Ascobolus carbonarius, photographed by Miro Švidroň.

Belongs within: Pezizomycotina.
Contains: Pezizaceae, Thecotheus, Pyronemataceae, Helvellaceae.

The Pezizales is a clade of fungi including, among others, the morels and truffles.

Characters (from Kirk et al. 2008): Operculate discomycetes; cupfungi. Stroma absent. Ascomata apothecial or cleistothecial, rarely absent, often large, discoid, cupulate or ± globose, sometimes stalked, often brightly coloured; excipulum usually thick-walled, fleshy or membranous, composed of thin-walled pseudoparenchymatous cells. Interascal tissue of simple or moniliform paraphyses, often pigmented and swollen at the apices, absent in some cleistothecial taxa. Asci elongated, persistent, thin-walled, usually without obvious apical thickening, opening by a circular pore (operculum) or vertical split, the wall sometimes blueing in iodine, the asci cylindrical to ± globose and usually indehiscent in cleistothecial taxa. Ascospores usually ellipsoidal, aseptate, hyaline to strongly pigmented, often ornamented, usually without a sheath. Anamorphs hyphomycetous where known, usually with sympodial proliferation. Saprobes on soil and very rotten wood, some coprophilous, mycorrhizal, some hypogeous (and then mycorrhizal).

Pezizales [Otideaceae, Pezizomycetes]
    |--+--Pezizaceae JK06
    |  `--Ascobolaceae EB03Outline
    |       |--Clestoiodophanus EB03Outline
    |       |--Cubonia EB03Outline
    |       |--Saccobolus EB03Outline
    |       |--Thecotheus EB03Outline
    |       `--Ascobolus JK06 [incl. Seliniella Arx & Müller 1955 RS99]
    |            |--A. carbonarius LK04
    |            |--A. crenulatus JK06
    |            |--A. denudatus HWB03
    |            |--A. immersus [incl. *Seliniella macrospora Arx & Müller 1955] RS99
    |            `--A. lineolatus ST99
    `--+--+--Pyronemataceae JK06
       |  `--Sarcoscyphaceae EB03Outline
       |       |--Aurophora EB03Outline
       |       |--Chorioactis EB03Outline
       |       |--Desmazierella acicola EB03Outline, E99
       |       |--Geodina EB03Outline
       |       |--Kompsoscypha EB03Outline
       |       |--Nanoscypha EB03Outline
       |       |--Pseudopithyella EB03Outline
       |       |--Sarcoscypha coccinea JK06
       |       |--Thindia EB03Outline
       |       |--Wynnea EB03Outline
       |       |--Cookeina EB03Outline [incl. Boedijnopeziza EB03Notes]
       |       |    `--C. instititia [=*Boedijnopeziza instititia] EB03Notes
       |       `--Pithya LK04
       `--+--Caloscypha JK06 [anam. Geniculodendron EB03Notes; Caloscyphaceae]
          |    `--C. fulgens JK06 [anam. Geniculodendron pyriforme EB03Notes]
          `--+--Helvellaceae JK06
             `--+--‘Gyromitra’ melaleucoides LK04
                `--+--Discinaceae EB03Outline
                   |    |--Gymnohydnotrya EB03Outline
                   |    |--Hydnotrya EB03Outline
                   |    |--Pseudorhizina sphaerospora EB03Outline, RS99
                   |    `--Gyromitra JK06
                   |         |--G. californica JK06
                   |         `--G. esculenta GS02
                   `--Morchellaceae EB03Outline
                        |--Disciotis venosa LK04
                        |--Verpa conica LK04
                        `--Morchella JK06
                             |--M. deliciosa J87
                             |--M. elata GS02
                             `--M. esculenta JK06

