Thala crassa, copyright Conquiliologistas do Brasil.

Belongs within: Turbinelloidea.
Contains: Vexillum.

The Costellariidae, ribbed mitres, are a group of predatory gastropods with shells resembling those of the mitres of the Mitridae but with strong axial sculpture. Most species lack an operculum though molecular data support inclusion of the operculate genera Latiromitra and Ceratoxancus as basal costellariids. The radula possesses unicuspid lateral teeth and a tricuspid or multicuspid rachidian tooth. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the tricuspid rachidian, as found in Thala, is plesiomorphic relative to the multicuspid rachidian of most Vexillum species (Fedosov et al. 2015). Costellariids prey on other molluscs that they kill with a poison secreted from accessory salivary glands.

<==Costellariidae BR17
    |--+--Latiromitra FP15
    |  |    |--L. barthelowi (Bartsch 1942) FP15
    |  |    `--L. crosnieri Bouchet & Kantor 2000 FP15
    |  `--Ceratoxancus Kuroda 1952 FP15, BC01
    |       |--C. melichrous Kantor & Bouchet 1997 FP15
    |       `--+--*C. teramachii Kuroda 1952 BC01, FP15, BC01
    |          `--C. leios FP15
    `--+--Vexillum FP15
       `--Thala Adams & Adams 1853 FP15, O27
            |--T. africana Rolán & Fernandes 1995 BC01
            |--T. crassa Simone 1995 BC01
            |--T. esperanza Leal & Moore 1993 BC01
            |--T. orcutti (Dall 1920) [=Mitra (Thala) orcutti] O27
            `--T. solitaria (Adams 1852) [=Mitra (Thala) solitaria] O27

Costellariidae incertae sedis:
  Mitropifex iredalei Powell 1958 BC01
  Nodicostellaria crassa (Simone 1995) S11
  Costellaria Swainson 1840 BR05
    |--*C. rigida (Swainson 1821) [=Mitra rigida] BR17
    |--C. fortiplicata (Pease 1868) (see below for synonymy) BC01
    |--C. leucozonias (Deshayes 1834) [=Vexillum (Costellaria) leucozonias; incl. V. moana Cate 1963] BC01
    |--C. militaris (Reeve 1845) [=Vexillum (Costellaria) militaris; incl. V. coronense Cate 1968] BC01
    |--C. nitidissima (Melvill & Standen 1895) (see below for synonymy) BC01
    `--C. pacifica (Reeve 1845) [=Mitra pacifica, Vexillum (Costellaria) pacifica] BC01
  Pusia Swainson 1840 [Pusiinae, Pusinae] BR05
    |--*P. microzonias (Lamarck 1811) BR17 [=Mitra microzonias BR17, Vexillum (*Pusia) microzonias FP15]
    |--P. anabelae Fernandes 1992 BC01
    |--P. australe (Swainson 1820) [=Vexillum (Pusia) australe] FP15
    |--P. catenata (Broderip 1836) [incl. Mitra bibsae Usticke 1969] BC01
    |--P. chickcharneorum (Lyons & Kaicher 1978) [=Vexillum (Pusia) chickcharneorum] BC01
    |--P. exigua (Adams 1845) (see below for synonymy) BC01
    |--P. histrio (Reeve 1844) (see below for synonymy) BC01
    `--P. patriarchalis Gmelin 1791 WG71
  Austromitra Finlay 1927 S11, WG71
    |--*A. rubiginosa (Hutton 1873) [=Columbella rubiginosa] P61
    |--A. ambulacra (Marwick 1926) [=Vexillum ambulacrum] F27
    |--A. analogica [=Vexillum analogicum] F27
    |--A. angulata (Suter 1908) P61 [=Vexillum pseudomarginata angulata F27]
    |--A. antipoda (Brookes 1926) P61 [=Vexillum antipodum F27]
    |--A. bellapicta [=Vexillum bellapictum] F27
    |--A. brunneacincta Powell 1952 P61
    |--A. bucklandi Gabriel 1961 WG71
    |--A. erecta Powell 1934 P61
    |--A. fracta [=Vexillum fractum] F27
    |--A. lawsi Finlay 1930 P61
    |--A. legrandi [=Vexillum legrandi] F27
    |--A. lincolnensis M54
    |--A. maculosa Turner & Simone 1998 S11
    |--A. marginata [=Vexillum marginatum] F27
    |--A. planata [=Turricula planata, Vexillum planatum] F27
    |--A. planatella Finlay 1930 P61
    |--A. pseudomarginata (Suter 1913) P61 [=Vexillum pseudomarginata F27]
    |--A. pumilio [=Vexillum pumilio] F27
    |--A. rubiradix Finlay 1927 P61
    |--A. scalariformis [=Vexillum scalariforme] F27
    |--A. schomburgki M54
    `--A. zafra Powell 1952 P61
  Mesorhytis TTE93
    |--M. decorosa (Stephenson 1952) TTE93
    `--M. ripleyana (Wade 1926) TTE93

Costellaria fortiplicata (Pease 1868) [=Vexillum (Costellaria) fortiplicatum; incl. V. kewaloensis Cate 1963] BC01

Costellaria nitidissima (Melvill & Standen 1895) [=Mitra (Costellaria) nitidissima, Vexillum (C.) nitidissimum] BC01

Pusia exigua (Adams 1845) [=Vexillum (Pusia) exiguum; incl. Mitra hanleyi f. antiguensis Usticke 1969, M. minutus Usticke 1969 non M. minuta Gmelin 1791, M. moisei McGinty 1955] BC01

Pusia histrio (Reeve 1844) [=Vexillum (Pusia) histrio; incl. Mitra cruzana Usticke 1959, M. hayesae Usticke 1959] BC01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[FP15] Fedosov, A., N. Puillandre, Y. Kantor & P. Bouchet. 2015. Phylogeny and systematics of mitriform gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 336–359.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Last updated: 23 September 2021.

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