB27, Co. orientalis Lamarck 1818 PB27, Co. purpurea Prime 1864 GFK07]

Corbicula subtruncata Bourguignat in Germain 1906 [=C. subtruncatula Bourguignat 1889 (n. n.); incl. C. subtruncata var. aegyptiaca Bourguignat in Pallary 1909, C. subtruncata var. cyanea Bourguignat in Pallary 1909 (n. n.)] PB27

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B50] Brooks, J. L. 1950. Speciation in ancient lakes (concluded). Quarterly Review of Biology 25: 131–176.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[GFK07] Glaubrecht, M., Z. Fehér & F. Köhler. 2007. Inventorizing an invader: annotated type catalogue of Corbiculidae Gray, 1847 (Bivalvia, Heterodonta, Veneroidea), including Old World limnic Corbicula in the Natural History Museum Berlin. Malacologia 49 (2): 243–272.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[GK02] Gründel, J., & T. Kowalke. 2002. Palaeorissoinidae, a new family of marine and brackish water Rissooidea (Gastropoda, Littorinimorpha). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 226 (1): 43–57.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[KC02] Komatsu, T., K. Chinzei, M. S. Zakhera & H. Matsuoka. 2002. Jurassic soft-bottom oyster Crassostrea from Japan. Palaeontology 45 (6): 1037–1048.

[M66] Metcalf, A. L. 1966. Corbicula manilensis in the Mesilla Valley of Texas and New Mexico. Nautilus 80 (1): 16–20.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[TTP89] Tan Tiu, A. & R. S. Prezant. 1989. Shell tubules in Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Heterodonta): functional morphology and microstructure. Nautilus 103 (1): 36–39.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 295–359.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

[ZZ88] Zhu G.-X. & Zhou Y.-Z. 1988. Fresh-water molluscan fauna across Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in southeast Jilin. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 27 (6): 713–721.

Last updated: 26 February 2022.

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