Fluttering shearwaters Puffinus gavia, copyright Francesco Veronesi.

Belongs within: Procellariidae.

Puffinus, the shearwaters, is a genus of petrels that are generally dark brown or black above and paler below, with relatively long, narrow wings and longer bills. The chicks of some species, such as the sooty shearwater P. griseus and short-tailed shearwater P. tenuirostris, are harvested for their meat and/or oil under the name of 'muttonbirds'.

<==Puffinus Brisson 1760 (see below for synonymy) CC10
    |  i. s.: P. antiquus (Milne-Edwards 1874) [=Procellaria antiqua] M02
    |         P. aquitanicus (Milne-Edwards 1874) [=Procellaria aquitanica] M02
    |         P. heinrothi JT12
    |         P. holeae Walker, Wragg & Harrison 1900 [=P. holei] M02
    |         P. nestori Alcover 1989 M02
    |         P. obscurus (Gmelin 1788) [=Procellaria obscura] CC10
    |         P. raemdonckii (van Beneden 1871) [=Larus raemdonckii] M02
    |         P. spelaeus Holdaway & Worthy 1994 CC10
    |--+--+--P. bulleri Salvin 1888 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |  `--P. pacificus (Gmelin 1789) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |       |--P. p. pacificus (see below for synonymy) CC10
    |  |       `--P. p. chlororhynchus Lesson 1831 CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |  `--+--P. tenuirostris (Temminck 1836) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |     `--+--P. griseus (Gmelin 1789) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |        `--+--P. gravis (O’Reilly 1818) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |           `--+--P. carneipes Gould 1844 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |              `--P. creatopus Coues 1864 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    `--+--Calonectris Mathews & Iredale 1915 BKB15, CC10
       |    |--*C. leucomelas (Temminck 1836) [=Procellaria leucomelas, Puffinus leucomelas] CC10
       |    |--C. borealis (Cory 1881) (see below for synonymy) CC10
       |    |--C. diomedea (Scopoli 1769) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
       |    `--C. edwardsii (Oustalet 1883) JT12, CS77 [=C. diomedea edwardsii CS77]
       `--+--+--P. nativitatis Streets 1877 BKB15, CC10 [=P. (Nectris) nativitatis CC10, *Microzalias nativitatis CC10]
          |  `--P. subalaris BKB15
          `--+--+--P. gavia (Forster in Lichtenstein 1844) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
             |  `--P. huttoni Mathews 1912 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
             `--+--+--P. mauretanicus Lowe 1921 BKB15, CS77 [=P. puffinus mauretanicus CS77]
                |  `--P. yelkouan (Acerbi 1827) BKB15, CS77 [=P. puffinus yelkouan CS77]
                `--+--+--P. elegans Giglioli & Salvadori 1869 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |  `--+--P. haurakiensis Fleming & Serventy 1943 BKB15, CC10 [=P. assimilis haurakiensis CC10]
                   |     `--+--P. kermadecensis Murphy 1927 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |        `--P. tunneyi Mathews 1912 BKB15, CC10 [=P. assimilis tunneyi CC10]
                   `--+--+--+--P. lherminieri Lesson 1839 BKB15, CS77
                      |  |  |    |--P. l. lherminieri I92
                      |  |  |    `--P. l. bannermani Mathews & Iredale 1915 I92
                      |  |  `--P. loyemilleri BKB15
                      |  `--+--P. boydi Mathews 1912 BKB15, CS77 [=P. assimilis boydi CS77]
                      |     `--+--P. assimilis Gould 1838 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                      |        `--P. baroli (Bonaparte 1857) BKB15, CS77 [=P. assimilis baroli CS77]
                      `--+--*P. puffinus (Brünnich 1764) CC10, BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                         `--+--P. opisthomelas Coues 1864 BKB15, CC10
                            `--+--+--P. myrtae BKB15
                               |  `--+--P. auricularis BKB15
                               |     `--P. newelli Henshaw 1900 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                               `--+--+--P. persicus BKB15 [=P. lherminieri persicus CS77]
                                  |  `--P. temptator BKB15
                                  `--+--+--P. atrodorsalis BKB15
                                     |  `--P. bailloni BKB15
                                     `--+--P. dichrous BKB15
                                        `--+--P. polynesiae BKB15
                                           `--+--P. colstoni BKB15
                                              `--P. nicolae BKB15

Calonectris borealis (Cory 1881) [=Puffinus borealis, Ardenna diomedea borealis, Calonectris diomedea borealis, Puffinus diomedea borealis, P. kuhli borealis; incl. P. kuhli fortunatus Bannerman 1915] CC10

