Regent mitre Vexillum regina, copyright Rokus Groeneveld.

Belongs within: Muricoidea.

The Costellariidae, ribbed mitres, are a group of predatory gastropods with shells resembling those of the mitres of the Mitridae but with strong axial sculpture. They prey on other molluscs that they kill with a poison secreted from accessory salivary glands.

    |--Mitropifex iredalei Powell 1958 BC01
    |--Nodicostellaria crassa (Simone 1995) S11
    |--Thala Adams & Adams 1853 BC01, O27
    |    |--T. africana Rolán & Fernandes 1995 BC01
    |    |--T. crassa Simone 1995 BC01
    |    |--T. esperanza Leal & Moore 1993 BC01
    |    |--T. orcutti (Dall 1920) [=Mitra (Thala) orcutti] O27
    |    `--T. solitaria (Adams 1852) [=Mitra (Thala) solitaria] O27
    |--Costellaria Swainson 1840 BR05
    |    |--C. fortiplicata (Pease 1868) [=Vexillum (Costellaria) fortiplicatum; incl. V. kewaloensis Cate 1963] BC01
    |    |--C. leucozonias (Deshayes 1834) [=Vexillum (Costellaria) leucozonias; incl. V. moana Cate 1963] BC01
    |    |--C. micra (Pilsbry 1921) [=Vexillum (Costellaria) micra] BC01
    |    |--C. militaris (Reeve 1845) [=Vexillum (Costellaria) militaris; incl. V. coronense Cate 1968] BC01
    |    |--C. nitidissima (Melvill & Standen 1895) [=Mitra (Costellaria) nitidissima, Vexillum (C.) nitidissimum] BC01
    |    `--C. pacifica (Reeve 1845) [=Mitra pacifica, Vexillum (Costellaria) pacifica] BC01
    |--Pusia Swainson 1840 [Pusiinae, Pusinae] BR05
    |    |--P. anabelae Fernandes 1992 BC01
    |    |--P. catenata (Broderip 1836) [incl. Mitra bibsae Usticke 1969] BC01
    |    |--P. chickcharneorum (Lyons & Kaicher 1978) [=Vexillum (Pusia) chickcharneorum] BC01
    |    |--P. exigua (Adams 1845) (see below for synonymy) BC01
    |    |--P. histrio (Reeve 1844) (see below for synonymy) BC01
    |    `--P. patriarchalis Gmelin 1791 WG71
    |--Austromitra Finlay 1927 S11, WG71
    |    |--*A. rubiginosa (Hutton 1873) [=Columbella rubiginosa] P61
    |    |--A. ambulacra (Marwick 1926) [=Vexillum ambulacrum] F27
    |    |--A. analogica [=Vexillum analogicum] F27
    |    |--A. angulata (Suter 1908) P61 [=Vexillum pseudomarginata angulata F27]
    |    |--A. antipoda (Brookes 1926) P61 [=Vexillum antipodum F27]
    |    |--A. bellapicta [=Vexillum bellapictum] F27
    |    |--A. brunneacincta Powell 1952 P61
    |    |--A. bucklandi Gabriel 1961 WG71
    |    |--A. erecta Powell 1934 P61
    |    |--A. fracta [=Vexillum fractum] F27
    |    |--A. lawsi Finlay 1930 P61
    |    |--A. legrandi [=Vexillum legrandi] F27
    |    |--A. lincolnensis M54
    |    |--A. maculosa Turner & Simone 1998 S11
    |    |--A. marginata [=Vexillum marginatum] F27
    |    |--A. planata [=Turricula planata] F27
    |    |--A. planatella Finlay 1930 P61
    |    |--A. pseudomarginata (Suter 1913) P61 [=Vexillum pseudomarginata F27]
    |    |--A. pumilio [=Vexillum pumilio] F27
    |    |--A. rubiradix Finlay 1927 F27
    |    |--A. scalariformis [=Vexillum scalariforme] F27
    |    |--A. schomburgki M54
    |    `--A. zafra Powell 1952 P61
    `--Vexillum Röding 1798 [Vexillidae, Vexillinae] BR05
         |--V. australe F27
         |--V. cadaverosum Reeve 1844 BW09
         |--V. caffrum Linnaeus 1758 WG71
         |--V. consanguineum (Reeve 1845) BW09
         |--V. corallinum (Reeve 1845) BW09
         |--V. costatum (Gmelin 1791) PK11
         |--V. crocatum (Lamarck 1811) BW09
         |--V. deshayesi Reeve 1844 BW09
         |--V. exasperatum Gmelin 1791 WG71
         |--V. granosum Gmelin 1790 BW09
         |--V. gruneri Reeve 1844 WG71
         |--V. hansenae Cernohorsky 1973 MG-H11
         |--V. infaustum (Reeve 1845) BW09
         |--V. lornense Marwick 1926 F27
         |--V. lucidum (Reeve 1845) BW09
         |--V. obeliscus (Reeve 1844) MG-H11
         |--V. plicarium Linnaeus 1758 WG71
         |--V. radius (Reeve 1845) MG-H11
         |--V. regina Sowerby 1828 [incl. V. regina filiareginae Cate 1961] BC01
         |--V. roseum Broderip 1836 BW09
         |--V. rugosum Gmelin 1791 WG71
         |--V. sanguisugum Linnaeus 1758 BW09
         |--V. semicostatum Anton 1839 BW09
         |--V. semifasciatum Lamarck 1811 BW09
         |--V. speciosum (Reeve 1844) BW09
         |--V. stainforthi Reeve 1841 BW09
         |--V. taeniatum Lamarck 1811 WG71
         |--V. tasmanicum F27
         |--V. teresiae F27
         |--V. turrigerum (Reeve 1845) BW09
         |--V. unifascialis (Lamarck 1811) BW09
         |--V. vulpecula Linnaeus 1758 WG71
         `--V. zelotypum (Reeve 1845) BW09

Pusia exigua (Adams 1845) [=Vexillum (Pusia) exiguum; incl. Mitra hanleyi f. antiguensis Usticke 1969, M. minutus Usticke 1969 non M. minuta Gmelin 1791, M. moisei McGinty 1955] BC01

Pusia histrio (Reeve 1844) [=Vexillum (Pusia) histrio; incl. Mitra cruzana Usticke 1959, M. hayesae Usticke 1959] BC01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[PK11] Puillandre, N., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev, A. Couloux, C. Meyer, T. Rawlings, J. A. Todd & P. Bouchet. 2011. The dragon tamed? A molecular phylogeny of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 259–272.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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