Pezizales incertae sedis:
  Loculotuber EB03Outline
  Microeurotium EB03Outline
  Orcadia Sutherland 1915 EB03Outline, RS99
    `--*O. ascophylli Sutherland 1915 [incl. O. pelvetiana Sutherland 1915] RS99
  Inermisia aggregata JKW03
  Carbomyces [Carbomycetaceae] EB03Outline
  Glaziella [Glaziellaceae] EB03Outline
  Karstenella [Karstenellaceae] EB03Outline
  Rhizina [Rhizinaceae] EB03Outline
  Ascodesmidaceae EB03Outline
    |--Ascodesmis EB03Outline
    `--Eleutherascus EB03Outline
  Terfeziaceae H03
    |--Delastria rosea H03
    `--Terfezia H03
         |--T. claveryi H03
         `--T. leptoderma H03
  Tuberaceae EB03Outline
    |--Choiromyces EB03Outline
    |--Dingleya EB03Outline
    |--Labyrinthomyces EB03Outline
    |--Reddelomyces EB03Outline
    `--Tuber EB03Outline
         |--T. brumale PHK96
         |--T. magnatum SL02
         |--T. melanosporum LS01
         `--T. puberulum RS99
  Sarcosomataceae EB03Outline
    |--Donadinia EB03Outline
    |--Galiella EB03Outline
    |--Korfiella EB03Outline
    |--Neournula EB03Outline
    |--Plectania nigrella EB03Outline, GS02
    |--Pseudoplectania EB03Outline
    |--Sarcosoma EB03Outline
    |--Selenaspora EB03Outline
    |--Strobiloscypha EB03Outline
    |--Urnula hiemalis EB03Outline, JKW03
    `--Wolfina EB03Outline

*Type species of generic name indicated


[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[EB03Notes] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, T. Laessøe & G. Rambold (eds.) 2003. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 3580-3623. Myconet 9: 91-103.

[EB03Outline] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota – 2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

[GS02] Gibas, C. F. C., L. Sigler, R. C. Summerbell & R. S. Currah. 2002. Phylogeny of the genus Arachnomyces and its anamorphs and the establishment of Arachnomycetales, a new eurotiomycete order in the Ascomycota. Studies in Mycology 47: 131-139.

[H03] Healy, R. A. 2003. Mattirolomyces tiffanyae, a new truffle from Iowa, with ultrastructural evidence for its classification in the Pezizaceae. Mycologia 95 (4): 765-772.

[HWB03] Henk, D. A., A. Weir & M. Blackwell. 2003. Laboulbeniopsis termitarius, an ectoparasite of termites newly recognized as a member of the Laboulbeniomycetes. Mycologia 95 (4): 561-564.

[JKW03] Jacobs, K., T. Kirisits & M. J. Wingfield. 2003. Taxonomic re-evaluation of three related species of Graphium, based on morphology, ecology and phylogeny. Mycologia 95 (4): 714-727.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818-822.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, D. W. Minter & J. A. Stalpers (eds) 2008. Dictionary of the Fungi, 10th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LS01] Lumbsch, H. T., I. Schmitt, H. Döring & M. Wedin. 2001. Molecular systematics supports the recognition of an additional order of Ascomycota: The Agyriales. Mycological Research 105 (1): 16-23.

[LK04] Lutzoni, F., F. Kauff, C. J. Cox, D. McLaughlin, G. Celio, B. Dentinger, M. Padamsee, D. Hibbett, T. Y. James, E. Baloch, M. Grube, V. Reeb, V. Hofstetter, C. Schoch, A. E. Arnold, J. Miadlikowska, J. Spatafora, D. Johnson, S. Hambleton, M. Crockett, R. Shoemaker, G.-H. Sung, R. Lücking, T. Lumbsch, K. O'Donnell, M. Binder, P. Diederich, D. Ertz, C. Gueidan, K. Hansen, R. C. Harris, K. Hosaka, Y.-W. Lim, B. Matheny, H. Nishida, D. Pfister, J. Rogers, A. Rossman, I. Schmitt, H. Sipman, J. Stone, J. Sugiyama, R. Yahr & R. Vilgalys. 2004. Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits. American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1446-1480.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

[ST99] Saenz, G. S., & J. W. Taylor. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Meliola and Meliolina inferred from nuclear small subunit rRNA sequences. Mycological Research 103 (8): 1049-1056.

[SL02] Schweigkofler, W., K. Lopandic, O. Molnár & H. Prillinger. 2002. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships among Ascomycota with yeast phases using ribosomal DNA sequences and cell wall sugars. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 2: 1-17.

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