Calonectris diomedea (Scopoli 1769) CC10 [=Puffinus diomedea M02, Procellaria diomedea CS77; incl. Pu. eyermani Shufeldt 1896 M02]

Puffinus Brisson 1760 [=Cymotomus Macgillivray 1842, Nectris Kuhl 1820, Rhipornis Billberg 1828, Thiellus Bonaparte 1857, Thyellas Gloger 1827; incl. Alphapuffinus Mathews 1914, Ardenna Reichenbach 1853, Cinathisma Hull 1916, Hemipuffinus Iredale 1913, Microzalias Mathews & Iredale 1915, Neonectris Mathews 1913, Paranectris Iredale 1930, Reinholdia Mathews 1912, Thyellodroma Stejneger 1888, Zalias Heine & Reichenow 1890] CC10

Puffinus assimilis Gould 1838 BKB15, CC10 [=*Alphapuffinus assimilis CC10, Pu. affinis (l. c.) CC10; incl. Pu. australis Eyton in Gould 1848 CC10, Alphapuffinus assimilis glauerti Mathews 1937 WS48, Pu. assimilis howensis Mathews 1915 CC10, Nectris nugax Gray 1844 CC10, Pu. nugax Bonaparte 1857 CC10, Procellaria nugax CC10]

Puffinus bulleri Salvin 1888 BKB15, CC10 [=Thyellodroma bulleri CC10, Thyellobroma (l. c.) pacifica bulleri CC10; incl. P. zealandicus Sandager 1890 CC10]

Puffinus carneipes Gould 1844 BKB15, CC10 [=*Hemipuffinus carneipes CC10, Majaqueus carneipes CC10, Nectris carneipes CC10, Priofinus carneipes CC10, Puffinus (Ardenna) carneipes CC10, Pu. carnipes CC10; incl. Nectris carbonaria Mathews 1912 CC10, Pu. carbonaria Gray 1844 CC10, Pu. carneipes carbonarius Mathews 1912 non P. carbonaria Gray 1844 CC10, Hemipuffinus carneipes carbonarius CC10, Pu. carneipes hakodate Mathews 1912 CC10, H. carneipes hakodate CC10, Pu. carneipes hullianus Mathews 1912 CC10, H. carneipes hullianus CC10, Pu. carneipes neozelandicus Mathews 1926 CC10, H. carneipes neozealandicus CC10, Pu. carneipes zealandicus Mathews 1926 non P. zealandicus Sandager 1890 CC10]

Puffinus creatopus Coues 1864 BKB15, CC10 [=Ardenna creatopa (l. c.) CC10, P. (Ardenna) creatopus CC10, P. carneipes creatopus CC10; incl. P. melanoleucus Philippi 1902 CC10]

Puffinus elegans Giglioli & Salvadori 1869 BKB15, CC10 [=Alphapuffinus assimilis elegans CC10, P. assimilis elegans CC10; incl. P. assimilis kempi Mathews 1912 CC10, Alphapuffinus assimilis kempi CC10, P. kuhliana Mathews 1933 CC10, P. assimilis kuhliana CC10, Nectris munda Salvin 1876 non Procellaria munda Kuhl 1820 CC10, P. munda Gray 1844 non Procellaria munda Kuhl 1820 CC10, P. assimilis munda CC10]

Puffinus gavia (Forster in Lichtenstein 1844) BKB15, CC10 [=Procellaria gavia CC10, Aestrelata gavia CC10, Fulmarus (Cookilaria) gavia CC10, Procellaria assimilis gavia CC10, Puffinus assimilis gavia CC10, Pu. gavius CC10, Reinholdia gavia CC10; incl. R. reinholdi byroni Mathews 1913 CC10, Pu. gavia byroni CC10, R. gavia byroni CC10, *Cinathisma cyaneoleuca Hull 1916 CC10, R. reinholdi melanotis Mathews 1916 CC10, R. reinholdi montaguei Mathews 1922 CC10, R. gavia montaguei CC10, Puffinus reinholdi Mathews 1912 CC10, *Reinholdia reinholdi CC10]

Puffinus gravis (O’Reilly 1818) BKB15, CC10 [=Procellaria gravis CC10, Ardenna gravis CC10; incl. Pr. major Faber 1822 CC10, *Ardenna major CC10, Puffinus major CC10]

