Blarina

Northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda, photographed by Jamie McCarthy.


Belongs within: Soricidae.

Blarina, the short-tailed shrews, is a genus found in eastern North America. Members of this genus secrete a neurotoxic venom from submaxillary glands that can cause pain for several days in humans bitten (Nowak 1999). Morphologically, the species are primarily distinguished by size, with the northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda on average larger than the southern short-tailed shrew B. carolinensis, with Elliot's short-tailed shrew B. hylophaga being intermediate both in size and geographical range. However, substantial overlap in size ranges can occur, and morphological distinction of the species can be difficult (Reilly et al. 2005).

Characters (from Nowak 1999): Head and body length 75-105 mm, tail length 17-30 mm, weight 15-30 g. Upper parts slate-coloured, underparts slightly paler. Body robust; snout pointed; eyes small; ears hidden by fur. 32 teeth, with five unicuspid teeth in upper jaw: the second and third incisors, the canine, a normal premolar and a minute premolar.

<==Blarina Gray 1838 [incl. Anotus Wagner 1855, Mamblarinaus Herrera 1899, Talposorex Pomel 1848] V67
    |--B. brevicauda (Say in James 1823) B75 [=Sorex brevicaudus B75; incl. Galemys micrurus Pomel 1848 G69]
    |    |--B. b. brevicauda GC72
    |    |--B. b. churchi GC72
    |    |--B. b. kirtlandi GC72
    |    |--B. b. minima B75
    |    `--B. b. talpoides GC72
    |--B. carolinensis (Bachman 1837) RM05, B75 [=Sorex carolinensis B75, B. brevicauda carolinensis RM05]
    |    |--B. c. carolinensis RM05
    |    |--B. c. peninsulae RM05
    |    `--B. c. shermani RM05
    |--B. hylophaga [=B. brevicauda hylophaga] RM05
    |    |--B. h. hylophaga RM05
    |    `--B. h. plumbea [=B. brevicauda plumbea] RM05
    `--B. telmalestes GC72

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[GC72] Genoways, H. H. & J. R. Choate. 1972. A multivariate analysis of systematic relationships among populations of the short-tailed shrew (genus Blarina) in Nebraska. Systematic Zoology 21 (1): 106–116.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

Nowak, R. M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed., vol. 1. John Hopkins University Press.

[RM05] Reilly, S. M., R. W. Manning, C. C. Nice & M. R. J. Forstner. 2005. Systematics of isolated populations of short-tailed shrews (Soricidae: Blarina) in Texas. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 887–894.

[V67] Van Valen, L. 1967. New Paleocene insectivores and insectivore classification. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 135 (5): 217–284.

Ochrophyta

Nannochloropsis oculata, from SBAE Industries NV.


Belongs within: Heterokonta.
Contains: Diatomeae, Marista, Chrysomonadea.

The Ochrophyta includes the photosynthetic heterokonts (golden and brown algae, etc.) and their secondarily non-photosynthetic deerivatives. They possess either a single ciliary transition region helix (Phaeista) or lack this helix entirely (Khakista) (Cavalier-Smith & Chao 2006).

Ochrophyta [Chrysomonadida, Chrysophycophyta, Chrysophyta, Dictyochiae, Ochrista]
    |--Khakista [Khakiphytina] C-SC06
    |    |--Diatomeae C-SC06
    |    `--Bolidomonas [Bolidomonadales, Bolidophyceae] C-SC06
    |         |--B. mediterranea C-SC06
    |         `--B. pacifica C-SC06
    |              |--B. p. var. pacifica C-SC06
    |              `--B. p. var. eleuthera C-SC06
    `--Phaeista [Chrysista, Limnistia] C-SC06
         |--Marista C-SC06
         `--Limnista C-SC06
              |--+--Chrysomonadea C-SC06
              |  `--Picophagea C-SC06
              |       |--Picophagus Guillou & Chrétiennot-Dinet 1999 [Picophagaceae, Picophagales] C-SC06
              |       |    `--P. flagellatus C-SC06
              |       `--Chlamydomyxa [Chlamydomyxales] C-SC06
              |            |--C. labyrinthuloides C-SC06
              |            `--C. montana C-SC06
              `--Eustigmatales [Eustigmatida, Eustigmatophyceae, Eustigmatophyta] C-SC06
                   |  i. s.: Vischeria helvetica C-SC06, KI02
                   |         Monodus subterranea KI02
                   |--+--Eustigmatos magna C-SC06
                   |  `--Pseudocharaciopsis minuta C-SC06, KI02
                   `--+--Monodopsis subterranea C-SC06
                      `--Nannochloropsis C-SC06
                           |--N. granulata KI02
                           |--N. oceanica C-SC06
                           |--N. oculata KI02
                           `--N. salina KM03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C-SC06] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2006. Phylogeny and megasystematics of phagotrophic heterokonts (kingdom Chromista). Journal of Molecular Evolution 62: 388-420.

[KI02] Kawachi, M., I. Inouye, D. Honda, C. J. O’Kelly, J. C. Bailey, R. R. Bidigare & R. A. Andersen. 2002. The Pinguiophyceae classis nova, a new class of photosynthetic stramenopiles whose members produce large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. Phycological Research 50: 31-47.

[KM03] Kawai, H., S. Maeba, H. Sasaki, K. Okuda & E. C. Henry. 2003. Schizocladia ischiensis: A new filamentous marine chromophyte belonging to a new class, Schizocladiophyceae. Protist 154: 211-228.

Sorex

Pygmy shrew Sorex minutus, photographed by Pavluvčík.


Belongs within: Soricidae.

Sorex, the long-tailed shrews, is a genus found in most of the temperate and Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, predominately in moist habitats (Nowak 1999). The common shrew Sorex araneus is widespread in northern Europe and northwestern Asia.

Characters (from Nowak 1999): Head and body length 46-100 mm, tail length 25-82 mm, adult weight 2.1-18.0 g. Tail a third to more than half of total length, hairy in the young, naked in old adults. Fur sleek; pelage uni-, bi- or tricoloured, colours varying from tan to black. Body slender; snout long, slender, highly movable, with conspicuous vibrissae. Eyes minute but visible; ears usually projecting slightly above pelage. Five upper unicuspid teeth present, with tips coloured brownish to purplish. Females with three or four pairs of mammae.

<==Sorex Linnaeus 1758 P04 (see below for synonymy)
    |--S. alpinus IT07
    |--S. araneus Linnaeus 1758 KJ08
    |    |--S. a. araneus FK55
    |    `--S. a. tetragonurus Hermann 1780 FK55
    |--S. arcticus B75
    |    |--S. a. arcticus B75
    |    `--S. a. laricorum Jackson 1925 B75
    |--S. arizonae IT07
    |--S. asper IT07
    |--S. bairdii IT07
    |--S. bendirii IT07
    |--S. buchariensis IT07
    |--S. caecutiens IT07
    |--S. cansulus IT07
    |--S. cinereus ANG03
    |    |--S. c. cinereus B75
    |    |--S. c. haydeni Baird 1858 B75
    |    `--S. c. leseurii B75
    |--S. coronatus IT07
    |--S. crassicaudatus T66
    |--S. daphaenodon IT07
    |--S. dispar IT07
    |--S. emarginatus Jackson 1925 MB86
    |--S. excelsus IT07
    |--S. fumeus IT07
    |--S. gaspensis BP87
    |--S. granarius IT07
    |--S. hosonoi Imaizumi 1954 I92
    |    |--S. h. hosonoi I92
    |    `--S. h. shiroumanus Imaizumi 1954 I92
    |--S. isodon IT07
    |--S. jacksoni IT07
    |--S. juncensis BP87
    |--S. kizlovi IT07
    |--S. leucogaster IT07
    |--S. longirostris IT07
    |    |--S. l. longirostris BP87
    |    `--S. l. fischeri BP87
    |--S. lyelli BP87
    |--S. merriami IT07
    |--S. milleri BP87
    |--S. minutissimus I92
    |    |--S. m. minutissimus I92
    |    |--S. m. gracillimus I92
    |    `--S. m. hawkeri Thomas 1906 I92
    |--S. minutus Linnaeus 1766 KJ08
    |--S. mirabilis IT07
    |--S. monticolus IT07
    |--S. nanus IT07
    |--S. oreopolus G69
    |    |--S. o. oreopolus G69
    |    `--S. o. ventralis G69
    |--S. ornatus IT07
    |--S. pacificus IT07
    |--S. palustris ANG03
    |    |--S. p. palustris B75
    |    `--S. p. hygrobadistes Jackson 1926 B75
    |--S. portenkoi IT07
    |--S. preblei IT07
    |--S. pribilofensis BP87
    |--S. pygmaeus T66
    |--S. raddei IT07
    |--S. roboratus IT07
    |--S. sadonis Yoshiyuki & Imaizumi 1986 I92
    |--S. samniticus IT07
    |--S. satunini IT07
    |--S. saussurei G69
    |    |--S. s. saussurei G69
    |    |--S. s. oaxacae G69
    |    `--S. s. veraecrucis G69
    |--S. sclateri BP87
    |--S. shinto IT07
    |--S. sinuosus BP87
    |--S. stizodon BP87
    |--S. sylvaticus CM07
    |--S. tenellus IT07
    |--S. trigonirostris BP87
    |--S. trowbridgii IT07
    |--S. tundrensis IT07
    |--S. ugyunak IT07
    |--S. unguiculatus IT07
    |--S. vagrans IT07
    |--S. veraepacis G69
    |    |--S. v. veraepacis G69
    |    `--S. v. mutabilis G69
    `--S. volnuchini IT07

