Pareuthria fuscata, copyright Manuel Caballer.

Belongs within: Neogastropoda.
Contains: Pisania, Cantharus, Colubrariidae, Melongena, Nassariidae, Columbellidae, Fasciolariidae, Engina, Busyconinae, Beringius, Siphonaliinae, Aeneator, Penion, Buccinulum (Euthrena), Buccinulum (Evarnula), Cominella, Colini, Buccinum, Volutopsius.

The Buccinoidea are a diverse clade of neogastropods characterised by the absence of accessory salivary glands. Members are ecologically diverse; the majority are scavengers or predators but some are parasites or herbivores. The Buccinidae, whelks, are a carnivorous family, including both predators and scavengers, found predominantly in temperate or boreal waters of the Northern Hemisphere. They are morphologically diverse, varying from small to large, commonly with a wide aperture and long proboscis. Eggs may be laid singly or in masses with development often being direct. The Melongenidae, giant whelks, are a mostly tropical group of medium-sized to very large scavengers with an elongate aperture and long head. The Pisaniidae are a predominantly tropical group of mostly medium-sized species with a high aperture, typically with a thickened outer lip, and usually with an axial sculpture of strong, closely-spaced ribs. Belomitra is a North Atlantic genus with moderately large (16–22 mm), thin shells with a tall spire and narrow whorls that are distinctly angulate above the middle (Powell 1966).

Buccinoidea [Beringioidea] BR17
    |--Belomitra Fischer 1883 BR17 [incl. Pleurobela Monterosato in Locard 1897 P66; Belomitridae FP15]
    |    |--*B. paradoxa Fischer 1883 BR17
    |    |--B. bouteti FP15
    |    |--B. delicatulina (Locard 1897) [=Clionella delicatulina] P66
    |    |--B. fischeri Locard 1897 P66
    |    |--B. lyrata Locard 1897 [=Pleurobela lyrata] P66
    |    `--B. spelta (Locard 1897) [=Pleurotoma spelta, *Pleurobela spelta] P66
    `--+--Melongenidae [Cassidulina, Cassidulinae, Melongeninae] FP15
       |    |--Melongena BR05
       |    |--Tantunia clathrata TTE93
       |    |--Volegalea Iredale 1938 WG71
       |    |    `--V. wardiana Iredale 1938 WG71
       |    |--Rhombopsis Gardner 1916 [=Neptunella Meek 1864 non Gray 1854] P66
       |    |    `--*R. newberryi (Meek & Hayden 1857) [=Fusus newberryi, *Neptunella newberryi] P66
       |    |--Bruclarkia P66
       |    |    `--‘Fusus’ corpulentus Conrad 1849 [=Priscofusus corpulentus] P66
       |    |--Heligmotoma Mayer-Eymar 1896 [Heligmotomidae] BR05
       |    |    `--*H. nilotica (Mayer-Eymar 1896) [=Melongena nilotica] BR17
       |    |--Volema Röding 1798 [Volemidae] BR05
       |    |    |--*V. paradisiaca Röding 1798 BR17
       |    |    `--V. cornuta [=Galeodes (Volema) cornuta] H62
       |    |--Hemifusus ZLK11
       |    |    |--H. colosseus ZLK11
       |    |    |--H. ternatanus ZLK11
       |    |    `--H. tuba ZLK11
       |    `--‘Galeodes’ Röding 1798 non Olivier 1791 BR05
       |         |--*G. melongena (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex melongena] BR17
       |         |--G. cochlidium (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex cochlidium] H09
       |         `--G. pricei (Smith 1887) [=Fusus pricei] H09
       `--+--Nassariidae FP15
          |--+--Columbellidae ZLK11
          |  `--Fasciolariidae FP15
          `--Buccinidae [Ceryciidae, Cominellidae, Cominellina, Cominellinae] FP15
               |  i. s.: Manaria kuroharai Azuma 1960 AV03, MG-H11
               |         Eosipho AV03
               |         Anna Risso 1826 P66
               |           `--*A. massena Risso 1826 P66
               |         Savatieria Rochebrune & Mabille 1885 P66
               |           `--*S. frigida Rochebrune & Mabille 1885 P66
               |         Troschelia berniciensis (King 1846) OT04
               |         Neocola Finlay 1926 F26
               |           |--*N. beta [=Austrofusus beta] F26
               |           `--N. cliftonensis (Marwick 1926) [=Aethocola cliftonensis] F26
               |         Zelandiella Finlay 1926 DK10
               |           |--*Z. subnodosa [=Neptunea subnodosa] F26
               |           `--Z. fatua Finlay 1926 DK10
               |         Nassicola Finlay 1926 F26
               |           `--*N. costata F26 [=Neptunea costata F26, N. (Sipho) costatus H79]
               |         Zeapollia Finlay 1926 F26
               |           |--*Z. acuticingulata (Suter 1917) [=Tritonidea acuticingulata] F26
               |           |--Z. colensoi [=Tritonidea colensoi] F26
               |           `--Z. purpuroides (Johnston 1879) [=Ricinula purpuroides] F26
               |         Tritonidea F27
               |           |--T. australis H08
               |           `--T. fusiformis Martin 1883 F27
               |         Tasmeuthria Iredale 1925 F27
               |           |--*T. clarkei [=Siphonalia clarkei] F27
               |           `--T. glirina (Blainv. 1832) (see below for synonymy) F27
               |         Josepha tasmanica M54
               |         Engina BC01
               |         Nassaria MG-H11
               |           |--N. acuminata (Reeve 1844) MG-H11
               |           |--N. bitubercularis (Adams 1855) [=Hindsia bitubercularis] H09
               |           |--N. problematica (Iredale 1936) MG-H11
               |           `--N. solida Kuroda & Habe 1961 MG-H11
               |         Dolicholatirus Bellardi 1883 MG-H11, F27
               |           `--*D. bronni [=Turbinella bronni] F27
               |         Granulifusus kiranus Shuto 1958 MG-H11
               |         Pseudolatirus pallidus Kuroda & Habe 1961 MG-H11
               |         Bailya Smith 1944 BC01
               |           |  i. s.: B. milleri Usticke 1959 BC01
               |           `--B. (Parabailya Watters & Finlay 1989) BC01
               |                `--B. (*P.) weberi (Watters 1983) [=Caducifer (Monostiolium) weberi] BC01
               |         Caducifer decapitata (Reeve 1844) [incl. Pisania englerti Hertlein 1960] BC01
               |         Monostiolum BC01
               |           |--M. biliratum (Reeve 1846) [=Caducifer (Monostiolum) biliratus] PP78
               |           `--M. rosewateri Watters & Finlay 1989 BC01
               |         ‘Paradoxa’ Fernandes & Rolán 1990 nec Marshall 1896 nec Mattir. 1935 (ICBN) BC01
               |           |--*P. confirmata Fernandes & Rolán 1990 BC01
               |           `--P. thomensis Fernandes & Rolán 1990 BC01
               |         Antimitra Iredale 1917 BK11, P66 [incl. Mitromorpha Adams 1865 non Carpenter 1865 P66]
               |           |--*A. aegrota (Reeve 1845) [=Pleurotoma aegrota] P66
               |           |--A. crenulata (Pease 1867) [=Daphnella crenulata] P66
               |           |--‘Mitromorpha’ filosa Carpenter 1865 nec Columbella filosa Dujardin 1837 (not preoc. as in homonymous gen.) nec Daphnella filosa Carpenter 1864 (do.) O27
               |           |--‘Mitromorpha’ gracilior Hemphill 1884 O27
               |           |    |--M. g. gracilior O27
               |           |    `--M. g. intermedia Arnold 1903 O27
               |           |--*Mitromorpha’ gracilis O27
               |           `--A. lirata (Adams 1865) [=Mitromorpha lirata] P66
               |         Bathyclionella Kobelt 1905 BK11, P66 [incl. Cryptomitra Dall 1924 P66]
               |           |--*B. quadruplex (Watson 1881) BW80 [=Pleurotoma (Clionella) quadruplex P66]
               |           |--B. brachytoma (Schepman 1913) [=Surcula brachytoma] P66
               |           |--B. climacella (Dall 1895) [=Pleurotoma climacella, Pleurotomella climacella] P66
               |           `--B. paschalis (Thiele 1925) [=Mangelia paschalis] P66
               |         Jumala BK11
               |         Trachypollia Woodring 1928 BD12
               |           `--*T. sclera Woodring 1928 RD75
               |         Fax Iredale 1925 P61
               |           |--*F. tabidus [=Phos tabidus] P61
               |           |--F. mirabilis (Powell 1929) P61
               |           |    |--F. m. mirabilis P61
               |           |    |--F. m. canturiensis Dell 1951 P61
               |           |    |--F. m. nuptialis Dell 1953 P61
               |           |    `--F. m. powelli Fleming 1948 P61
