Jaw of Mimomys pliocaenicus, copyright Ghedoghedo.

Belongs within: Cricetidae.
Contains: Clethrionomys, Dicrostonyx, Myodes, Eothenomys, Microtus.

The Arvicolinae, voles and lemmings, are a Holarctic group of small rodents with a tail less than half the length of the head and body, an angular skull, and a short rostrum. The lemmings (e.g. Dicrostonyx and Lemmus) are cold-climate specialists, found in Arctic and tundra regions, whereas the voles (Microtus, etc.) are also found in more temperate regions. The lemmings have broader and more massive skulls than the voles, with the genera of lemmings being distinguished by characters of the teeth. The muskrat Ondatra zibethicus is a larger semi-aquatic, omnivorous species that is native to North America but also introduced to parts of Eurasia and South America.

<==Arvicolinae [Arvicolidae, Microtinae, Microtini]
    |--+--Neofiber alleni FS15, M87
    |  `--Ondatra zibethicus (Linnaeus 1766) FS15, M76 [=Castor zibethicus B75]
    |       |--O. z. zibethicus MH03
    |       |--O. z. cinnamominus B75
    |       `--O. z. idahoensis MH03
    `--+--+--+--Dicrostonyx FS15
       |  |  `--+--Phenacomys FS15
       |  |     |    |--P. intermedius M87
       |  |     |    `--P. ungava FS15
       |  |     `--Arborimus FS15
       |  |          |--A. pomo Johnson & George 1991 FS15, N10
       |  |          `--+--A. albipes FS15 [=Phenacomys albipes BP87]
       |  |             `--A. longicaudus FS15 [incl. A. silvicola J68]
       |  `--+--Synaptomys FS15
       |     |    |--S. borealis FS15
       |     |    `--S. cooperi M87
       |     |         |--S. c. cooperi B75
       |     |         `--S. c. gossii (Coues in Coues & Allen 1877) [=Arvicola (Synaptomys) gossii] B75
       |     `--+--Myopus schisticolor FS15
       |        `--Lemmus [Lemmini] FS15
       |             |--+--L. portenkoi FS15
       |             |  `--L. trimucronatus FS15
       |             `--+--L. lemmus FS15
       |                `--+--L. amurensis FS15
       |                   `--L. sibiricus FS15
       `--+--+--Hyperacrius FS15
          |  |    |--H. fertilis FS15
          |  |    `--H. wynnei FS15
          |  `--+--Myodes FS15
          |     `--+--Eothenomys FS15
          |        `--Caryomys FS15
          |             |--C. eva FS15
          |             `--C. inez FS15
          `--+--+--+--Dinaromys bogdanovi FS15
             |  |  |--Propliomys Kretzoi 1959 P04
             |  |  |    `--P. hungaricus (Kormos 1934) [=Dolomys hungaricus] P04
             |  |  `--Pliomys Méhely 1914 FS15, P04
             |  |       |--P. coronensis (Méhely 1914) P04
             |  |       |--P. episcopalis Méhely 1914 P04
             |  |       |--P. graecus De Bruijn & Van der Meulen 1975 P04
             |  |       `--P. lenki (Heller 1930) FS15, P04
             |  `--+--Promimomys Kretzoi 1955 P04
             |     |    |--P. microdon Janossy 1974 P04
             |     |    `--P. moldavicus (Kormos 1932) [=Mimomys moldavicus] P04
             |     `--+--Arvicola FS15
             |        |    |  i. s.: A. arvalis T66
             |        |    |         A. monticola T66
             |        |    |         A. mosbachensis (Schmidtgen 1911) P04
             |        |    |         A. socialis T66
             |        |    |         A. terrestris (Linnaeus 1758) K92
             |        |    |--A. sapidus Miller 1908 FS15, K92
             |        |    `--+--A. amphibius FS15
             |        |       `--A. scherman FS15
             |        `--Mimomys Forsyth Major 1902 P04
             |             |--M. davakosi Van de Weerd 1979 P04
             |             |--M. gansunicus DW04
             |             |--M. gracilis (Kretzoi 1959) P04
             |             |--M. peii HC95
             |             |--M. pliocaenicus (Forsyth Major 1889) P04
             |             |--M. polonicus Kowalski 1960 P04
             |             |--M. proseki Fejfar 1961 P04
             |             |--M. savini Hinton 1910 P04
             |             `--M. stehlini Kormos 1931 P04
             `--+--Ellobius FS15
                |    |--E. alaicus FS15
                |    |--E. fuscocapillus FS15
                |    |--E. lutescens FS15
                |    |--E. talpinus FS15
                |    `--E. tancrei FS15
                `--+--+--Lagurus FS15
                   |  |    |--L. lagurus FS15
                   |  |    `--L. luteus BP87
                   |  `--Eolagurus FS15
                   |       |--E. luteus FS15
                   |       `--E. przewalskii FS15
                   `--+--Chionomys FS15
                      |    |--C. nivalis FS15
                      |    `--+--C. gud FS15
                      |       `--C. roberti FS15
                      `--+--+--Lemmiscus Thomas 1912 FS15, M87
                         |  |    `--*L. curtatus [=Lagurus curtatus] M87
                         |  `--Proedromys FS15
                         |       |--P. bedfordi FS15
                         |       `--P. liangshanensis FS15
                         `--+--Microtus FS15
                            `--+--+--‘Microtus’ gregalis FS15 [=Mus (Stenocranius) gregalis PM61]
                               |  `--Lasiopodomys FS15
                               |       |--L. fuscus FS15
                               |       `--+--L. brandtii FS15
                               |          `--L. mandarinus FS15
                               `--+--Phaiomys leucurus FS15
                                  `--+--Volemys FS15
                                     |    |--V. clarkei IT07
                                     |    |--V. kikuchii IT07
                                     |    |--V. millicens FS15
                                     |    `--V. musseri FS15
                                     `--Neodon FS15
                                          |--N. juldaschi FS15
                                          `--+--N. sikimensis FS15
                                             `--+--N. forresti FS15
                                                `--N. irene FS15

Arvicolinae incertae sedis:
  Mictomys MH03
    |--M. kansasensis (Hibbard 1952) MH03
    |--M. landesi MH03
    |--M. meltoni MH03
    `--M. vetus MH03
  Pliophenacomys osborni MH03
  Bjornkurtenia Kowalski 1992 P04
    `--B. canterranensis (Michaux 1976) [=Trilophomys canterranensis] P04
  Baranomys Kormos 1933 P04
    `--B. longidens (Kowalski 1960) P04
  Dolomys Nehring 1898 P04
    |--*D. milleri Nehring 1898 P04
    |--D. adroveri (Fejfar, Mein & Moissenet 1990) P04
    |--D. nehringi Kretzoi 1959 P04
    `--D. occitanus (Thaler 1955) [=Mimomys occitanus; incl. M. hassiacus atavus Fejfar 1961] P04
  Aschizomys J68
    |--A. andersoni J68
    |--A. imaizumi J68
    `--A. niigatae J68
  Clethrionomys M87
  Microtoscoptini G88
    |--Microtoscoptes G88
    `--Paramicrotoscoptes G88

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[DW04] Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 78 (1): 8–14.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[HC95] Huang W., R. Ciochon, Gu Y., R. Larick, Fang Q., H. Schwarcz, C. Yonge, J. de Vos & W. Rink. 1995. Early Homo and associated artefacts from Asia. Nature 378: 275–278.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[J68] Johnson, M. L. 1968. Application of blood protein electrophoretic studies to problems in mammalian taxonomy. Systematic Zoology 17 (1): 23–30.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i–vi, 1–154.

[MH03] Martin, R. A., R. T. Hurt, J. G. Honey & P. Peláez-Campomanes. 2003. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene rodents fom the northern Borchers Badlands (Meade County, Kansas), with comments on the Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary in the Meade Basin. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 985–1001.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[M87] Modi, W. S. 1987. Phylogenetic analyses of chromosomal banding patterns among the Nearctic Arvicolidae (Mammalia: Rodentia). Systematic Zoology 36 (2): 109–136.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[PM61] Paradiso, J. L. & R. H. Manville. 1961. Taxonomic notes on the tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus) in Alaska. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 77–92.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403–491.

[T66] Tristram, H. B. 1866. Report on the mammals of Palestine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 84–93.

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