Inorganic: Sorex minutissimus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87
           Sorex minutissimus protominilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Sorex Linnaeus 1758 P04 [incl. Atophyrax Merriam 1884 V67, Corsira Gray 1838 V67, Homalurus Schulze 1890 V67, Hydrogale Pomel 1848 non Kaup 1829 V67, Musaraneus Brisson 1762 V67, Neosorex Baird 1858 V67, Otisorex De Kay 1842 V67, Oxyrhin Kaup 1829 V67, Soricidus Altobello 1927 V67]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ANG03] Asher, R. J., M. J. Novacek & J. H. Geisler. 2003. Relationships of endemic African mammals and their fossil relatives based on morphological and molecular evidence. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 10 (1–2): 131–194.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[FK55] Felten, H., & C. König. 1955. Einige Säugetiere aus dem Zentralmassiv, Südfrankreich. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 267–269.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[KJ08] Krämer, M. & M. Jentzsch. 2008. Kleinsäuger-Vorkommen aus dem Raum Zeitz—eine vergleichende Studie. Mauritiana 20 (2): 411–427.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

Nowak, R. M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed., vol. 1. John Hopkins University Press.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403–491.

[T66] Tristram, H. B. 1866. Report on the mammals of Palestine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 84–93.

[V67] Van Valen, L. 1967. New Paleocene insectivores and insectivore classification. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 135 (5): 217–284.

Cryptotis

North American least shrew Cryptotis parva, from The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals.


Belongs within: Soricidae.

Cryptotis, the small-eared shrews, is a genus of shrews found in southern North America and northern South America. They are mostly found in forests except for the North American least shrew C. parva, which prefers open grassy fields (Nowak 1999). Cryptotis parva is also the only species of the genus found north of Mexico, with its range occupying Mexico and much of the eastern United States.

Characters (from Nowak 1999): Head and body length approximately 55-100 mm, tail length 12-42 mm, adult weight about 4-7 g. Upper parts brownish or blackish, underparts same colour or paler. Snout pointed, eyes minute, ears inconspicuous. 30 teeth, with four upper unicuspids: the second and third incisors, the canine, and a premolar; unicuspid premolar smaller than canine, usually minute.

<==Cryptotis Pomel 1848 [incl. Brachysorex Duvernoy 1842, Soriciscus Coues 1877] V67
    |--C. parva (Say in James 1823) B75 [=Sorex parvus B75; incl. *C. cinereus C57]
    |--C. avius Allen 1923 [=C. avia] C57
    |--C. celatus Goodwin 1956 G69
    |--C. endersi IT07
    |--C. fossor G69
    |--C. frontalis G69
    |--C. goldmani IT07
    |--C. goodwini IT07
    |--C. gracilis IT07
    |--C. hondurensis IT07
    |--C. magna IT07
    |--C. merus Goldman 1912 C57
    |--C. mexicana IT07
    |    |--C. m. mexicana G69
    |    |--C. m. machetes G69
    |    `--C. m. peregrina G69
    |--C. micrura (Tomes 1862) (see below for synonymy) G69
    |--C. montivagus (Anthony 1921) [=Blarina montivaga] C57
    |--C. nigrescens IT07
    |--C. squamipes (Allen 1912) [=Blarina (Cryptotis) squamipes] C57
    |--C. surinamensis (Gmelin 1788) (see below for synonymy) C57
    `--C. thomasi (Merriam 1897) [=Blarina thomasi] C57
         |--C. t. thomasi C57
         |--C. t. equatoris (Thomas 1912) [=Blarina equatoris; incl. B. osgoodi Stone 1916] C57
         |--C. t. medellinius Thomas 1921 C57
         `--C. t. meridensis (Thomas 1898) [=Blarina meridensis] C57

Cryptotis micrura (Tomes 1862) [=Sorex micrurus non Galemys micrurus Pomel 1848 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.), Blarina tropicalis Merriam 1895, Corsira tropicalis Gray 1843 (n. n.)] G69

Cryptotis surinamensis (Gmelin 1788) [=Sorex surinamensis; incl. Blarina pyrrhonota Jentinck 1910, Cryptotis pyrrhonota] C57

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

Nowak, R. M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed., vol. 1. John Hopkins University Press.

[V67] Van Valen, L. 1967. New Paleocene insectivores and insectivore classification. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 135 (5): 217–284.

Diceratothripina

Male Nesothrips lativentris, from Thrips of California 2012.


Belongs within: Phlaeothripidae.

The Diceratothripina are a group of fungus-feeding thrips characterised by the presence of metathoracic sternopleural sutures and widely separated maxillary stylets (Mound & Palmer 1983).

Characters (from Mound & Palmer 1983): Antennal segment IV with four (rarely two) sense cones. Maxillary stylets widely spaced, usually V-shaped. Metathoracic sternopleural sutures present.