               |           |--F. otagoensis (Finlay 1927) P61
               |           `--F. tenuicostatus F26
               |         Austrobuccinum Stilwell & Zinsmeister 1992 C96
               |         Pseudofax JB12
               |         Bulliopsis Conrad 1862 P12
               |           `--B. bowlerensis Allmon 1990 P12
               |         Hesperisternia petuchi Vermeij 2006 P12
               |         Celatoconus P12
               |         Ptychosalpinx P12
               |         Amycla C64
               |           |--A. californiana Gask. 1851 C64
               |           |--A. chrysalloidea Carpenter 1864 C64
               |           |--A. corniculum PP64
               |           |--A. gouldiana [=Columbella gouldiana, C. gouldii Agass. 1858 (n. n.)] C64
               |           |--A. minor C64
               |           |--A. tuberosa Carpenter 1864 C64
               |           `--A. undata Carpenter 1864 C64
               |         Pseudoneptunea Kobelt 1882 C75
               |           |--*P. varicosa (Roeding 1798) (see below for synonymy) C75
               |           `--P. inflata (Oostingh 1941) [=Siphonalia (Pseudoneptunea) inflata] C75
               |--Busyconinae BR05
               |--Beringius BR05
               |--Siphonaliinae BR05
               |--Donovaniinae BR17
               |    |--Syntagma Iredale 1918 P66 [incl. Lachesis Risso 1826 non Daudin 1803 BR05; Lachesinae]
               |    |    |--*S. minimum Montagu 1803 (see below for synonymy) P66
               |    |    `--*Lachesis’ mamillata Risso 1826 BR17
               |    `--Chauvetia Monterosato 1884 P66, BR05 (see below for synonymy)
               |         |--*C. mamillata (Risso 1826) [=Nesaea mamillata, *Donovania mamillata] BR17
               |         |--C. candidissima [=Buccinum candidissima, Nesaea candidissima] P66
               |         |--‘Buccinum’ folineaea [=*Folineaea folineaea] P66
               |         |--‘Buccinum’ lefebvrei Maravigna 1840 P66
               |         `--C. minima PP64
               |--Buccinulinae [Buccinulidae, Buccinulini] BR05
               |    |--Aeneator P61
               |    |--Penion P61
               |    |--Antarctoneptunea BR17
               |    |--Kelletia Bayle 1884 BR17, O27
               |    |    `--*K. kelletii (Forbes 1850) [=Fusus kellettii] O27
               |    |--Ellicea Finlay 1928 P61
               |    |    |--*E. orbita [=Siphonalia orbita] P61
               |    |    `--E. recens Dell 1951 P61
               |    |--Euthrenopsis Powell 1929 P61
               |    |    |--*E. otagoensis Powell 1929 P61
               |    |    |--E. bountyensis Powell 1929 P61
               |    |    `--E. venusta Powell 1929 P61
               |    |--Euthria Gray 1850 F27a
               |    |    |--E. amorimi Fraussen 2004 F05
               |    |    |--E. interrupta Sowerby 1900 S00
               |    |    |--E. linea F27a
               |    |    `--E. plumbea [incl. E. ferrea, E. viridula] S00
               |    `--Buccinulum Deshayes 1830 BR05 [incl. Evarne F27a]
               |         |--B. (Buccinulum) P61
               |         |    |--*B. (B.) lineatum (Gmelin 1791) [=Murex lineatus] BR17
               |         |    |--B. (B.) lineum (Martyn 1784) P61
               |         |    |--B. (B.) pallidum Finlay 1928 P61
               |         |    |--B. (B.) tenuistriatum Powell 1929 P61
               |         |    `--B. (B.) waitangiensis Powell 1933 P61
               |         |--B. (Euthrena) P61
               |         `--B. (Evarnula) P61
               `--Buccininae [Buccinidia] BR05
                    |  i. s.: Cominella BR05
                    |         Parancistrolepidini (see below for synonymy) BR05
                    |           |--Parancistrolepis Azuma 1965 BR05
                    |           |    `--*P. kinoshitai (Kuroda 1931) [=Japelion kinoshitai] BR17
                    |           `--Brevisiphonia Lus 1973 [Brevisiphoniinae, Brevisiphoninae] BR05
                    |                `--*B. circumreta Lus 1973 BR17
                    |         Prosipho Thiele 1912 [Prosiphiinae, Prosiphoninae, Prosiphonini] BR05
                    |           |--*P. gaussianus Thiele 1912 BR17
                    |           |--P. cassandra F26 [=Mitromorpha cassandra H22]
                    |           |--P. pallidula F26 [=Mitromorpha pallida H22]
                    |           |--P. solidus [=Mitromorpha solida] H22
                    |           `--P. tomlini Powell 1957 [incl. P. madigani Tomlin 1948 non Hedley 1916] P61
                    |         Ancistrolepis Dall 1895 [Ancistrolepidinae, Ancistrolepidini, Ancistrolepisinae] BR05
                    |           |--*A. eucosmius (Dall 1891) [=Chrysodomus eucosmius] BR17
                    |           |    |--A. e. eucosmius O27
                    |           |    `--A. e. bicinctus Dall 1919 O27
                    |           |--A. beringianus Dall 1919 O27
                    |           |--A. californicus Dall 1919 O27
                    |           `--A. magnus Dall 1895 O27
                    |         Liomesus Stimpson 1865 (see below for synonymy) BR05
                    |           |--*L. dalei (Sowerby 1825) O27, BR17 (see below for synonymy)
                    |           |--L. nassula Dall 1901 O27
                    |           |--L. nux Dall 1877 O27
                    |           `--L. ooides Middendorff 1848 O27
                    |                |--L. o. ooides O27
                    |                `--L. o. canaliculatus (Dall 1874) [=Buccinopsis canaliculatus] O27
                    |--Colini ZLK11
                    `--+--+--Buccinini BR17
                       |  |    |--Buccinum ZLK11
                       |  |    `--Volutopsius BR17
                       |  `--Volutharpa Fischer 1856 ZLK11, BC01 [Volutharpinae]
                       |       |--*V. deshayesiana Fischer 1856 BR17
                       |       |--V. ampullacea Middendorff 1848 O27 [=Bullia ampullacea C64]
                       |       `--V. perryi (Jay 1856) FP15, BC01 [=Bullia perryi BC01, V. ampullacea perryi BC01]
                       `--+--Japelion latus (Dall 1918) ZLK11, ZC10
                          `--Pareuthria Strebel 1905 ZLK11, P61
                               |--*P. fuscata P61 [=Buccinum fuscatum P61, Cominella fuscata F26]
                               |--P. campbelli (Filhol 1880) P61 [=Cominella campbelli F26]
                               |--P. magellanica [=Cominella magellanica] F26
                               |--P. plumbea ZLK11 [=Cominella plumbea F26]
                               |--P. rosea [=Cominella rosea] F26
                               `--P. valdiviae Thiele 1925 [incl. Probuccinum tenerum Tomlin 1948 non Smith 1907] P61

Buccinoidea incertae sedis:
  Echinofulguridae BR17
    |--Echinofulgur Olsson & Harbison 1953 [Echinofulgurinae] BR05
    |    `--*E. echinatus (Dall 1890) BR17 [=Fulgur echinatus BR17, Busycon echinatum C60]
    |--Levifusus Conrad 1865 [Levifusinae] BR17
    |    `--*L. trabeatus (Conrad 1833) [=Fusus trabeatus] BR17
    `--Protobusycon Wade 1917 BD12 [Protobusyconinae BR17]
         `--*P. cretaceum (Wade 1917) [=Busycon cretaceum] BR17
  Pisaniidae [Pisaniana, Pisaniinae] ZLK11
    |--Notoficula AV03
    |--Falsimohnia AV03
    |--Pisania BR17
    |--Cantharus ZLK11
    |--Solenosteira Dall 1890 AV03
    |    `--S. macrospira (Berry 1957) H78
    |--Pusiostoma Swainson 1840 [Pusiostomatidae] BR05
    |    `--*P. mendicaria (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 [=Voluta mendicaria BR17, Engina mendicaria H09]
    |--Tromina Dall 1918 AV03, RD75
    |    `--*T. unicarinata (Philippi 1868) [=Fusus unicarinatus] RD75
    |--Procominula Finlay 1926 F26
    |    `--*P. pulchra [=Cominella pulchra] F26
    |--Burnupena Iredale 1918 F26
    |    `--*B. delalandii [=Cominella delalandii; incl. Buccinum catarracta] F26
    |--Ratifusus Iredlae 1919 B88
    |    `--R. bednalli M54
    |--Zephos Finlay 1926 F26
    |    |--*Z. cingulata [=Nassa cingulata] F26
    |    `--Z. otagoensis Finlay 1926 F26
    |--Pusio Gray in Griffith & Pidgeon 1834 [incl. Calicantharus Clark 1938] AV03
    |    |--*P. elegans Gray in Griffith & Pidgeon 1834 AV03 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--P. articulatus (see below for synonymy) G79
    |    `--‘Pisania’ fortis Carpenter 1866 [=*Calicantharus fortis] AV03
    |--Iredalula Finlay 1927 B88
    |    |--*I. striata (Hutton 1873) P61 [=Bela striata P61, Daphnella striata H86]
    |    |--I. alticincta (Murdoch & Suter 1906) P61
    |    `--I. venusta Powell 1934 P61
    `--Lirabuccinum Vermeij 1991 AV03
         |--*L. dirum (Reeve 1846) AV03 (see below for synonymy)
         |--L. branneri (Clark & Arnold 1923) (see below for synonymy) AV03
         |--L. dalli (Clark 1918) AV03
         |--L. fuscolabiatum (Smith 1875) (see below for synonymy) AV03
         |--L. japonicum (Yokoyama 1926) [=Searlesia japonica] AV03
         |--L. miocenicum (Etherington 1931) AV03
         `--L. portlaense (Arnold 1908) AV03
  Neobuccinum eatoni (Smith 1875) ZLK11, S11
  Colubrariidae ZLK11