Puffinus griseus (Gmelin 1789) BKB15, CC10 [=Procellaria grisea CC10, Ardenna grisea CC10, Daption griseum CC10, Neonectris griseus CC10, *Paranectris grisea CC10; incl. Nectris amaurosoma Coues 1864 CC10, Puffinus amaurosoma CC10, Nectris fuliginosus chilensis Bonaparte 1857 CC10, Paranectris griseus chilensis CC10, Puffinus fuliginosus var. chilensis CC10, Pu. griseus chilensis CC10, Nectris fuliginosa Kuhl 1820 CC10, Procellaria fuliginosa Forster in Lichtenstein 1844 nec Gmelin 1789 nec Shaw in White 1790 CC10, Puffinus fuliginosus Strickland 1832 CC10, Nectris fuliginosus CC10, Nectris gama Bonaparte 1857 CC10, Neonectris griseus missus Mathews & Iredale 1915 CC10, Neo. griseus nutcheri Mathews 1916 CC10, Neo. griseus pescadoresi Mathews & Iredale 1915 CC10, Puffinus stricklandi Ridgway in Baird, Brewer & Ridgway 1884 CC10, Paranectris griseus stricklandi CC10, Procellaria tristis Forster in Lichtenstein 1844 CC10, Puffinus tristis CC10]

Puffinus huttoni Mathews 1912 BKB15, CC10 [=P. reinholdi huttoni CC10, P. gavia huttoni CC10, Reinholdia gavia huttoni CC10, R. reinholdi huttoni CC10; incl. P. leptorhynchus Mathews 1937 CC10]

Puffinus kermadecensis Murphy 1927 BKB15, CC10 [=P. assimilis kermadecensis CC10, Alphapuffinus assimilis kermadecensis CC10]

Puffinus newelli Henshaw 1900 BKB15, CC10 [=P. auricularis newelli CC10, P. puffinus newelli CC10]

Puffinus pacificus (Gmelin 1789) BKB15, CC10 [=Procellaria pacifica CC10, Ardenna pacifica CC10, Thyellodroma pacifica CC10]

Puffinus pacificus chlororhynchus Lesson 1831 [=Procellaria chlororhyncha, Thiellus chlororhynchus, Thyellodroma pacifica chlororhyncha, *Zalias chlororhynchus; incl. Puffinus pacificus alleni Mathews 1912, Pu. cuneatus Salvin 1888, Pu. pacificus cuneatus, Thyellodroma cuneata, Pu. pacificus hamiltoni Mathews 1912, Thy. pacifica hamiltoni, Pu. knudseni Stejneger 1888, Thy. cuneata knudseni, Pu. pacificus laysani Mathews 1912, Thy. cuneata laysani, Pu. pacificus royanus Mathews 1912, Thy. pacifica royana, Pu. sphenurus Gould 1844, Procellaria sphenura, Thiellus sphenurus, *Thyellodroma sphenura] CC10

Puffinus pacificus pacificus (Gmelin 1789) [incl. Nectris fuliginosa Gray 1844 non Kuhl 1820, Puffinus chlororhynchus iredali Mathews 1910, Pu. pacificus whitneyi Lowe 1925, Thyellodroma pacifica whitneyi] CC10

*Puffinus puffinus (Brünnich 1764) CC10, BKB15, CC10 [=Procellaria puffinus CC10, *Cymotomus puffinus CC10, *Nectris puffinus CC10, *Rhipornis puffinus CC10, *Thyellas puffinus CC10; incl. Procellaria anglorum Temminck 1820 CC10, Puffinus anglorum CC10, Pu. arcticus Faber 1822 CC10, Pu. puffinus bermudae Nichols & Mowbray 1916 CC10, Pu. manksii Coues 1864 CC10, Pu. mcgalli Shufeldt 1916 CC10, Pu. scotorum Partington 1837 CC10]

Puffinus tenuirostris (Temminck 1836) BKB15, CC10 [=Procellaria tenuirostris CC10, Ardenna tenuirostris CC10, Nectris tenuirostris CC10, Neonectris tenuirostris CC10; incl. Pu. brevicaudus Gould 1847 CC10, Nectris brevicauda CC10, Nectris brevicaudus CC10, *Neonectris tenuirostris brevicaudus CC10, Priofinus brevicaudus CC10, Pu. tenuirostris brevicauda (l. c.) CC10, Puffinus brevicaudatus CC10, Nectris curilica Bonaparte 1857 CC10, Neonectris tenuirostris grantianus Hull 1916 CC10, Neo. tenuirostris hulli Mathews 1916 CC10, Puffinus intermedius Hull 1911 CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Last updated: 4 December 2021.

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