<==Diceratothripina [Diceratothripinae]
    |--Campulothrips Moulton 1944 MP83
    |    `--*C. gracilis Moulton 1944 MP83
    |--Phacothrips Mound 1974 MP83
    |    `--*P. ocelloides (Hood 1950) [=Gastrothrips ocelloides] MM96
    |--Sporothrips Hood 1938 MP83
    |    `--*S. amplus (Hood 1925) [=Adiaphorothrips amplus] MM96
    |--Elgonima Zur Strassen 1972 MP83
    |    `--*E. seticeps Zur Strassen 1972 MP83
    |--Nesidiothrips Mound 1974 MP83
    |    |--*N. alius (Ananthakrishnan 1970) [=Nesothrips alius] MP83
    |    `--N. validus (Bagnall 1921) [=Coenurothrips validus] MP83
    |--Pseudoeurhynchothrips Moulton 1949 MP83
    |    |--*P. bidens Moulton 1949 MP83
    |    `--P. mameti (Priesner 1951) [=Dichaetothrips mameti] MP83
    |--Acallurothrips Bagnall 1921 MP83 [incl. Diopsothrips Hood 1934 MM96]
    |    |--*A. macrurus Bagnall 1921 MM96
    |    |--A. amplus (Faure 1949) [=Pygothrips amplus] MP83
    |    |--A. badius (Faure 1955) [=Pygothrips badius] MP83
    |    |--A. breviceps (Hood 1934) [=Pygothrips breviceps] MM96
    |    |--A. brunneus (Hood 1934) [=Diopsothrips brunneus] MM96
    |    |--A. conifer (Hood 1925) [=Pygothrips conifer] MM96
    |    |--A. fasciolatus (Hood 1952) [=Pygothrips fasciolatus] MM96
    |    |--A. flavus (Hood 1934) [=*Diopsothrips flavus] MM96
    |    |--A. judithae (Faure 1956) [=Lathrobiothrips judithae] MP83
    |    |--A. latus Moulton 1944 MP83
    |    |--A. louisianae (Hood 1936) [=Diopsothrips louisianae] MM96
    |    |--A. mamillicauda (Hood 1954) [=Pygothrips mamillicauda] MM96
    |    |--A. metulicauda (Karny 1923) [=Pygothrips metulicauda] MP83
    |    |--A. noguttii (Kurosawa 1932) [=Pygothrips noguttii] MP83
    |    |--A. quadraticeps (Hood 1952) [=Pygothrips quadraticeps] MM96
    |    `--A. spinicauda (Priesner 1939) [=Pygothrips spinicauda] MP83
    |--Diceratothrips Bagnall 1908 MM96 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*D. bicornis Bagnall 1908 (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |    |--D. bennetti Mound & Palmer 1983 MM96
    |    |--D. cornutus Hood 1952 MM96
    |    |--D. cubensis Hood 1941 MM96
    |    |--D. delicatus Hood 1941 MM96
    |    |--D. garciaamaroae Johansen 1981 MM96
    |    |--D. harti Hood 1912 MM96 [incl. *Megalomerothrips eupatorii Watson 1919 MP83, MM96]
    |    |--D. horridus Priesner 1933 MM96 [=D. (*Endacnothrips) horridus MP83]
    |    |--D. inferorum (Priesner 1933) [=Adiaphorothrips inferorum] MM96
    |    |--D. longipes Hood 1912 MM96
    |    |--D. nigricauda (Hood 1925) [=Pygothrips nigricauda] MM96
    |    |--D. obscuricornis Hood 1941 MM96
    |    |--D. pallidior Priesner 1933 MM96
    |    |--D. picticornis Hood 1914 [incl. D. wolcotti Morgan 1925] MP83
    |    |--D. robustus (Schmutz 1909) MM96 [=*Eulophothrips robustus MP83]
    |    |--D. sakimurai Johansen 1979 MM96
    |    |--D. setigenis Hood 1941 MM96
    |    `--D. validipennis (Hood 1938) [=Gastrothrips validipennis] MM96
    |--Carientothrips Moulton 1944 MP83
    |    |--*C. fijiensis (Moulton 1944) [=Bolothrips (*Carientothrips) fijiensis] MM96
    |    |--C. acti Mound 1974 MP83
    |    |--C. badius (Hood 1918) [=Cryptothrips badius; incl. Elaphrothrips apterus Girault 1928] MP83
    |    |--C. biformis (Moulton 1939) [=Bolothrips biformis] MP83
    |    |--C. capricornis (Mound 1974) [=Bolothrips capricornis] MP83
    |    |--C. casuarinae Mound 1974 MP83
    |    |--C. denticulatus (Hood 1938) [=Nesothrips denticulatus] MM96
    |    |--C. grayi Mound 1974 MP83
    |    |--C. japonicus (Bagnall 1921) [=Cryptothrips japonicus] MP83
    |    |--C. loisthus Mound 1974 MP83
    |    |--C. magnetis Mound 1974 MP83
    |    |--C. miskoi Mound 1974 MP83
    |    |--C. mjobergi (Karny 1920) (see below for synonymy) MP83
    |    |--C. pedicillus Mound 1974 MP83
    |    |--C. pictilis Mound 1974 MP83
    |    |--C. reedi Mound 1974 MP83
    |    |--C. semirufus (Girault 1928) [=Elaphrothrips semirufus] MP83
    |    `--C. vesper Mound 1974 MP83
    |--Neosmerinthothrips Schmutz 1913 [incl. Coenurothrips Bagnall 1921, Galactothrips Moulton 1933] MP83
    |    |--*N. fructuum Schmutz 1913 MM96 [incl. Oedemothrips ceylonicus Karny 1925 MP83]
    |    |--N. affinis (Bagnall 1921) [=Coenurothrips affinis] MP83
    |    |--N. annulipes (Hood 1950) [=Gastrothrips annulipes; incl. Nesothrips milleforme De Santis 1963] MM96
    |    |--N. brevicollis (Bagnall 1921) [=*Coenurothrips brevicollis] MP83
    |    |--N. collaris (Bagnall 1917) MM96 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--N. diversicolor (Moulton 1933) MM96 [=*Galactothrips diversicolor MP83]
    |    |--N. fijiensis (Moulton 1944) [=Gastrothrips fijiensis] MP83
    |    |--N. grandicauda (Priesner 1925) [=Barythrips grandicauda] MP83
    |    |--N. hamiltoni Mound & Palmer 1983 MM96
    |    |--N. hilaris (Priesner 1937) [=Bolothrips hilaris] MP83
    |    |--N. hoodi (Faure 1954) [=Gastrothrips hoodi] MP83
    |    |--N. inquilinus Ananthakrishnan 1960 MP83
    |    |--N. nigrisetis (Hood 1935) [=Gastrothrips nigrisetis] MM96
    |    |--N. parvidens (Hood 1935) [=Gastrothrips parvidens] MM96
    |    |--N. paulistarum (Hood 1950) [=Gastrothrips paulistarum] MM96
    |    |--N. picticornis (Hood 1936) [=Gastrothrips picticornis] MM96
    |    |--N. plaumanni (Hood 1950) [=Gastrothrips plaumanni] MM96
    |    |--N. robustus (Ananthakrishnan 1964) [=Nesothrips robustus] MP83
    |    |--N. varipes (Hood 1950) [=Gastrothrips varipes] MM96
    |    `--N. xylebori Priesner 1935 MP83
    `--Nesothrips Kirkaldy 1907 [incl. Oedemothrips Bagnall 1910, Rhaebothrips Karny 1913] MP83
         |--*N. oahuensis Kirkaldy 1907 MM96 (see below for synonymy)
         |--N. aoristus Mound 1974 MP83
         |--N. brevicollis (Bagnall 1914) (see below for synonymy) MP83
         |--N. carveri Mound 1974 MP83
         |--N. doulli (Mound 1974) [=Rhaebothrips doulli] MP83
         |--N. eastopi (Mound 1974) [=Rhaebothrips eastopi] MP83
         |--N. fodinae Mound 1974 MP83
         |--N. hemidiscus Mound 1974 MP83
         |--N. lativentris (Karny 1913) MM96 (see below for synonymy)
         |--N. leveri (Mound 1974) [=Rhaebothrips leveri] MP83
         |--N. major (Bagnall 1928) [=Rhaebothrips major] MP83
         |--N. malaccae Mound 1974 MP83
         |--N. melinus Mound 1974 MP83
         |--N. niger (Moulton & Steinweden 1932) [=Bolothrips niger; incl. Cryptothrips constans] MP83
         |--N. nigrisetis (Sakimura 1972) [=Rhaebothrips nigrisetis] MP83
         |--N. propinquus (Bagnall 1916) (see below for synonymy) MP83
         |--N. rangi Mound & Palmer 1983 MP83
         |--N. rhizophorae (Girault 1927) [=Cryptothrips rhizophorae] MP83
         |--N. semiflavus (Moulton 1939) [=Bolothrips semiflavus] MP83
         |--N. yanchepi Mound 1974 MP83
         `--N. zondagi (Mound 1974) [=Rhaebothrips zondagi] MP83

Carientothrips mjobergi (Karny 1920) [=Cryptothrips mjobergi; incl. C. australicus Priesner 1928, Bolothrips flavitibia Moulton 1968, C. incisus Girault 1927] MP83

Diceratothrips Bagnall 1908 MM96 [incl. Endacnothrips Priesner 1933 MP83, Eulophothrips Schmutz 1909 MP83, Megalomerothrips Watson 1919 MP83]

*Diceratothrips bicornis Bagnall 1908 [incl. Dice. armatus Bagnall 1910, Dice. hercules Johansen 1979, Dice. persimilis Priesner 1925, Dice. princeps Hood 1934, Dichaetothrips williamsi Karny 1920] MM96

Neosmerinthothrips collaris (Bagnall 1917) MM96 [=Cryptothrips collaris MM96; incl. Gastrothrips dominicanus Hood 1935 MM96, G. fuscicauda Morgan 1925 MM96, Bolothrips marshalli Priesner 1934 MP83]

Nesothrips brevicollis
(Bagnall 1914) [=Oedemothrips brevicollis; incl. Neosmerinthothrips formosensis Priesner 1935, Neos. formosensis  var. karnyi Priesner 1935, Coenurothrips minor Bagnall 1921] MP83

Nesothrips lativentris (Karny 1913) MM96 [=*Rhaebothrips lativentris MP83; incl. Bolothrips australiensis Moulton 1968 MP83, Cryptothrips claripennis Hood 1919 MP83, C. difficilis Bagnall 1921 MP83, Rhaebothrips fuscus Moulton 1942 MP83, Machatothrips ipomoeae Ishida 1932 MP83, Cryptothrips magnus Moulton 1928 MP83, C. seychellensis Bagnall 1921 MP83, Gynaikothrips yuasai Moulton 1928 MP83]

*Nesothrips oahuensis Kirkaldy 1907 MM96 [=N. hawaiiensis (l. c.) MP83; incl. *Oedemothrips laticeps Bagnall 1910 MP83]

Nesothrips propinquus (Bagnall 1916) [=Oedemothrips propinquus; incl. O. propinquus var. breviceps Bagnall 1924, Bagnalliella cestosa Karny 1920, Cryptothrips dimidiatus Hood 1918, Oedemothrips propinquus f. obscuricornis Bagnall 1924, Neosmerinthothrips oleriae Moulton 1949, Bolothrips similis Hartwig 1948] MP83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[MP83] Mound, L. A. & J. M. Palmer. 1983. The generic and tribal classification of spore-feeding Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae: Idolothripinae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (1): 1-174.