Chauvetia Monterosato 1884 P66, BR05 [=Nesaea Risso 1826 non Leach 1814 P66, Donovania Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus 1883 non Leach 1814 BR17; incl. Folineaea Monterosato 1884 P66; Chauvetiinae, Donovaniini]

Liomesus Stimpson 1865 [=Buccinopsis Jeffreys 1867 non Conrad 1857; Buccinopsidae, Liomesidae, Liomesinae, Liomesini] BR05

*Liomesus dalei (Sowerby 1825) O27, BR17 [=Buccinum dalei O27, *Buccinopsis dalei BR17; incl. B. dalei var. eburnea J64]

Lirabuccinum branneri (Clark & Arnold 1923) [=Searlesia branneri; incl. S. kavranensis Sinelnikova in Gladenkov, Sinelnikova & Titova 1984, Lirabuccinum kavranense, S. kurodai Makiyama 1936, S. kurodai kinseiensis Makiyama 1936] AV03

*Lirabuccinum dirum (Reeve 1846) AV03 [=Buccinum dirum AV03, Chrysodomus dirus C64, Searlesia dira O27; incl. Fusus (Neptunaea) incisus Gld. 1849 C64, Tritonium (Fusus) sitchense Middendorff 1849 C64, Chrysodomus sitchensis C64]

