Tricholomataceae

Honey fungus Armillaria mellea, photographed by Júlio Reis.

Belongs within: Agaricales.
Contains: Tricholoma, Mycenaceae.

The Tricholomataceae is a family of ectomycorrhizal mushroom-producing fungi, found in coniferous and broadleaved forests.

Characters (from Cannon & Kirk 2007): Basidiomata pileate and stipitate, usually large and sturdy, the cap viscid or not, glabrous to fibrillose or scaly, the stipe central, fleshy or fibrillose, veil absent (rarely with a web-like partial veil), often with a fleshy annular ring. Hyphal system monomitic, hyphae often with pigment-encrusted walls, not staining in iodine, clamp connections present or absent, cystidia usually absent. Hymenium lamellate, the gills pale, often sinuate. Basidia small, clavate, with 2 or 4 sterigmata. Basidiospores generally small, variously shaped (globose, ellipsoidal, fusiform or angular), hyaline or creamish, thin-walled, smooth, germ pore absent, very rarely staining in iodine.

<==Tricholomataceae
    |  i. s.: Ampulloclitocybe clavipes JK06
    |         Henningsomyces candidus JK06
    |--+--Tricholoma BH05
    |  `--Leucopaxillus albissimus LK04
    `--+--+--+--Lyophyllum BH05
       |  |  |    |--L. decastes BH05
       |  |  |    `--L. semitale Y03
       |  |  `--+--Podabrella microcarpus BH05
       |  |     `--Termitomyces BH05
       |  |          |--T. cylindricus BH05
       |  |          `--T. heimii BH05
       |  `--+--Fistulina BH05
       |     |    |--F. antarctica BH05
       |     |    `--+--F. hepatica BH05
       |     |       `--+--F. pallida BH05
       |     |          `--Porodisculus pendulus BH05
       |     `--+--+--Schizophyllum commune BH05
       |        |  `--Auriculariopsis ampla BH05
       |        `--+--Lachnella villosa BH05
       |           `--+--Dendrothele BH05
       |              |    |--D. acerina BH05
       |              |    `--D. griseo-cana BH05
       |              `--+--Flagelloscypha minutissima BH05
       |                 `--+--+--Merismodes fascicularis BH05
       |                    |  `--Cyphellopsis anomala BH05
       |                    `--+--+--Calathella mangrovei BH05
       |                       |  `--Favolaschia intermedia BH05
       |                       `--+--Nia vibrissa BH05
       |                          `--Halocyphina villosa BH05
       `--+--+--Dendrocollybia racemosa BH05
          |  |--Hypsizygus ulmarius BH05
          |  `--Clitocybe BH05
          |       |--C. connata BH05
          |       |--C. ramigena BH05
          |       `--C. tabescens C74
          `--+--+--+--‘Panellus’ serotinus BH05
             |  |  `--Mycenaceae BH05
             |  `--+--Pleurocybella porrigens BH05
             |     `--+--Phyllotopsis nidulans BH05
             |        `--+--Bulbillomyces farinosus [anam. Aegerita candida] BH05
             |           `--+--Typhula phacorhiza BH05
             |              `--Macrotyphula juncea BH05
             `--+--Xeromphalina cauticinalis BH05
                `--+--+--Pleurotopsis longinqua BH05
                   |  `--Panellus ringens BH05
                   `--+--+--Gloeostereae BH05
                      |  |    |--Chondrostereum purpureum BH05
                      |  |    |--Gloeostereum incarnatum BH05
                      |  |    |--Cystostereum murraii BH05
                      |  |    `--Cheimonophyllum candidissimum BH05
                      |  `--+--Hydroporus scabripes BH05
                      |     `--Baeospora BH05
                      |          |--B. myosura BH05
                      |          `--B. myriadophylla BH05
                      `--+--+--+--Campanella BH05
                         |  |  |    |--C. junghuhnii BH05
                         |  |  |    `--C. subdendrophora BH05
                         |  |  `--+--Rectipilus fasciculatus BH05
                         |  |     `--Gerronema BH05
                         |  |          |--G. strombodes BH05
                         |  |          `--G. subclavatum BH06
                         |  `--+--+--Neonothopanus nambi BH05
                         |     |  `--Omphalotus nidiformis BH05
                         |     `--+--+--Nothopanus eugrammus HB02
                         |        |  `--Lampteromyces japonicus BH05
                         |        `--+--Micromphale perforans BH05
                         |           `--+--‘Marasmius’ alliaceus BH05
                         |              `--+--+--Rhodocollybia maculata BH05
                         |                 |  `--Marasmiellus ramealis BH05
                         |                 `--+--Lentinula BH05
                         |                    |    |--L. edodes BH05
                         |                    |    `--L. lateritia BH05
                         |                    `--Collybia BH05
                         |                         |--C. dryophila BH05
                         |                         |--C. laccata J87
                         |                         |--C. polyphylla BH05
                         |                         `--C. tuberosa JK06
                         `--+--+--Armillariella ostoyae BH05
                            |  `--Armillaria BH05
                            |       |--A. bulbosa PHK96
                            |       |--A. gallica LK04
                            |       |--A. mellea JK06
                            |       |--A. ostoyae C96
                            |       `--A. tabescens BH05
                            `--+--+--Oudemansiella mucida BH05
                               |  `--Xerula BH05
                               |       |--X. furfuracea BH05
                               |       `--X. megalospora BH05
                               `--+--+--Strobilurus trullisatus BH05
                                  |  `--+--Cyptotrama asprata BH05
                                  |     `--+--Rhizomarasmius pyrrhocephalus BH05
                                  |        `--Gloiocephala BH05
                                  |             |--G. aquatica BH05
                                  |             `--G. menieri BH05
                                  `--+--Flammulina velutipes BH05
                                     `--+--Rhodotus palmatus BH05
                                        `--+--Cylindrobasidium BH05
                                           |    |--C. evolvens HB02
                                           |    `--C. laeve BH05
                                           `--Physalacria BH05
                                                |--P. bambusae BH05
                                                |--P. brasiliensis PB03
                                                `--P. maipoensis BH05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BH05] Binder, M., D. S. Hibbett, K.-H. Larsson, E. Larsson, E. Langer & G. Langer. 2005. The phylogenetic distribution of resupinate forms across the major clades of mushroom-forming fungi (Homobasidiomycetes). Systematics and Biodiversity 3 (2): 113-157.