Rhus

Smooth sumac Rhus glabra, photographed by Richtid.


Belongs within: Anacardiaceae.

Rhus, the sumacs, is a genus of shrubs and small trees found in subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world. While the fruits of some species are used for spice, others (such as the poison ivy R. toxicodendron) can cause a severe allergic reaction.

Characters (from Flora of China): Deciduous shrubs or trees, polygamous or dioecious. Leaves imparipinnately compound; leaf rachis sometimes winged; leaflets petiolate or sessile, with serrate or entire margin. Inflorescence terminal, paniculate or thyrsoid, floral subtending bracts persistent or deciduous. Flowers functionally unisexual or bisexual, 5-merous. Ovary 1-locular and 1-ovulate; styles 3, often united basally. Drupe globose, slightly compressed, mixed glandular pubescent and pilose, red at maturity; exocarp and mesocarp united; mesocarp glutinous, red.

<==Rhus
    |--R. ambigua [incl. R. toxicodendron var. radicans] LO98
    |--R. antigua GT02
    |--R. caudata H03
    |--R. copallina MS06
    |--R. coriaria R-CT01
    |--R. glabra B75
    |--R. glaucescens BBO01
    |--R. javanica [incl. R. semialata] LO98
    |--R. lancea BBO01
    |--R. mysorensis BBO01
    |--R. problematodes CV06
    |--R. sylvestris [=R. silvestris] LO98
    |--R. toxicodendron C55
    |--R. tripartita RBA00
    |--R. verniciflua LO98
    `--R. volkii CV06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BBO01] Begerow, D., R. Bauer & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. Muribasidiospora: Microstromatales or Exobasidiales? Mycological Research 105 (7): 798-810.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1-184.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[GT02] Gomez, B., F. Thévenard, M. Fantin & L. Guisberti. 2002. Late Cretaceous plants from the Bonarelli Level of the Venetian Alps, northeastern Italy. Cretaceous Research 23: 671-685.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[MS06] Muellner, A. N., V. Savolainen, R. Samuel & M. W. Chase. 2006. The mahogany family "out-of-Africa": divergence time estimation, global biogeographic patterns inferred from plastid rbcL DNA sequences, extant, and fossil distribution of diversity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 236-250.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 522-529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[RBA00] Rifai, L. B., M. Abu Baker & Z. S. Amr. 2000. Ecology, distribution and status of the rock hyrax, Procavia capensis syriaca, in Jordan. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 19-26.

Salix

White willow Salix alba, photographed by Willow.


Belongs within: Salicaceae.

Salix, the willows, is a genus of wind-pollinated trees and shrubs found mostly in arctic to temperate regions.

Characters (from George W. Argus): Shrubs or trees, slightly heterophyllous, clonal or not, clones formed by root shoots, rhizomes, layering, or stem fragmentation; branching sympodial. Stems not spinose. Buds 1-scaled (rarely oily), margins connate into calyptra or distinct and overlapping adaxially, scale inner membranaceous layer usually not separating from outer layer, sometimes free and separating). Leaves deciduous or marcescent; stipules persistent, caducous, or absent (varying in presence and size on early and late leaves); petiole glandular-dotted or lobed distally; (blade often more than twice as long as wide, venation usually pinnate, margins entire, crenulate, crenate, serrate, serrulate, or spinulose-serrulate, teeth gland-tipped). Inflorescences axillary or subterminal, catkins, erect, spreading, or ± pendulous, sessile or terminating flowering branchlets, usually unbranched; floral bract apex entire, erose, bifid, or irregularly toothed; pistillate bract persistent or deciduous after flowering. Pedicels present or absent. Flowers: (sessile), perianth reduced to adaxial nectary (rarely also abaxial nectary, then distinct or connate into shallow cup); stamens 1, 2, or 3-10; filaments distinct or connate; ovary (stipitate or sessile), 2-carpellate; ovules (2-)4-24(-42) per ovary; styles usually connate, sometimes distinct distally; stigmas 2, entire or 2-lobed (less than 2 mm). Fruits capsular, (2-valved, obclavate to ovoid or ellipsoid). Seeds: aril present. x = 19.

<==Salix [incl. Chosenia] T00
    |--S. subg. Salix K07c
    |    |  i. s.: S. babylonica Linnaeus 1753 K05 [incl. S. japonica LO98]
    |    |--S. sect. Salix K07c
    |    |    |--S. alba Linnaeus 1753 K07c
    |    |    |    |--S. a. var. alba V09
    |    |    |    `--S. a. var. vitellina V09
    |    |    |--S. fragilis Linnaeus 1753 K07c
    |    |    |    |--S. f. var. fragilis V09
    |    |    |    `--S. f. var. russelliana V09
    |    |    `--S. × rubens Schrank 1789 K07c [S. fragilis × S. alba K07a]
    |    |         |--S. r. nothvar. rubens V09
    |    |         `--S. r. nothvar. basfordiana [S. alba var. vitellina × S. fragilis] V09
    |    |--S. (sect. Amygdalinae) triandra Linnaeus 1753 K05
    |    `--S. (sect. Pentandrae) pentandra Linnaeus 1753 K07c
    |--S. subg. Chametia K07c
    |    |--S. (sect. Chamaetia) reticulata Linnaeus 1753 K07c
    |    |--S. sect. Glaucae K07c
    |    |    |--S. glauca Linnaeus 1753 K07c
    |    |    `--S. glaucosericea Floderus 1943 K07c
    |    |--S. (sect. Myrtilloides) myrtilloides Linnaeus 1753 K06
    |    `--S. (sect. Retusae) retusa Linnaeus 1763 K07c
    `--S. subg. Vetrix K07c
         |  i. s.: S. helix [S. purpurea × S. viminalis] K07a
         |         S. × smithiana [S. cinerea × S. viminalis] V09
         |--S. sect. Vetrix K07c
         |    |--S. appendiculata Villars 1789 K07c
         |    |--S. atrocinerea Brotero 1804 K05
         |    |--S. aurita Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         |    |--S. caprea Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         |    |--S. cinerea Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         |    |    |--S. c. ssp. cinerea V09
         |    |    `--S. c. ssp. oleifolia V09
         |    `--S. × reichardtii [S. caprea × S. cinerea] V09
         |--S. sect. Arbuscella K07c
         |    |--S. foetida Schleich ex de Candolle 1805 K05
         |    |--S. phylicifolia Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         |    `--S. waldsteiniana Willdenow 1806 K05
         |--S. sect. Daphnella K07c
         |    |--S. acutifolia Willdenow 1806 K07c
         |    `--S. daphnoides Villars 1789 K07c
         |--S. (sect. Hastatae) hastata Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         |--S. (sect. Helix) purpurea Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         |--S. sect. Nigricantes K07c
         |    |--S. mielichhoferi Sauter 1849 K07c
         |    `--S. myrsinifolia Salisbury 1796 K07c
         |--S. sect. Villosae K07c
         |    |--S. helvetica Villars 1789 K07c
         |    `--S. lapponum Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         `--S. (sect. Vimen) viminalis Linnaeus 1753 K07c

Salix incertae sedis:
  S. acuminata Miller 1768 K07b
  S. amygdaloides B75
  S. annularis C55b
  S. arctica Pallas 1788 K07c
  S. anticecrenata [incl. S. anticecrenata mstr. monadelpha] O88
  S. bhutanensis O88
  S. buergeriana LO98
  S. caesia C55a
  S. calyculata O88
  S. caroliniana M83
  S. daltoniana O88
  S. elaeagnos K06
  S. eriostachya O88
  S. hylematica O88
  S. interior B75
  S. jacquiniana C55a
  S. karelinii O88
  S. laurina D37
  S. lindleyana O88
    |--S. l. var. lindleyana O88
    `--S. l. var. microphylla O88
  S. myrsinites C55b
  S. myrtillacea O88
  S. nigra BV06
  S. oreophila O88
  S. ovatomicrophylla O88
  S. pedicellata R-CT01
  S. psilostigma O88
  S. pycnostachya O88
  S. repens Linnaeus 1753 K05
  S. rosmarinifolia K06
  S. sclerophylla O88
  S. sericocarpa O88
  S. serpyllum O88
  S. sikkimensis O88
  S. silesiaca Willdenow 1806 K05
  S. sphenophylla Skvortsov 1966 K07c
  S. subfragilis [incl. S. nipponica] LO98
  S. tetraphylla P03
  S. varians Goeppert 1855 HL08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1-184.

