Idalia elegans, copyright Bernard Picton.

Belongs within: Doridina.
Contains: Polyceridae.

The Phanerobranchia are a group of dorid nudibranchs characterised by the inability to retract the gill within a cavity. As this is a plesiomorphic character, the monophyly of the group is uncertain (Valdés 2002). Members of the Onchidoridoidea have a suctorial buccal apparatus whereas the buccal apparatus of Polyceroidea is not suctorial.

Phanerobranchia [Anadoridacea, Anadoridoidea]
    |  i. s.: ‘Doris’ tuberculata Müller 1778 (see below for synonymy) V02
    |         Diaphorodoris Iredale & O’Donoghue 1923 V02
    |           `--D. luteocincta (Sars 1870) V02
    |--Polyceroidea [Polyceracea] BR05
    |    |--Polyceridae BR05
    |    `--Okadaiidae [Okadaiina] BR05
    |         |--Okadaia Baba 1930 BR05
    |         |    `--*O. elegans Baba 1930 BR17
    |         `--Vayssierea Risbec 1928 [Vayssiereidae] BR05
    |              `--*V. caledonica Risbec 1928 BR17
    `--Onchidoridoidea [Onchidoridacea, Onchidoridina] BR05
         |--Akiodoris Bergh 1879 [Akiodorididae] BR17
         |    `--*A. lutescens Bergh 1879 BR17
         |--Calycidoris Abraham 1876 V02 [Calycidorididae BR17]
         |    `--*C. guentheri Abraham 1876 BR17
         |--Corambidae [Corambiadae, Corambida, Corambina] BR05
         |    |--Loy Martynov 1994 [Loyinae] BR05
         |    |    `--*L. meyeni Martynov 1994 BR17
         |    `--Corambe Bergh 1869 [Corambinae] BR05
         |         |--*C. sargassicola Bergh 1871 BR17
         |         `--C. obscura [incl. Doridella batava] CG99
         |--Aegiridae BR17
         |    |--Notodoris Bergh 1875 [Notodorididae, Notodoridinae] BR05
         |    |    |--*N. citrina Bergh 1875 BR17
         |    |    `--N. serenae Gosliner & Behrens 1997 BW09
         |    `--Aegires Lovén 1844 [Aegiretinae, Aegirinae] V02
         |         |--*A. punctilucens (d’Orbigny 1837) [=Polycera punctilucens] BR17
         |         `--A. albopunctatus MacFarland 1905 V02
         |--Onchidorididae [Leptoglossae, Onchidoridae, Pseudodoridacea, Pseudodorididae] BR05
         |    |--Villiersia d’Orbigny 1837 [Villiersiidae] BR05
         |    |    `--*V. scutigera d’Orbigny 1837 BR17
         |    |--Adalaria Bergh 1878 KM17, V02
         |    |    `--A. proxima (Alder & Hancock 1854) B77
         |    |--Onchidoris Blainville 1816 (see below for synonymy) BR05
         |    |    |--*O. leachii Blainville 1816 BR17
         |    |    |--O. aspera R64
         |    |    |--O. bilamellata (Linnaeus 1767) V02 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    `--O. muricata (Müller 1776) F97
         |    `--Acanthodoris Gray 1850 [Acanthodoridinae] BR05
         |         |--*A. pilosa (Abildgaard in Müller 1789) [=Doris pilosa] BR17
         |         |--A. falklandica Eliot 1907 H01
         |         |--A. globosa Abraham 1877 P61
         |         `--A. molicella Abraham 1877 P61
         `--Goniodorididae [Goniodoridinae, Okeniidae] BR05
              |--Ceratodoris Gray 1850 R95 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |--*C. eolida (Quoy & Gaimard 1832) (see below for synonymy) R95
              |    `--*Hopkinsia’ rosacea MacFarland 1905 BR17
              |--Ancula Lovén 1846 [Anculinae] BR05
              |    |--*A. cristata (Alder 1841) [=Polycera cristata] BR17
              |    `--A. gibbosa (Risso 1818) H01
              |--Goniodoris Forbes & Goodsir 1839 BR05
              |    |--*G. nodosa (Montagu 1808) [=Doris nodosa] BR17
              |    |--G. castanea Alder & Hancock 1846 P61
              |    |--G. danielsseni N79
              |    `--G. punctata Bergh 1905 P61
              `--Idalia Leuckart 1828 [=Okenia Menke 1830; Okeniinae] BR17
                   |--*I. elegans Leuckart 1828 [=*Okenia elegans] BR17
                   |--‘Okenia’ aspersa (Alder & Hancock 1845) H01
                   |--‘Okenia’ luna Millen et al. 1994 H01
                   `--‘Okenia’ pellucida Burn 1967 HJ08

Ceratodoris Gray 1850 R95 [=Echinodoris Bergh 1874 R95; incl. Hopkinsia MacFarland 1905 R95, BR05, Hopkinsiella Baba 1938 R95; Hopkinsiinae]

*Ceratodoris eolida (Quoy & Gaimard 1832) [=Doris eolida, *Echinodoris eolida; incl. Okenia plana Baba 1960, Hopkinsia plana] R95

‘Doris’ tuberculata Müller 1778 [incl. D. brittanica Johnston 1838 (n. n.), Archidoris brittanica, D. montagui Johnston 1838 (n. n.)] V02

Onchidoris Blainville 1816 [=Onchidorus; incl. Ancylodoris Dybowski 1900, Lamellidoris Alder & Hancock 1855; Ancylodorididae, Lamellidorididae, Lamellidoridinae, Onchidoridinae] BR05

Onchidoris bilamellata (Linnaeus 1767) V02 [=Doris bilamellata BR17, *Lamellidoris bilamellata BR17; incl. *Ancylodoris baicalensis Dybowski 1900 BR05, O. fusca (Müller 1776) F97]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B77] Bertsch, H. 1977. The Chromodoridinae nudibranchs from the Pacific coast of America.—Part I. Investigative methods and supra-specific taxonomy. Veliger 20 (2): 107–118.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[F97] Folino, N. C. 1997. The role of prey mobility in the population ecology of the nudibranch Cuthona nana (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 17–25.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[H01] Huys, R. 2001. Splanchnotrophid systematics: a case of polyphyly and taxonomic myopia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 106–156.

[KM17] Korshunova, T., A. Martynov, T. Bakken, J. Evertsen, K. Fletcher, I. W. Mudianta, H. Saito, K. Lundin, M. Schrödl & B. Picton. 2017. Polyphyly of the traditional family Flabellinidae affects a major group of Nudibranchia: aeolidacean taxonomic reassessment with descriptions of several new families, genera, and species (Mollusca, Gastropoda). ZooKeys 717: 1–139.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[R95] Rudman, W. B. 1995. The Chromodorididae (Opisthobranchia: Mollusca) of the Indo-West Pacific: further species from New Caledonia and the Noumea romeri colour group. Molluscan Research 16: 1–43.

[R64] Russell, H. D. 1964. New England nudibranch notes. Nautilus 78 (2): 37–42.

[V02] Valdés, Á. 2002. A phylogenetic analysis and systematic revision of the cryptobranch dorids (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Anthobranchia). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 535–636.

Last updated: 28 August 2021.

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