Tasmanian Christmas bell Blandfordia punicea, copyright Natalie Tapson.

Belongs within: Mesangiospermae.
Contains: Alismatales, Pandanales, Dioscoreales, Liliales, Commelinidae, Orchidaceae, Boryaceae, Asteliaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Iridaceae, Hemerocallidaceae, Xanthorrhoea, Asphodelaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Alliaceae, Laxmanniaceae, Asparagaceae, Eriospermum, Ruscaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Agavaceae, Anthericaceae.

The Lilianae, monocotyledons, are a well-defined clade mostly distinguished from other flowering plants by their elongate leaves with parallel veins, and flowers with parts (sepals, petals, etc.) in multiples of three. The embryo bears a single cotyledon, the stem has scattered vascular bundles, and sieve tube plastids bear cuneate proteinaceous crystalloids (Cantino et al. 2007). Under the name Monocotyledoneae, a corresponding clade was defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the least inclusive clade containing Acorus calamus, Gymnostachys anceps, Tofieldia glutinosa and Lilium superbum. Most recent studies agree in placing the sweet flags Acorus, a genus of rhizomatous plants found in wetlands of Eurasia and North America, as the sister clade to other living monocots.

See also: Reference review: The monocot tree.

Lilianae [Acoranae, Alismatidae, Arecidae, Liliopsida, Monocotyledoneae, Monocotyledones, Nudiflorae, Triurididae] EN20
    |  i. s.: Odyssea R-S02
    |         Syringodium L85
    |           |--S. filiforme CH97
    |           `--S. isoetifolium L85
    |         Acaciaephyllum FPC04
    |         Pennistemon FPC04
    |         Caulinities loipopytis S89
    |--Acorus [Acoraceae, Acorales] CD07
    |    |  i. s.: A. americanus WM14
    |    |--A. calamus Linnaeus 1753 DS04, CD07
    |    `--+--A. gramineus DS04
    |       `--A. tatarinowii DS04
    `--Nartheciidae CD07
         |--Alismatales CD07
         `--Petrosaviidae [Bromelianae, Haemodorales, Liliidae] CD07
              |--Petrosaviaceae [Petrosaviales, Petrosavianae] DS04
              |    |--Japonolirion osense DS04
              |    `--Petrosavia stellaris Becc. 1871 CD07
              `--+--+--Pandanales DS04
                 |  `--Dioscoreales APG16
                 `--Liliiflorae [Baccatae, Capsulares, Chlorophyteae, Coronarieae, Xanthorrheae] J87
                      |  i. s.: Roxburghia [Roxburghiaceae] B78
                      |           `--R. javanica B78
                      |                |--R. j. var. javanica B78
                      |                `--R. j. var. australiana Bentham 1878 [incl. Dioscorea lucida] B78
                      |--Liliales DS04
                      `--+--Commelinidae DS04
                         `--Asparagales (see below for synonymy) DS04
                              |  i. s.: Maianthemum SR07
                              |           |--M. bifolium C55
                              |           |--M. canadense M73
                              |           |    |--M. c. var. canadense V72
                              |           |    `--M. c. var. interius V72
                              |           `--M. dilatatum H93
                              |         Liliacidites RG07
                              |           |--L. intermedius RG07
                              |           |--L. kaitangataensis RG07
                              |           |--L. minutus RG07
                              |           `--L. pollucibilis RG07
                              |--Orchidaceae RG07
                              `--+--+--Boryaceae DS04
                                 |  `--+--+--Asteliaceae RG07
                                 |     |  `--+--Lanaria [Lanariaceae] RG07
                                 |     |     `--Hypoxidaceae RG07
                                 |     `--Blandfordia Smith 1804 (nom. cons.) DS04, CC87 [Blandfordiaceae]
                                 |          |--*B. nobilis Smith 1804 (see below for synonymy) CC87
                                 |          |--B. cunninghamii Lindley 1845 (see below for synonymy) CC87
                                 |          |--B. × flammea-elegans Smith 1874 [B. cunninghamii × B. grandiflora] CC87
                                 |          |--B. grandiflora Br. 1810 (see below for synonymy) CC87
                                 |          `--B. punicea (Labill.) Sweet 1830 (see below for synonymy) CC87
                                 `--+--Cyanastrum SR07
                                    `--+--+--Ixiolirion DS04 [Ixioliriaceae EN20, Ixiolirionaceae]
                                       |  |    `--I. tataricum DS04
                                       |  `--Tecophilaeaceae EN20
                                       |       |--Tecophilaea cyanocrocus DS04
                                       |       `--Eremolirion amboensis [=Cyanella amboensis] CV06
                                       `--+--Doryanthes Corrêa 1802 [Doryanthaceae] EN20
                                          |    |--*D. excelsa Corrêa 1802 (see below for synonymy) EN20
                                          |    `--D. palmeri Hill ex Bentham 1873 (see below for synonymy) EN20
                                          `--+--Iridaceae EN20
                                             `--+--Xeronema Brong. & Gris 1864 ME70 [Xeronemataceae EN20]
                                                |    |--X. callistemon Oliver 1926 ME70
                                                |    |    |--X. c. var. callistemon ME70
                                                |    |    `--X. c. var. bracteosa Moore 1969 ME70
                                                |    `--X. moorei CR00
                                                `--+--+--Hemerocallidaceae EN20
                                                   |  `--+--Xanthorrhoea EN20
                                                   |     `--Asphodelaceae EN20
                                                   `--+--+--+--Amaryllidaceae CR00
                                                      |  |  `--Alliaceae CR00
                                                      |  `--Agapanthus L’Hér. 1788 (nom. cons.) CC87 (see below for synonymy)
                                                      |       |--A. africanus (see below for synonymy) CC87
                                                      |       `--A. praecox Willd. 1809 CC87
                                                      |            |--A. p. ssp. praecox CC87
                                                      |            `--A. p. ssp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton 1965 (see below for synonymy) CC87
                                                      `--+--+--Laxmanniaceae CR00
                                                         |  `--+--Asparagaceae EN20
                                                         |     `--+--Eriospermum EN20
                                                         |        `--Ruscaceae EN20
                                                         `--+--Themidaceae CR00
                                                            `--+--+--Aphyllanthes EN20 [Aphyllanthaceae CR00]
                                                               |  `--Hyacinthaceae CR00
                                                               `--+--Anemarrhena JS02 [Anemarrhenaceae CR00]
                                                                  |    `--A. asphodeloides JS02
                                                                  `--+--Agavaceae CR00
                                                                     `--+--Behnia EN20 [Behniaceae CR00]
                                                                        `--+--Herreria EN20 [Herreriaceae CR00]
                                                                           `--Anthericaceae DS04