Lirabuccinum fuscolabiatum (Smith 1875) [=Euthria fuscolabiata, Searlesia fuscolabiata; incl. S. constricta Dall 1918, Fusus coreanicus Smith 1879, S. coreanica, Euthria hokkaidonis Pilsbry 1901, Fusus modestus Gould 1860 non Philippi 1844, Searlesia modesta, S. shimosensis Oinomikado 1935] AV03

Parancistrolepidini [Parancistrolepididae, Parancistrolepidinae, Parancistrolepisinae] BR05

*Pseudoneptunea varicosa (Roeding 1798) [=Neptunea varicosa, Murex varicosus, Siphonalia (Pseudoneptunea) varicosa; incl. S. bantamensis Martin 1895, S. (P.) bantamensis] C75

Pusio articulatus [=Fusus articulatus; incl. Murex accinctus, Purpura accincta, Buccinum pennatum, B. plumatum] G79

*Pusio elegans Gray in Griffith & Pidgeon 1834 AV03 [=Triton (Pusio) elegans C64; incl. Pisania insignis Rve. 1846 C64]

*Syntagma minimum Montagu 1803 [=Buccinum minimum, Donovania minima; incl. B. brunneum Donovan 1804] P66

Tasmeuthria glirina (Blainv. 1832) [=Purpura glirina; incl. Pisania bednalli, Buccinum discolor Kiener 1834, Tritonidea fusiformis Verco 1896 non Martin 1883, T. fusiformis adcocki Verco 1896, T. subrubiginosa Smith 1879] F27

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AV03] Amano, K., & G. J. Vermeij. 2003. Evolutionary adaptation and geographic spread of the Cenozoic buccinid genus Lirabuccinum in the North Pacific. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 863–872.

[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[B88] Bouchet, P. 1988. Two new species of Metula (Gastropoda: Buccinidae) with a description of the radula of the genus. Nautilus 102 (4): 149–153.

[BK11] Bouchet, P., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev & N. Puillandre. 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BW80] Bouchet, P., & A. Waren. 1980. Revision of the north-east Atlantic bathyal and abyssal Turridae (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies Supplement 8: 1–119.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C75] Cernohorsky, W. O. 1975. The taxonomy of some Indo-Pacific Mollusca. Part 3. With descriptions of new taxa and remarks on an Ecuadorian fossil species of Turridae. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 12: 213–234.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[C96] Crame, J. A. 1996. Evolution of high-latitude molluscan faunas. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 119–131. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[DK10] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2010. Eocene molluscs from the Merlinleigh Sandstone, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (1): 23–41.

[FP15] Fedosov, A., N. Puillandre, Y. Kantor & P. Bouchet. 2015. Phylogeny and systematics of mitriform gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 336–359.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[F26] Finlay, H. J. 1926. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. "Times" Office: Christchurch.

[H62] Häntzschel, W. 1962. Trace fossils and problematica. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W177–W245. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[H08] Hedley, C. 1908. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part X. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 456–489, pls 7–10.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H22] Hedley, C. 1922. A revision of the Australian Turridae. Records of the Australian Museum 13 (6): 213–359, pls 42–56.

[H78] Houston, R. S. 1978. Notes on the spawning and egg capsules of two prosobranch gastropods: Nassarius tiarula (Kiener, 1841) and Solenosteira macrospira (Berry, 1957). Veliger 20 (4): 367–368.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. Report of the committee appointed for exploring the coasts of Shetland by means of the dredge. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 70–81.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[OT04] Olabarria, C., & M. H. Thurston. 2004. Patterns of morphological variation of the deep-sea gastropod Troschelia berniciensis (King, 1846) (Buccinidae) from the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Molluscan Studies 70: 59–66.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: An evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[RD75] Radwin, G. E., & A. D’Attilio. 1975. A catalogue of muricacean generic taxa. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 17 (20): 279–292.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[S00] Sowerby, G. B. 1900. New species of Mollusca of the genera Voluta, Conus, Siphonalia, and Euthria. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 439–441, pl. 11.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZC10] Zhang, S., & Z. Chen. 2010. Species composition and faunal characteristics of Buccinacea (Mollusca, Gastropdoa) of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 117–118. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Last updated: 24 February 2022.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS