Small dog-cockle Glycymeris modesta, photographed by Graham Bould.

Belongs within: Limopsoidea.

Glycymeris, the dog-cockles, are a group of bivalves found lying unattached on the substrate in shallow seabeds.

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Subcircular to subquadrate, beaks orthogyre to opisthogyre, ligament amphidetic, surface smooth or costate, ventral margins internally fluted.

<==Glycymeris da Costa 1778 [Glycymeridinae] KS02
    |--*G. (Glycymeris) orbicularis (da Costa 1778) [=Arca orbicularis] KS02
    |--G. (Glycymerita Finlay & Marwick 1937) KS02
    |    |--G. (*G.) concava Marshall 1917 KS02
    |    |--G. (G.) gigantica Kanjilal & Srinivasan 2002 KS02
    |    `--G. (G.) selwynensis Woods 1917 F27a, S98
    |--G. (Glycymerula Finlay & Marwick 1937) P61
    |    `--G. (*G.) modesta (Angas 1879) P61
    `--G. (Grandaxinea Iredale 1931) P61
         |--G. (*G.) magnificens P61
         `--G. (G.) laticostata (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) P61

Glycymeris incertae sedis:
  G. arabica (Adams 1870) BD86
  G. cainozoica (Tenison Woods 1877) [=Cucullaea cainoizoica] DK10
  G. capricornea Hedley 1906 H09
  G. cardiiformis (Angas 1879) [=Pectunculus cardiiformis] H09
  G. crebriliratus (Sowerby 1886) [=Pectunculus crebriliratus] H09
  G. fringilla (Angas 1872) [=Axinaea fringilla] H09
  G. halli F27b
    |--G. h. halli F27b
    `--G. h. mistio Finlay 1927 (see below for synonymy) F27b
  G. hedleyi (Lamy 1912) MG-H11
  G. holosericus GW02
  G. huttoni Marwick 1923 [=Pectunculus globosus Hutton 1873 non Sowerby 1850] F27b
  G. insubrica GW02
  G. intermedia (Broderip 1832) [=Pectunculus intermedius] F27b
  G. maccoyi Q72
  G. martini Finlay 1927 [=Axinaea orbicularis Martin 1887 non Arca orbicularis da Costa 1778] F27b
  G. pectunculus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Arca pectunculus] H09
  G. radians M54
  G. queenslandica Hedley 1906 H09
  G. striatularis (Lamarck 1819) MG-H11 (see below for synonymy)
  G. tenuicostatus (Reeve 1843) [=Pectunculus tenuicostatus] H09
  G. vitreus (Lamarck 1819) [=Pectunculus vitreus] H09
  G. waipipiensis W27

Glycymeris halli mistio Finlay 1927 [=G. halli var. intermedia Pritchard 1903 non Pectunculus intermedius Broderip 1832] F27b

Glycymeris striatularis (Lamarck 1819) MG-H11 [incl. Pectunculus obliquus Reeve 1843 nec Defrance 1826 nec Lea 1833 nec Munster 1835 F27b]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 1. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[DK10] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2010. Eocene molluscs from the Merlinleigh Sandstone, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (1): 23–41.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KS02] Kanjilal, S., & M. S. Srinivasan. 2002. New bivalves from the Miocene of Little Andaman Island, Bay of Bengal. Journal of the Geological Society of India 60: 527–536.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[Q72] Quilty, P. G. 1972. The biostratigraphy of the Tasmanian marine Tertiary. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 106: 25–44.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[W27] Waghorn, R. J. 1927. The geology of the Ruakokopatuna Valley, southern Wairarapa. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 226–234.

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