Agapanthus L’Hér. 1788 (nom. cons.) CC87 [Agapanthaceae CR00, Agapantheae]

Agapanthus africanus [incl. A. umbellatus L’Hér. 1788 (nom. illeg.)] CC87

Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton 1965 [=A. orientalis Leighton 1938] CC87

Asparagales [Anthericeae, Asparageae, Bowieae, Caesieae, Euasparageae, Hemerocallideae, Orchidales] DS04

Blandfordia cunninghamii Lindley 1845 [incl. B. grandiflora var. elongata Benth. 1878] CC87

Blandfordia grandiflora Br. 1810 [incl. B. aurea Hook. 1869, B. flammea var. aurea Bailey 1883, B. flammea Lindley ex Paxton 1849, B. intermedia Herbert in Lindley 1845, B. grandiflora var. intermedia (Herbert) Baker 1871, B. princeps Smith 1875, B. flammea var. princeps (Smith) Baker 1876] CC87

*Blandfordia nobilis Smith 1804 [incl. B. nobilis var. imperialis Miller & Norman Taylor in Bailey 1914] CC87

Blandfordia punicea (Labill.) Sweet 1830 [=Aletris punicea Labill. 1805; incl. B. backhousii Lindley 1845, B. grandiflora var. backhousii (Lindley) Hook. 1858, B. marginata Herbert in Lindley 1842, B. grandiflora var. marginata (Herbert) Hook. 1858] CC87

*Doryanthes excelsa Corrêa 1802 [incl. Furcraea australis Haworth 1812, Agave australis (Haworth) Steudel 1821] EN20

Doryanthes palmeri Hill ex Bentham 1873 [=D. excelsa var. palmeri (Hill ex Bentham) Bailey 1883; incl. D. guilfoylei Bailey 1893, D. excelsa var. guilfoylei (Bailey) Bailey 1902, D. larkinii Moore 1885, D. palmeri var. larkinii (Moore) Moore & Betche 1893] EN20

*Type species of generic name indicated


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