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology (4th ed.) The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

Cannon, P. F., & P. M. Kirk. 2007. Fungal Families of the World. CABI.

[C74] Crowder, J. P. 1974. Exotic Plant Pests of South Florida. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (USA).

[HB02] Hibbett, D. S., & M. Binder. 2002. Evolution of complex fruiting-body morphologies in homobasidiomycetes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 269: 1963-1969.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818-822.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[LK04] Lutzoni, F., F. Kauff, C. J. Cox, D. McLaughlin, G. Celio, B. Dentinger, M. Padamsee, D. Hibbett, T. Y. James, E. Baloch, M. Grube, V. Reeb, V. Hofstetter, C. Schoch, A. E. Arnold, J. Miadlikowska, J. Spatafora, D. Johnson, S. Hambleton, M. Crockett, R. Shoemaker, G.-H. Sung, R. Lücking, T. Lumbsch, K. O'Donnell, M. Binder, P. Diederich, D. Ertz, C. Gueidan, K. Hansen, R. C. Harris, K. Hosaka, Y.-W. Lim, B. Matheny, H. Nishida, D. Pfister, J. Rogers, A. Rossman, I. Schmitt, H. Sipman, J. Stone, J. Sugiyama, R. Yahr & R. Vilgalys. 2004. Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits. American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1446-1480.

[PB03] Poinar, G. O., Jr., & A. E. Brown. 2003. A non-gilled hymenomycete in Cretaceous amber. Mycological Research 107 (6): 763-768.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[Y03] Yamanaka, T. 2003. The effect of pH on the growth of saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal ammonia fungi in vitro. Mycologia 95 (4): 584-589.

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