Argasidae

Pigeon tick Argas reflexus, photographed by Marcello Romano.


Belongs within: Parasitiformes.

The Argasidae, soft ticks, are a group of ticks lacking a well-developed scutum. Most feed on hosts returning to regular shelters such as nests, burrows or caves. Most argasids feed on their hosts for only short periods at a time, and may survive for extraordinarily long periods (up to several years) without feeding. However, the spinose ear tick Otobius megnini feeds deep within the ears of its mammalian host, causing damage that in extreme cases may even be fatal (Keirans 2009).

Characters (from Keirans 2009): Capitulum situated anteriorly in larva, situated ventrally and not visible from above in postlarval stages; dorsal plate present or absent in larvae, leathery pseudoscutum rarely present in nymphs and adults. Paired spiracular plates situated dorsolaterally between coxae III-IV.

<==Argasidae [Argasini]
    |--Antricola DC91
    |--Parantricola marginatus DC91
    |--Nothoaspis reddelli Ke09
    |--Otobius Ke09
    |    |--O. lagophilus Ke09
    |    `--O. megnini OW01
    |--Ornithodoros OW01
    |    |--O. amblus Ke09
    |    |--O. capensis R01
    |    |--O. coriaceus Ke09
    |    |--O. dugesi Mazzotti 1943 M-PV-G01
    |    |--O. gurneyi R01
    |    |--O. hermsi Wheeler et al. 1935 M-PV-G01
    |    |--O. kelleyi Kr09
    |    |--O. macmillani R01
    |    |--O. maritimus NJ91
    |    |--O. (Ornithodoros) moubata (Murray 1877) DJS91, P91
    |    |--O. muesebecki Ke09
    |    |--O. papillipes (Birula 1895) P91
    |    |--O. parkeri Cooley 1936 M-PV-G01
    |    |--O. (Pavlovskyella) tartakovskyi DJS91
    |    |--O. tholozani WP99
    |    `--O. transversus WP99
    `--Argas Latreille 1795 S61
         |  i. s.: A. erraticus Lucas 1847 E12
         |         A. lahorensis OW01
         |--A. (Argas) KH75
         |    |--A. (A.) cooleyi KH75
         |    |--A. (A.) falco Kaiser & Hoogstraal 1974 KH75
         |    |--A. (A.) japonicus KH75
         |    |--A. (A.) lagenoplastis KH75
         |    |--A. (A.) latus LD91
         |    |--A. (A.) lowryae Kaiser & Hoogstraal 1975 KH75
         |    |--A. (A.) polonicus DJS91
         |    |--A. (A.) reflexus DJS91 [=Acarus reflexus CF77; incl. Rhynchoprion columbae CF77]
         |    |--A. (A.) tridentatus LD91
         |    `--A. (A.) vulgaris LD91
         |--A. (Carios) E-PAG91
         |    |--‘Carios’ jerseyi GE05
         |    `--A. (C.) vespertilionis Latreille 1802 E-PAG91
         `--A. (Persicargas) KH75
              |--A. (P.) arboreus DJS91
              |--A. (P.) nullaborensis Hoogstraal & Kaiser 1973 KH75
              |--A. (P.) persicus KH75
              |--A. (P.) robertsi Hoogstraal et al. 1968 KH75
              `--A. (P.) walkerae DJS91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CF77] Canestrini, G. & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69-208, pls 202-207.

[DC91] Daniel, M., V. Černý, J. Štěrba & J. de la Cruz. 1991. Morphological study of adults of trombiculid mites from Cuban hot caves. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 261-263. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[DJS91] Dusbábek, F., A. Jegorov & P. Šimek. 1991. Artificial assembly pheromone of argasid ticks (Ixodoidea: Argasidae). In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 59-68. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[E-PAG91] Estrada-Peña, A., A. Albó & J. Gutiérrez. 1991. Phenotypic variation of larval Argas (Carios) vespertilionis (Argasidae) in Spain and northern Africa. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 147-153. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KH75] Kaiser, M. N., & H. Hoogstraal. 1975. Observations on the subgenus Argas (Ixodoidea: Argasidae: Argas). A. (A.) lowryae, new species, parasitizing cave-dwelling kestrels in the Nullarbor region of Western Australia. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 68 (3): 585-590.

[Ke09] Keirans, J. E. 2009. Order Ixodida. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 111-123. Texas Tech University Press.

[Kr09] Krantz, G. W. 2009. Form and function. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 5-53. Texas Tech University Press.

[LD91] Leonovich, S. A., & F. Dusbábek. 1991. Pheromone sensory subsystem in ticks: correlation between structure of sensilla and evolution of behaviour. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 53-58. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[M-PV-G01] Montiel-Parra, G., G. A. Villegas-Guzman, M. Vargas & O. J. Polaco. 2001. Mites associated with nests of Neotoma albigula Hartley, 1894 (Rodentia: Muridae) in Durango, México. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 586-593. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[NJ91] Nuttall, P. A., & L. D. Jones. 1991. Non-viraemic tick-borne virus transmission: mechanism and significance. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 3-6. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[OW01] Otto, J. C., & K. J. Wilson. 2001. Assessment of the usefulness of ribosomal 18S and mitochondrial COI sequences in Prostigmata phylogeny. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 100-109. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[P91] Podboronov, V. M. 1991. Antibacterial protective mechanisms of ixodoid ticks. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 375-380. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[R01] Russell, R. C. 2001. The medical significance of Acari in Australia. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 535-546. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367-610.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS