Shaggy scalycap Pholiota squarrosa, photographed by Marko Eesti.

Belongs within: Agaricales.

The Cortinariaceae is a family of mushroom-producing fungi, members of which are the dominant ectomycorrhizal group in many temperate forests.

Characters (from Cannon & Kirk 2007): Basidiomata pileate or gasteroid, membranous to fleshy, often brightly coloured, typically yellowish, reddish or brownish, the cap dry, silky, fibrose, scaly, or slimy and glutinous, sometimes striate. Pileate taxa lamellate, with the stipe central or eccentric and sometimes reduced, dry or viscid, sometimes bulbous at the base, often annular, veil often present protecting the young gills but breaking up in many species at an early stage of development, the gills concolorous with or differently pigmented to the cap, sometimes fimbriate due to presence of cheilocystidia. Hyphae often staining in iodine, clamp connections present or absent, cystidia usually present, varied in form. Basidia 2- or 4-spored. Basidiospores usually some shade of brown, variously shaped, thin-walled or thick-walled, usually without a germ pore, smooth or more usually ornamented, not staining in iodine.

    |--Hebeloma BB02
    |    |--H. crustuliniforme BH05
    |    |--H. radicosoides Y03
    |    |--H. vinosophyllum Y03
    |    `--H. weberi J87
    `--+--+--+--Cortinarius stuntzii HB02
       |  |  `--Psilocybe stuntzii BH05
       |  `--+--Kuehneromyces mutabilis HB02
       |     `--Psilocybe silvatica BH05
       `--+--Pholiota BH05
          |    |--P. aegerita B30
          |    |--P. squarrosa HB02
          |    |--P. squarrosoides BH05
          |    `--P. trinitensis J87
          `--+--Stropharia rugosoannulata BH05
             `--Hypholoma BH05
                  |--H. sublateritium BH05
                  `--H. subviride BH05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BB02] Binder, M., & A. Bresinsky. 2002. Derivation of a polymorphic lineage of Gasteromycetes from boletoid ancestors. Mycologia 94 (1): 85-98.

[BH05] Binder, M., D. S. Hibbett, K.-H. Larsson, E. Larsson, E. Langer & G. Langer. 2005. The phylogenetic distribution of resupinate forms across the major clades of mushroom-forming fungi (Homobasidiomycetes). Systematics and Biodiversity 3 (2): 113-157.

[B30] Bose, S. R. 1930. The biology of wood-rotting fungi. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 33.

Cannon, P. F., & P. M. Kirk. 2007. Fungal Families of the World. CABI.

[HB02] Hibbett, D. S., & M. Binder. 2002. Evolution of complex fruiting-body morphologies in homobasidiomycetes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 269: 1963-1969.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[Y03] Yamanaka, T. 2003. The effect of pH on the growth of saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal ammonia fungi in vitro. Mycologia 95 (4): 584-589.

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