[BV06] Brack, V., Jr., & R. K. La Val. 2006. Diet of the gray myotis (Myotis grisescens): variability and consistency, opportunism, and selectivity. Journal of Mammalogy 87 (1): 7-18.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[HL08] Henniger, M. & R. Leder. 2008. Eozäne Makroflora der Querfurter Mulde. Mauritiana 20 (2): 229-251.

[K05] Kopelke, J.-P. 2005. The species of the Pontania proxima group in Europe (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 85-95.

[K06] Kopelke, J.-P. 2006. Description of the female of Euura myrtilloides Kopelke 1996, with a key to the European species of the atra-group (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 75-84.

[K07a] Kopelke, J.-P. 2007a. The European species of the genus Phyllocolpa, part I: the leucosticta-group (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 75-109.

[K07b] Kopelke, J.-P. 2007b. The European species of the genus Phyllocolpa, part II: the leucaspis-group (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 149-161.

[K07c] Kopelke, J.-P. 2007c. The European species of the genus Phyllocolpa, part III: the species-groups of crassispina, scotaspis, and piliserra (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 163-183.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[M83] Myers, R. L. 1983. Site susceptibility to invasion by the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in southern Florida. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 645-658.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 522-529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183-194.

Williamsiellina

Lissothrips muscorum, from E. H. Strickland Entomological Museum.


Belongs within: Phlaeothripidae.
Contains: Sophiothrips.

The Williamsiellina is a group of thrips primarily associated with mosses. They usually have the maxillary stylets widely separated when retracted (except in two species of Lissothrips); the stylets are retracted deeply in Lissothrips, but are very low in Williamsiella. The maxillary stylets probably retract about halfway into the head in Pueblothrips minuta, which is only known from the type series in which the stylets are probably not in the resting position (Mound & Marullo 1996).

Characters (from Priesner 1960, as Williamsiellina + Lissothripina): Small, with relatively small eyes. Anal tube short.

<==Williamsiellina [Lissothripina] MM96
    |--Sophiothrips P60
    |--Pueblothrips Stannard 1950 P60, MM96
    |    `--*P. minuta Stannard 1950 MM96
    |--Lissothrips Hood 1908 [incl. Trisclerothrips Stannard 1953] MM96
    |    |--*L. muscorum Hood 1908 MM96
    |    |--L. clayae Mound 1989 MM96
    |    |--L. dispar Hood 1954 MM96
    |    |--L. eburifer Hood 1954 MM96
    |    |--L. flavidus Hood 1960 MM96
    |    |--L. furvoviridis (Johansen 1982) [=Trisclerothrips furvoviridis] MM96
    |    |--L. hurricanus (Stannard 1953) [=*Trisclerothrips hurricanus] MM96
    |    |--L. obesus Hood 1950 MM96
    |    |--L. okajimai MM96
    |    |--L. tepoztlanensis Johansen & Mojica 1984 MM96
    |    |--L. uniformis Pelikan 1964 MM96
    |    |--L. xalapaensis Johansen & Mojica 1984 MM96
    |    `--L. zacualtipanensis Johansen & Mojica 1984
    `--Williamsiella Hood 1925 (see below for synonymy) MM96
         |--*W. bicoloripes Hood 1925 MM96
         |--W. brasiliensis (Priesner 1937) [=Phthirothrips brasiliensis] MM96
         |--W. breviceps (Hood 1925) (see below for synonymy) MM96
         |--W. brevisetis (Hood 1950) [=Phthirothrips brevisetis] MM96
         |--W. capitulatus (Hood 1960) [=Lissothrips capitulatus] MM96
         |--W. claripes (Hood 1940) [=Lissothrips claripes] MM96
         |--W. fictiopediculus (Johansen 1983) [=Lissothrips fictiopediculus] MM96
         |--W. johanseni (Mound 1977) [=Phthirothrips johanseni] MM96
         |--W. longiceps (Hood 1960) [=Phthirothrips longiceps] MM96
         |--W. longisetis (Johansen & Mohica 1984) [=Phthirothrips longisetis] MM96
         |--W. morgani (Hood 1941) [=Phthirothrips morgani] MM96
         |--W. muscoaffinis (Johansen & Mohica 1984) [=Microlissothrips muscoaffinis] MM96
         |--W. nemoralis (Hood 1954) [=Phthirothrips nemoralis] MM96
         |--W. ocellatus (Hood 1939) [=Lissothrips ocellatus] MM96
         |--W. pallipes (Hood 1925) [=Lissothrips pallipes] MM96
         |--*Phthirothrips’ pediculus MM96
         |--W. perotensis (Johansen & Mohica 1984) [=Phthirothrips perotensis] MM96
         |--W. tambopata Mound 1989 MM96
         |--W. texoloensis (Johansen & Mohica 1984) [=*Microlissothrips texoloensis] MM96
         |--W. tipitzinus (Johansen & Mohica 1984) [=Phthirothrips tipitzinus] MM96
         |--W. totonacapanus (Johansen & Mohica 1984) [=Phthirothrips totonacapanus] MM96
         |--W. tricosus (Hood 1960) [=Lissothrips tricosus] MM96
         `--W. ventralis (Hood 1954) [=Lissothrips ventralis] MM96

Williamsiella Hood 1925 [incl. Microlissothrips Johansen & Mojica 1984, Phthirothrips Priesner 1933, Prolissothrips Morgan 1925] MM96

Williamsiella breviceps (Hood 1925) [=Lissothrips breviceps; incl. *Prolissothrips stratulus Morgan 1925, Lissothrips stratulus] MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[P60] Priesner, H. 1960. Das System der Tubulifera (Thysanoptera). Anzeiger der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 13: 283-296.

Macrothripina

Ethirothrips virgulae, from here.


Belongs within: Phlaeothripidae.

The Macrothripina is a group of mostly large thrips that is most diverse in the Old World tropics.

Characters (from Mound & Palmer 1983): Antennal segment IV with four sense cones, these sometimes unusually long. Head sometimes with isolated ommatidium-like structure on each cheek. Metathoracic sternopleural sutures absent. Fore-tibia often with tubercle at inner apex. Abdominal tergites each with one pair of wing-retaining setae. Anal tube without prominent lateral setae.

<==Macrothripina [Macrothripinae] MP83
    |--Aesthesiothrips Ananthakrishnan 1961 MP83
    |    `--*A. jatrophae Ananthakrishnan 1961 MP83
    |--Herathrips Mound 1974 MP83
    |    `--*H. nativus (Girault 1928) [=Adiaphorothrips nativus] MP83
    |--Peltariothrips Mound & Palmer 1983 MP83
    |    `--*P. insolitus Mound & Palmer 1983 MP83
    |--Polytrichothrips Priesner 1939 MP83
    |    `--P. laticeps (Bagnall 1915) [=Docessissophothrips laticeps; incl. *P. pilosus Priesner 1939] MP83
    |--Tarassothrips Mound & Palmer 1983 MP83
    |    `--*T. akritus Mound & Palmer 1983 MP83
    |--Ischyrothrips Schmutz 1913 MP83
    |    `--*I. crassus Schmutz 1913 MP83
    |--Macrothrips Bagnall 1908 MP83
    |    `--*M. papuensis Bagnall 1908 [incl. M. dubius Bagnall 1908, M. intermedius Bagnall 1908] MP83
    |--Diplacothrips Hood 1937 MP83
    |    |--*D. borgmeieri Hood 1937 MM96
    |    `--D. piceus Hood 1952 MM96
    |--Dichaetothrips Hood 1914 MP83
    |    |--*D. brevicollis Hood 1914 MM96
    |    |--D. okajimai Mound & Palmer 1983 MP83
    |    `--D. secutor Mound & Palmer 1983 MP83
    |--Celidothrips Priesner 1951 [incl. Ommatidothrips Mound 1970] MP83
    |    |--*C. adiaphorus (Karny 1923) [=Docessissophothrips adiaphorus] MP83
    |    |--C. camelus (Karny 1920) [=Adiaphorothrips camelus] MP83
    |    |--C. dolichos (Hood 1918) [=Cryptothrips dolichos] MP83
    |    `--C. lawrencei (Mound 1970) [=*Ommatidothrips lawrencei] MP83
    |--Diaphorothrips Karny 1920 [incl. Cnemidothrips Priesner 1940] MP83
    |    |--*D. unguipes Karny 1920 [incl. D. spinosus Ananthakrishnan 1959, D. thevetii Ananthakrishnan 1957] MP83
    |    |--D. clavipes Priesner 1940 MP83
    |    |--D. hamipes Karny 1923 [=D. (*Cnemidothrips) hamipes] MP83
    |    `--D. kraussi Sakimura 1979 MP83
    |--Machatothrips Bagnall 1908 [incl. Adiaphorothrips Bagnall 1909, Cnestrothrips Priesner 1932] MP83
    |    |--*M. biuncinatus Bagnall 1908 [incl. M. montanus Priesner 1932, *Adiaphorothrips simplex Bagnall 1909] MP83
    |    |--M. antennatus (Bagnall 1915) (see below for synonymy) MP83
    |    |--M. artocarpi Moulton 1928 MP83
    |    |--M. braueri Karny 1912 (see below for synonymy) MP83
    |    |--M. celosia Moulton 1928 MP83
    |    |--‘Adiaphorothrips’ citritarsus Girault 1928 G28
    |    |--‘Adiaphorothrips’ clavisetae Girault 1926 G26
    |    |--M. corticosus Ananthakrishnan 1972 MP83
    |    |--M. decorus Palmer & Mound 1978 MP83
    |    |--M. diabolus (Priesner 1928) [=Adiaphorothrips diabolus] MP83
    |    |--M. haplodon Karny 1925 [incl. M. braueri var. buffai Karny 1925, M. simplicidens Bagnall 1934] MP83
    |    |--M. heveae Karny 1921 MP83
    |    |--M. indicus Ananthakrishnan & Jagadish 1970 MP83
    |    |--M. lentus Palmer & Mound 1978 MP83
    |    |--‘Adiaphorothrips’ pulchra Girault 1927 G27
    |    |--M. quadrudentatus Moulton 1947 MP83
    |    |--‘Adiaphorothrips’ semifuscipennis Girault 1926 G26
    |    |--‘Adiaphorothrips’ shakespearella Girault 1927 G27
    |    `--M. silvaticus Ananthakrishnan 1972 MP83
    `--Ethirothrips Karny 1925 (see below for synonymy) MP83
         |--E. stenomelas (Walker 1859) (see below for synonymy) MP83
         |--E. acanthus (Hood 1919) (see below for synonymy) MP83
         |--E. adventor (Bianchi 1945) [=Dichaetothrips adventor] MP83
         |--E. agasthya (Ramakrishna 1934) [=Elaphrothrips agasthya, *Elaphridia agasthya] MP83
         |--E. anacardii (Ananthakrishnan 1969) [=*Decothrips anacardii] MP83
         |--E. angusticornis (Bagnall 1924) MM96 (see below for synonymy)
         |--E. australiensis (Moulton 1968) [=Gastrothrips australiensis] MP83
         |--E. barretti (Mound 1974) [=Scotothrips barretti] MP83
         |--E. beesoni (Moulton 1928) [=Dichaetothrips beesoni] MP83
         |--E. brevis (Bagnall 1921) MM96 (see below for synonymy)
         |--E. brevisetosus (Ananthakrishnan & Jagadish 1970) [=Diceratothrips brevisetosus] MP83
         |--E. distasmus (Mound 1974) [=Scotothrips distasmus] MP83
         |--E. dracon (Karny 1920) [=Adiaphorothrips dracon] MP83
         |--E. elephas (Karny 1920) [=Adiaphorothrips elephas, *Scotothrips elephas] MP83
         |--E. fijiensis (Moulton 1944) [=Paracryptothrips fijiensis] MP83
         |--E. firmus (Hood 1952) [=Gastrothrips firmus] MM96
         |--E. giraulti (Hood 1918) [=Adiaphorothrips giraulti] MP83
         |--E. indicus (Bagnall 1921) [=Mesothrips indicus, *Percipiothrips indicus] MP83
         |--E. ‘indicus’ (Ananthakrishnan 1969) non Mesothrips indicus Bagnall 1921 [=*Uredothrips indicus] MP83
         |--E. inermis (Moulton 1944) [=*Paracryptothrips inermis] MP83
         |--E. io (Girault 1926) [=Adiaphorothrips io] MP83
         |--E. latapennis (Moulton 1968) [=*Eurynotothrips latapennis] MP83
         |--E. longisetis (Ananthakrishnan & Jagadish 1970) [=Diceratothrips longisetis] MP83
         |--E. madagascariensis (Bagnall 1936) [=Cryptothrips madagascariensis] MP83
         |--E. obscurus (Schmutz 1913) MM96 (see below for synonymy)
         |--E. sybarita (Mound 1974) [=Scotothrips sybarita] MP83
         |--E. tibialis (Okajima 1975) [=Uredothrips tibialis] MP83
         |--E. tirumalaiensis (Ananthakrishnan 1969) [=Uredothrips tirumalaiensis] MP83
         |--E. uredinis (Ananthakrishnan & Jagadish 1970) [=Diceratothrips uredinis] MP83
         |--E. virgulae (Chen 1980) [=Scotothrips virgulae] MP83
         `--E. vitreipennis (Priesner 1939) [=Scotothrips vitreipennis] MP83

Ethirothrips Karny 1925 [incl. Decothrips Ananthakrishnan 1969, Elaphridia Ananthakrishnan 1964, Eurynotothrips Moulton 1968, Paracryptothrips Moulton 1944, Percipiothrips Ananthakrishnan 1964, Scotothrips Priesner 1939, Uredothrips Ananthakrishnan 1969] MP83

Ethirothrips acanthus (Hood 1919) [=Cryptothrips acanthus; incl. Adiaphorothrips differens Priesner 1928, A. nox Girault 1928, A. sismondini Girault 1926, Cryptothrips sjostedti Karny 1920] MP83

Ethirothrips angusticornis (Bagnall 1924) MM96 [=Mesothrips angusticornis MM96; incl. Cryptothrips latus fijiensis Moulton 1944 non Paracryptothrips fijiensis Moulton 1944 MP83, Neoheegeria hibisci Moulton & Steinweden 1933 MM96, Ethirothrips hibisci MP83, N. longus Moulton 1944 MP83]

Ethirothrips brevis (Bagnall 1921) MM96 [=Adiaphorothrips brevis MM96; incl. Dichaetothrips claripennis Moulton 1934 MP83, Nesothrips diversus Ananthakrishnan 1972 MP83, N. indicus Ananthakrishnan 1968 non Mesothrips indicus Bagnall 1921 MP83, Gastrothrips trinidadensis Hood 1935 MM96]

Ethirothrips obscurus (Schmutz 1913) MM96 [=Ischyrothrips obscurus MM96; incl. Dichaetothrips fungivorus Priesner 1939 MP83, Neosmerinthothrips gloveri Ramakrishna & Margabandhu 1939 MP83, Dich. indicus Ananthakrishnan 1961 MP83, Mesothrips karnyi Bagnall 1924 MP83, Dich. neivei Hood 1940 MM96, Diceratothrips usitatus Ananthakrishnan & Jagadish 1970 MP83]

Ethirothrips stenomelas (Walker 1859) [=Phlaeothrips stenomelas; incl. Diceratothrips brevicornis Bagnall 1910, Liothrips gigas Karny 1913, L. intrepidus Bagnall 1921, Ethirothrips madagascariensis Bagnall 1936 non Cryptothrips madagascariensis Bagnall 1936, Cryptothrips niger Moulton & Steinweden 1935 non Ischyrothrips niger Schmutz 1913, Ischyrothrips niger Schmutz 1913, L. nigricornis Bagnall 1921, Mesothrips setidens Moulton 1928, L. (*Ethirothrips) thomassetti Bagnall 1921] MP83

Machatothrips antennatus (Bagnall 1915) [=Adiaphorothrips antennatus; incl. *Cnestrothrips dammermani Priesner 1932] MP83

Machatothrips braueri Karny 1912 [incl. M. paucidens var. bicolorisetosus Bagnall 1934, M. braueri f. karnyi Priesner 1932, M. multidens Bagnall 1934, M. paucidens Bagnall 1934] MP83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G26] Girault, A. A. 1926. New pests from Australia. V. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 206-207).

