Black-capped petrel Pterodroma hasitata, copyright Don Faulkner.

Belongs within: Procellariidae.

Pterodroma, the gadfly petrels, is a cosmopolitan genus of fast-flying petrels, mostly dark above and light below in coloration, with short, sturdy bills. Some relatively large species, such as the great-winged petrel P. macroptera, are uniformly dark in coloration.

<==Pterodroma Bonaparte 1856 (see below for synonymy) CC10
    |--+--P. mollis (Gould 1844) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |  `--+--+--P. magentae (Giglioli & Salvadori 1869) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |     |  `--+--P. incerta BKB15
    |     |     `--+--*P. macroptera (Smith 1840) CC10, BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |     |        |    |--P. m. macroptera CC10
    |     |        |    `--P. m. gouldi (Hutton 1869) (see below for synonymy) CC10
    |     |        `--P. lessonii (Garnot 1826) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |     `--+--P. hasitata (Kuhl 1820) BKB15, CS77 [incl. Fulmarus meridionalis CC10, *Aestrelata meridionalis CC10]
    |        `--+--P. cahow BKB15
    |           `--+--P. madeira Mathews 1934 BKB15, CS77 [=P. mollis madeira CS77]
    |              `--+--P. deserta BKB15
    |                 `--P. feae (Salvadori 1899) BKB15, CS77 [=P. mollis feae CS77]
    `--+--+--P. hypoleuca BKB15 [=Oestrelata hypoleuca CC10, *Oestrelatella hypoleuca CC10]
       |  `--+--P. cookii (Gray in Dieffenbach 1843) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
       |     `--P. longirostris (Stejneger 1893) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--+--P. axillaris (Salvin 1893) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
          |  `--P. nigripennis (Rothschild 1893) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
          `--+--P. solandri (Gould 1844) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
             `--+--P. inexpectata (Forster in Lichtenstein 1844) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                `--+--+--+--P. alba (Gmelin 1789) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |  |  `--P. heraldica BKB15 [=P. arminjoniana heraldica M03]
                   |  `--+--P. arminjoniana BKB15
                   |     `--P. neglecta (Schlegel 1863) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |          |--P. n. neglecta CC10
                   |          `--P. n. juana Mathews 1935 CC10
                   `--+--+--P. cervicalis (Salvin 1891) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                      |  `--P. externa (Salvin 1875) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                      `--+--P. baraui BKB15
                         `--+--P. phaeopygia BKB15
                            `--P. sandwichensis BKB15 [=P. phaeopygia sandwichensis USDI77]

Pterodroma incertae sedis:
  P. atlantica C66
  P. atrata JT12
  P. brevipes JT12
  P. caribbaea Carte 1866 C66 (see below for synonymy)
  P. defilippiana JT12
  P. fuliginosa C66
  P. jugularis CG99
  P. leucoptera (Gould 1844) [=Procellaria leucoptera, Cookilaria leucoptera] CC10
    |--P. l. leucoptera CC10
    `--P. l. caledonica Imber & Jenkins 1981 [=P. (Cookilaria) leucoptera caledonica] CC10
  P. macgillivrayi FP64
  P. occulata M03
  P. pycrofti Falla 1933 [=Cookilaria cookii pycrofti, P. (Cookilaria) longirostris pycrofti] CC10
  P. rupinarum HSS13
  P. ultima JT12

Pterodroma Bonaparte 1856 [incl. Aestrelata Bonaparte 1856, Cookilaria Bonaparte 1856, Hallstroma Mathews in Mathews & Hallstrom 1943, Oestrelata Newton 1870, Oestrelatella Bianchi 1913, Proaestrelata Imber 1985, Rhantistes Reichenbach 1853 non Kaup 1829; Aestrelatidae, Pterodromidae, Rhantistidae] CC10

Pterodroma alba (Gmelin 1789) JT12, CC10 [=Procellaria alba CC10, Bulweria alba CC10, Daptium album CC10, Fulmarus albus CC10, Procellaria (Aestrelata) alba CC10, Pterodroma (Hallstroma) alba CC10; incl. Pt. alba cantonia Mathews 1942 CC10, Aestrelata oliveri Mathews & Iredale 1914 CC10, Pt. oliveri CC10, Procellaria parvirostris Peale 1848 CC10, Aestrelata parvirostris CC10, Oestrelata parvirostris CC10, Pterodroma rostrata parvirostris CC10, Rhantistes parvirostris CC10, O. wortheni Rothschild 1902 CC10]

Pterodroma axillaris (Salvin 1893) BKB15, CC10 [=Oestrelata axillaris CC10, P. cookii axillaris CC10, P. hypoleuca axillaris CC10, P. (Oestrelatella) axillaris CC10, P. (*Proaestrelata) axillaris CC10]

Pterodroma caribbaea Carte 1866 C66 [=Prion caribbaeum Mitchell in Carte 1866 (n. n.) C66, Pt. hasitata caribbaea CG99]

Pterodroma cervicalis (Salvin 1891) JT12, CC10 [=Oestrelata cervicalis CC10, P. externa cervicalis CC10, P. (Oestrelatella) cervicalis CC10, P. (Proaestrelata) cervicalis CC10]

Pterodroma cookii (Gray in Dieffenbach 1843) BKB15, CC10 [=Procellaria cookii CC10, Aestrelata cookii CC10, Bulweria cooki CC10, Fulmarus (*Cookilaria) cookii CC10, Oestrelata cookii CC10, *Rhantistes cookii CC10; incl. Pterodroma cookii orientalis Murphy 1929 CC10, Cookilaria cookii orientalis CC10, Procellaria velox Gray 1844 non Kuhl 1820 CC10, C. velox CC10, Rhantistes velox CC10]

