Three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, copyright Jack Wolf.

Belongs within: Cottioidei.

The Gasterosteidae are a group of fishes with subthoracic pelvic fins placed below the pectoral fins.

Gasterosteidae [Aulorhynchidae, Gasterosteales, Protosyngnathidae]
    |--Hypoptychus [Hypoptychidae] ND13
    |    `--H. dybowskii ND13
    `--+--Aulorhynchus flavidus ND13
       `--+--Aulichthys japonicus ND13
          `--+--Apeltes quadracus (Mitchill 1815) ND13, K02
             `--Gasterosteus Linnaeus 1758 ND13, L58
                  |--G. aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 K02
                  |    |--G. a. aculeatus I92
                  |    |--G. a. microcephalus (Girard 1854) I92
                  |    `--G. a. williamsoni USDI77
                  |--G. apodus G88
                  |--G. doryssus BL87
                  |--G. occidentalis Linnaeus 1758 L58
                  |--G. pungitius Linnaeus 1758 L58
                  |--G. spinachia Linnaeus 1758 L58
                  |--G. spinarella Linnaeus 1758 L58
                  `--G. wheatlandi Putnam 1867 K02

Gasterosteidae incertae sedis:
  Culaea inconstans K02
  Spinachia spinachia (Linnaeus 1758) LD09
  Pungitius K02
    |--P. hexacanthus (Schtylko 1934) P93
    |--P. kaibarae (Tanaka 1915) I92
    |--P. pungitius K02
    |    |--P. p. pungitius K02
    |    `--P. p. occidentalis (Cuvier 1829) K02
    |--P. sinensis K02
    `--P. tymensis (Nikolsky 1889) I92 [=P. pungitius tymensis T90]
  Protosyngnathus sumatrensis von der Marck 1876 P93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BL87] Bell, M. A., & P. Legendre. 1987. Multicharacter chronological clustering in a sequence of fossil sticklebacks. Systematic Zoology 36 (1): 52–61.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K02] Krueger, W. H. 2002. Sticklebacks. Family Gasterosteidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 312–321. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[LD09] Li, B., A. Detta├», C. Cruaud, A. Couloux, M. Desoutter-Meniger & G. Lecointre. 2009. RNF213, a new nuclear marker for acanthomorph phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50: 345–363.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[ND13] Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, R. I. Eytan, B. P. Keck, W. L. Smith, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, S. A. Price, F. T. Burbrink, M. Friedman & P. C. Wainwright. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (31): 12738–12743.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[T90] Taguchi, S. 1990. Nihon no Sakana. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[USDI77] United States Department of the Interior. 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

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