[G27] Girault, A. A. 1927. Some new wild animals. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 208-210).

[G28] Girault, A. A. 1928. A prodigeous discourse on wild animals. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 218-220).

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[MP83] Mound, L. A. & J. M. Palmer. 1983. The generic and tribal classification of spore-feeding Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae: Idolothripinae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (1): 1-174.

Mecynothrips

Mecynothrips sp., photographed by Paul Zborowski.


Belongs within: Idolothripini.

Mecynothrips is a Palaeotropical genus of fungus-feeding thrips, characterised by the presence of at least three pairs of wing-retaining setae on each abdominal tergite (Mound & Palmer 1983).

Characters (from Mound & Palmer 1983): Large, dark species; head without complex sculpture. Eyes not prolonged ventrally. Fore-femora of male usually with one or more tubercles on inner margin. Abdominal tergites with three or more pairs of major wing-retaining setae, with anterior pair arising close to tergal antecostal ridge. Anal tube without prominent lateral setae.

<==Mecynothrips Bagnall 1908 (see below for synonymy) MP83
    |--*M. wallacei Bagnall 1908 (see below for synonymy) MP83
    |--M. acanthus (Hood 1918) (see below for synonymy) MP83
    |--M. atratus (Hood 1919) [=Kleothrips atratus; incl. K. (Akleothrips) zuluensis Jacot-Guillarmod 1939] MP83
    |--M. goliath (Priesner 1935) [=Kleothrips goliath] MP83
    |--M. hardyi (Priesner 1928) [=Kleothrips hardyi] MP83
    |--M. kanoi (Takahashi 1937) [=Kleothrips kanoi] MP83
    |--M. karimonensis [=Kleothrips (*Akleothrips) karimonensis; incl. K. karimonensis f. parvidens Priesner 1935] MP83
    |--M. kraussi Palmer & Mound 1978 MP83
    |--M. lacerta (Priesner 1935) [=Kleothrips lacerta; incl. K. (*Synkleothrips) innocens Priesner 1935] MP83
    |--M. priesneri Mound 1971 [incl. M. minor Mound 1971] MP83
    |--M. pugilator (Karny 1913) [=*Phoxothrips pugilator; incl. Elaphrothrips takahashii Priesner 1935] MP83
    |--M. simplex Bagnall 1912 (see below for synonymy) MP83
    |--M. snodgrassi Hood 1952 MP83
    `--M. taiwanus Okajima 1979 MP83

Mecynothrips Bagnall 1908 [incl. Acrothrips Karny 1920, Akleothrips Priesner 1935, Dracothrips Bagnall 1914, Kleothrips Schmutz 1913, Phoxothrips Karny 1913, Synkleothrips Priesner 1935] MP83

Mecynothrips acanthus (Hood 1918) [=Kleothrips acanthus; incl. Acrothrips gargantua Girault 1926, Phoxothrips giganteus Girault 1926, *A. sorex Karny 1920] MP83

Mecynothrips simplex Bagnall 1912 [incl. Kleothrips agama Priesner 1935, *Dracothrips ceylonicus Bagnall 1914, *K. gigans Schmutz 1913] MP83

*Mecynothrips wallacei Bagnall 1908 [incl. M. bagnalli Priesner 1935, M. bagnalli f. imbecilla Priesner 1935, M. magnus Girault 1929] MP83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[MP83] Mound, L. A. & J. M. Palmer. 1983. The generic and tribal classification of spore-feeding Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae: Idolothripinae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (1): 1-174.

Elaphrothrips

Fighting males of Elaphrothrips tuberculatus, with a female guarding an egg-mass, from Crespi (1986).


Belongs within: Idolothripini.

Elaphrothrips is a diverse, primarily pantropical genus of fungus-feeding thrips. Over 100 species are currently recognised in the genus, though some less-studied species may prove to be synonymous (Mound & Palmer 1983).

Characters (from Mound & Palmer 1983): Large, dark species; head without complex sculpture. Eyes not prolonged ventrally. Fore-ocellus anterior to major ocellar setae. Males with pronotum not produced at anterior angles; fore-femora often with a stout, sickle-shaped seta, without tubercle on inner margin. Abdominal tergites usually with two pairs of major wing-retaining setae (one pair in Elaphrothrips antennalis), larger individuals may have several pairs of supplementary sigmoid setae anterolateral to major pairs. Tube without long lateral setae.

<==Elaphrothrips Buffa 1909 MM96 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*E. coniferarum (Pergande 1896) [=Idolothrips coniferarum] MM96
    |--E. acanthomerus Hood 1941 MM96
    |--E. addendus Priesner 1928 MM96
    |--E. aethiopiae Bagnall 1936 MP83
    |--E. affinis (Bagnall 1908) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |--E. africanus (Trybom 1908) [=Idolothrips africanus] MP83
    |--E. albospinosus Moulton 1929 MM96
    |--E. amazonicus Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--E. amoenus Priesner 1935 MP83
    |--E. andrapterus (Priesner 1932) [=*Elaphridothrips andrapterus] MP83
    |--E. angustatus (Bagnall 1910) [=Idolothrips angustatus] MM96
    |--E. angusticeps (Crawford 1910) [=Idolothrips angusticeps] MM96
    |--E. angustifrons (Bergroth 1888) [=Phloeothrips angustifrons] MM96
    |--E. antennalis Bagnall 1921 MP83
    |--E. armatus (Hood 1908) [=Idolothrips armatus] MM96
    |--E. athletes (Karny 1923) [=Kleothrips athletes, E. (*Elaphoxothrips) athletes] MP83
    |--E. aztecus Hood 1941 MM96
    |--E. bagnallianus Priesner 1952 [=E. clarispinis Bagnall 1935 non Priesner 1935] MP83
    |--E. bakeri (Karny 1920) (see below for synonymy) MP83
    |--E. bilineatus Priesner 1933 MM96
    |--E. blatchleyi Hood 1938 MM96
    |--E. borgmeieri Hood 1955 MM96
    |--E. bottegii (Buffa 1909) [=Dicaiothrips bottegii] MP83
    |--E. brachypes Bagnall 1934 [incl. E. jeanneli Bagnall 1935] MP83
    |--E. brachyurus Bagnall 1926 MP83
    |--E. brasiliensis Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--E. breviceps (Bagnall 1921) [=Dicaiothrips breviceps] MP83
    |--E. brunneipennis Bagnall 1935 MP83
    |--E. capensis Faure 1942 MP83
    |--E. carayoni Bournier 1971 MP83
    |--E. championi (Bagnall 1910) [=Dicaiothrips championi] MM96
    |--E. cognatodampfi Johansen 1980 MM96
    |--E. cognatograndis Johansen 1978 MM96
    |--E. congoensis Priesner 1932 MP83
    |--E. conicurus Bagnall 1934 MM96
    |--E. coniger Priesner 1952 [=E. (*Paraclinothrips) coniger; incl. E. coniger f. gynaecoides Priesner 1952] MP83
    |--E. constrictopeltatus Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--E. coreanus Woo 1974 MP83
    |--E. costalimai Hood 1955 MM96
    |--E. curvipes Priesner 1929 [incl. E. karnyi Priesner 1935, E. secus Ananthakrishnan 1973] MP83
    |--E. dampfi Hood 1940 MM96
    |--E. decipiens Priesner 1932 MP83
    |--E. defectus Hood 1941 MM96
    |--E. denticollis (Bagnall 1909) (see below for synonymy) MP83
    |--E. devius Priesner 1952 MP83
    |--E. distans Bagnall 1935 MP83
    |--E. drepanatus (Priesner 1927) [=Dicaiothrips drepanatus] MP83
    |--E. drepanifer (Faure 1925) [=Dicaiothrips drepanifer] MP83
    |--E. edouardi Jacot-Guillarmod 1939 MP83
    |--E. falcatus (Karny 1912) [=Dicaiothrips falcatus] MP83
    |--E. fallax Priesner 1952 MP83
    |--E. faurei Jacot-Guillarmod 1939 MP83
    |--E. femoralis (Bagnall 1918) [=*Klinothrips femoralis] MP83
    |--E. flavipes (Hood 1908) [=Idolothrips flavipes] MM96
    |--E. foveicollis (Bagnall 1908) [=Idolothrips foveicollis; incl. Dicaiothrips grandis Bagnall 1910] MM96
    |--E. fulmeki Priesner 1935 MP83
    |--E. gaboniensis Bagnall 1936 MP83
    |--E. garciaaldretei Johensen 1980 MM96
    |--E. genaspinosus Moulton 1928 MP83
    |--E. gnidiicolus (Hesse 1934) [=Dicaiothrips gnidiicolus] MP83
    |--E. gracilis Moulton 1933 MM96
    |--E. gravis Priesner 1952 MP83
    |--E. greeni (Bagnall 1914) (see below for synonymy) MP83
    |--E. herculeus Johansen 1980 MM96
    |--E. herricki Moulton 1933 MM96
    |--E. impensus Morrison 1958 MP83
    |--E. indigator Hood 1936 MM96
    |--E. insignis Ananthakrishnan 1973 [=E. (*Cradothrips) insignis] MP83
    |--E. insperatus Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--E. insularis Priesner 1928 MP83
    |--E. jacobsoni Priesner 1935 MP83
    |--E. jacotguillarmodi Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--E. laevicollis (Bagnall 1910) [=Dicaiothrips laevicollis] MM96
    |--E. laticeps Bagnall 1935 MP83
    |--E. laticornis Jacot-Guillarmod 1941 MP83
    |--E. lewisi Johansen 1980 MM96
    |--E. longiceps (Bagnall 1908) [=Idolothrips longiceps] MM96
    |--E. longispinis Priesner 1932 MP83
    |--E. mabirensis (Priesner 1925) [=Dicaiothrips mabirensis] MP83
    |--E. macateei Hood 1955 MM96
    |--E. madagascariensis Bagnall 1935 MP83
    |--E. magnus Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--E. mahensis (Bagnall 1921) [=Dicaiothrips mahensis; incl. D. hystrix Bagnall 1921, D. rex Bagnall 1921] MP83
    |--E. malayensis (Bagnall 1909) (see below for synonymy) MP83
    |--E. mantoideus Girault 1927 [=Elaphothrips (l. c.) mantoideus] G27
    |--E. maya Johansen 1986 MM96
    |--E. maynei Priesner 1932 MP83
    |--E. medius Hartwig 1948 MP83
    |--E. microacanthomerus Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--E. morelensis Johansen 1980 MM96
    |--E. neodampfi Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--E. neoleonensis Johansen 1979 (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |--E. neolongiceps Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--E. niger Jacot-Guillarmod 1937 MP83
    |--E. nigricornis (Karny 1912) [=Idolothrips nigricornis] MP83
    |--E. nigripes Jacot-Guillarmod 1937 MP83
    |--E. nitidus (Bagnall 1910) [=Dicaiothrips nitidus] MM96
    |--E. notabilis Ananthakrishnan 1973 MP83
    |--E. oaxacaensis Johaansen 1980 MM96
    |--E. occidentalis Johansen 1980 MM96
    |--E. oculatoides Priesner 1932 MP83
    |--E. oculatus Moulton 1928 MP83
    |--E. orangiae Jacot-Guillarmod 1937 MP83
    |--E. palustris (Hood 1952) MM96 [=*Palinothrips palustris MP83]
    |--E. paradampfi Johansen 1979 MM96
    |--E. parallelus Hood 1924 MM96
    |--E. parvus Priesner 1936 MP83
    |--E. peruviensis Hood 1936 MM96
    |--E. powelli Jacot-Guillarmard 1937 MP83
    |--E. priesneri Bagnall 1926 MM96 [=Dicaiothrips breviceps Priesner 1921 non Bagnall 1921 MP83]
    |--E. procer (Schmutz 1913) (see below for synonymy) MP83
    |--E. propeherculeus Johansen 1980 MM96
    |--E. propinquus (Bagnall 1910) MM96 (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. prospector Hood 1936 MM96
    |--E. pseudotuberculatus Johansen 1980 MM96
    |--E. schotti (Heeger 1852) MM96 [=Thrips schotti MM96, *Dicaiothrips schottii MP83]
    |--E. schoutedeni Priesner 1932 MP83
    |--E. schultzei Priesner 1933 MM96
    |--E. sensitivus Priesner 1929 MP83
    |--E. separatus Priesner 1928 MP83
    |--E. seychellensis (Bagnall 1921) [=Dicaiothrips seychellensis] MP83
    |--E. snodgrassi Hood 1955 MM96
    |--E. spiniceps Bagnall 1932 [incl. E. clarispinis Priesner 1935, E. graveleyi Bagnall 1934] MP83
    |--E. spiniprivus Priesner 1952 MP83
    |--E. spinosus Moulton 1933 MM96
    |--E. stenocephalus (Bagnall 1914) (see below for synonymy) MP83
    |--E. surinamensis Priesner 1925 MM96
    |--E. tener Priesner 1925 MM96
    |--E. tepotzlanensis Johansen 1986 MM96
    |--E. thoreauini Girault 1929 G29
    |--E. transvaalensis Jacot-Guillarmod 1939 MP83
    |--E. tuberculatus (Hood 1908) [=Idolothrips tuberculatus] MM96
    |--E. unicolor Moulton 1933 MM96
    |--E. uniformis Buffa 1909 MP83
    |--E. villai Johansen 1980 MM96
    |--E. vittipennis Hood 1940 MM96
    |--E. zacualtipanensis Johansen 1983 MM96
    `--E. zetetis Hood 1936 MM96

Elaphrothrips Buffa 1909 MM96 [=Elaphothrips (l. c.) G28; incl. Cradothrips Ananthakrishnan 1973 MP83, Dicaiothrips Buffa 1909 MP83, Elaphoxothrips Bagnall 1932 MP83, Elaphridothrips Priesner 1932 MP83, Klinothrips Bagnall 1918 MP83, Palinothrips Hood 1952 MP83, Paraclinothrips Priesner 1952 MP83]

Elaphrothrips affinis (Bagnall 1908) [=Idolothrips affinis; incl. I. assimilis Bagnall 1908, Dicaiothrips distinctus Bagnall 1910] MM96

Elaphrothrips bakeri (Karny 1920) [=Dicaiothrips bakeri; incl. E. bakeri var. depokensis Priesner 1935, E. imitator Priesner 1935, E. mentaweiensis Priesner 1929] MP83

Elaphrothrips denticollis (Bagnall 1909) [=Dicaiothrips denticollis; incl. E. beesoni Ramakrishna 1934, E. mucronatus Priesner 1935, E. productus f. obscuricornis Priesner 1935, E. productus Priesner 1935, E. sumbanus Priesner 1935] MP83

Elaphrothrips greeni (Bagnall 1914) [=Dicaiothrips greeni; incl. D. bouvieri Vuillet 1914, Elaphrothrips micidus Ananthakrishnan 1973] MP83

Elaphrothrips malayensis (Bagnall 1909) [=Dicaiothrips malayensis; incl. D. bruneitarsis Schmutz 1913, Elaphrothrips coronatus Bagnall 1934, D. bruneitarsis var. levis Schmutz 1913] MP83

Elaphrothrips neoleonensis Johansen 1979 [incl. E. bagnalli Johansen 1980, E. guachichilis Johansen 1979, E. lacandonis Johansen 1980] MM96

Elaphrothrips procer (Schmutz 1913) [=Dicaiothrips procer; incl. E. achaetus Bagnall 1934, E. approximatus Bagnall 1934, E. chandana Ramakrishna 1934, Dicaiothrips dallatorensis Schmutz 1913, E. eranthemi Seshadri & Ananthakrishnan 1954, D. novus Schmutz 1913, D. proximus Bagnall 1914] MP83

Elaphrothrips propinquus (Bagnall 1910) MM96 [=Dicaiothrips propinquus MM96; incl. D. brevicornis Bagnall 1910 MM96, Elaphrothrips brevicornis MP83]

Elaphrothrips stenocephalus (Bagnall 1914) [=Dicaiothrips stenocephalus; incl. E. atrispinus Bagnall 1935, E. nigrospinosus Bagnall 1932, E. variispinis Bagnall 1935] MP83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Crespi, B. J. 1986. Size assessment and alternative fighting tactics in Elaphrothrips tuberculatus (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Animal Behaviour 34: 1324-1335.

[G27] Girault, A. A. 1927. A discourse on wild animals. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 216-217).

[G28] Girault, A. A. 1928. Some Insecta and a new All Highness. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 225-228).

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. Description of a case of lunacy in Homo and of six-legged articulates. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 262-265).

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[MP83] Mound, L. A. & J. M. Palmer. 1983. The generic and tribal classification of spore-feeding Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae: Idolothripinae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (1): 1-174.