Pterodroma externa (Salvin 1875) BKB15, CC10 [=Oestrelata externa CC10, Bulweria externa CC10, Pterodroma (Hallstroma) externa CC10; incl. Pt. externa tristani Mathews 1931 CC10]

Pterodroma inexpectata (Forster in Lichtenstein 1844) BKB15, CC10 [=Procellaria inexpectata CC10, Aestrelata inexpectata CC10, Bulweria inexpectata CC10, Pterodroma (Oestrelatella) inexpectata CC10, Pt. (Proaestrelata) inexpectata CC10; incl. Pr. affinis Buller 1875 CC10, Oestrelata affinis CC10, Aestrelata fisheri Ridgway 1883 CC10, Oestrelata fisheri CC10, Procellaria gularis Peale 1848 CC10, Aestrelata gularis CC10, Oestrelata gularis CC10, Pterodroma gularis CC10, Procellaria lugens Gray 1844 nec Kuhl 1820 nec Pterodroma lugens Mathews 1936 CC10, Pt. neglus Mathews 1928 CC10, Aestrelata scalaris Brewster 1886 CC10, Oestrelata scalaris CC10, Pterodroma inexpectata thompsoni Mathews 1915 CC10]

Pterodroma lessonii (Garnot 1826) BKB15, CC10 [=Procellaria lessonii CC10, Aestrelata lessoni CC10, Bulweria lessoni CC10, Fulmarus (Astrelata) lessoni CC10, Oestrelata lessoni CC10, Rhantistes lessoni CC10; incl. Aestrelata lessonii australis Mathews 1916 CC10, Pterodroma lessonii australis CC10, Procellaria leucocephala Forster in Lichtenstein 1844 CC10, Aestrelata lessonii leucocephala CC10, Pterodroma lessonii leucocephala CC10, Puffinus sericeus Lesson 1828 CC10, Adamastor sericeus CC10, Procellaria vagabunda Gray 1844 CC10]

Pterodroma longirostris (Stejneger 1893) BKB15, CC10 [=Aestrelata longirostris CC10, Cookilaria leucoptera longirostris CC10, Oestrelata longirostris CC10, Pterodroma cookii longirostris CC10; incl. P. (Aestrelata) cooki masafuerae Lönnberg in Skottsberg 1921 CC10, Cookilaria leucoptera masafuerae CC10, P. leucoptera masafuerae CC10]

*Pterodroma macroptera (Smith 1840) CC10, BKB15, CC10 [=Procellaria macroptera CC10, Oestrelata macroptera CC10; incl. Pt. macroptera albani Mathews 1912 WS48]

Pterodroma macroptera gouldi (Hutton 1869) [=Aestrelata gouldi, Majaqueus gouldi, Oestrelata gouldi, Procellaria gouldii] CC10

Pterodroma magentae (Giglioli & Salvadori 1869) BKB15, CC10 [=Aestrelata magentae CC10, Fulmarus (Astrelata) magentae CC10, Oestrelata magentae CC10]

Pterodroma mollis (Gould 1844) BKB15, CC10 [=Procellaria mollis CC10, Aestrelata mollis CC10, Bulweria mollis CC10, Cookilaria mollis CC10, Oestrelata mollis CC10, Rhantistes mollis CC10; incl. Pterodroma deceptornis Mathews 1932 CC10, Pt. dubius Mathews 1924 CC10, Pt. mollis dubia CC10, Pt. mollis fusca Imber 1985 CC10]

Pterodroma neglecta (Schlegel 1863) BKB15, CC10 [=Procellaria neglecta CC10, Aestrelata neglecta CC10, Bulweria neglecta CC10, Fulmarus (Astrelata) neglectus CC10, Oestrelata neglecta CC10, Pterodroma (*Hallstroma) neglecta CC10; incl. O. leucophrys Hutton 1893 CC10, Pt. neglecta quintali Mathews 1916 CC10, Rhantistes raolensis Bonaparte 1856 (n. n.) CC10, Procellaria raoulensis Salvin 1896 non Rhantistes raoulensis Salvin 1896 CC10, R. raoulensis Salvin 1896 CC10]

Pterodroma nigripennis (Rothschild 1893) BKB15, CC10 [=Oestrelata nigripennis CC10, Cookilaria cookii nigripennis CC10, Oestrelatella nigricollis (l. c.) CC10, Pterodroma (Cookilaria) axillaris nigripennis CC10, P. cookii nigripennis CC10, P. hypoleuca nigripennis CC10, P. (Oestrelatella) nigripennis CC10, P. (Proaestrelata) nigripennis CC10; incl. Cookilaria hindwoodi Whitley 1938 CC10]

Pterodroma solandri (Gould 1844) BKB15, CC10 [=Procellaria solandri CC10, Aestrelata solandri CC10, Cookilaria solandri CC10, Fulmarus solandri CC10, Oestrelata solandri CC10; incl. Cookilaria melanopus Bonaparte 1856 CC10, Pterodroma melanopus CC10, Oestrelata montana Hull 1911 CC10, Procellaria phillipii Gray 1862 CC10, Fulmarus (Astrelata) philippii CC10, Oestrelata philippi CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[C66] Carte, A. 1866. On an undescribed species of petrel from the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 93–95.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Last updated: 4 December 2021.

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