Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, copyright David J. Stang.

Belongs within: Clupeiformes.
Contains: Anodontostomatini, Alosa (Alosa), Sardinella, Clupea.

The Clupeidae, herrings, are a group of mostly small fishes that are most diverse in coastal marine waters with some species entering fresh water.

Characters (from Munroe et al. 1999): Typically fusiform fishes, oval in cross-section, and sometimes strongly compressed; complete series of scutes along abdomen (pelvic scute always present); mouth terminal, usually with two supramaxillae, and small or minute jaw teeth. No spiny rays in dorsal fin; single dorsal fin, which is short and near midpoint of body. Pectoral fins set low on body; pelvic fins just anterior to, below, or just posterior to dorsal-fin base; anal fin short (usually less than 28 soft rays) with origin well posterior to vertical through base of posteriormost dorsal-fin ray; caudal fin always deeply forked. Scales cycloid, adherent and of moderate size (about 35 to 68 in lateral series). Eyelids usually with vertical opening in middle. Lateral line absent. Scales without posterior striations. Colour typically blue-green on back and silvery on flanks; with variable darker markings including spot behind gill cover, spots along flanks, spot at dorsal-fin origin, and dark pigmentation on part of dorsal, pectoral, anal, and caudal fins.

    |--Pellonulinae MWN99
    |    |--Pellonula leonensis EA03
    |    |--Clupeichthys MWN99
    |    |--Hyperlophus MWN99
    |    |    |--H. translucidus McCulloch 1917 MWN99
    |    |    `--H. vittatus (Castelnau 1875) MWN99
    |    `--Corica MWN99
    |         |--C. laciniata Fowler 1935 MWN99
    |         `--C. soborna Hamilton-Buchanan 1822 MWN99
    |--Dorosomatinae [Dorosomidae] MWN99
    |    |--Anodontostomatini NR73
    |    |--Clupanodontini [Clupanodontidae] NR73
    |    |    |--Konosirus Jordan & Snyder 1900 [=Nealosa Herre & Myers 1931] NR73
    |    |    |    `--*K. punctatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) NR73, MWN99 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--Clupanodon Lacepède 1803 [=Thrissa Rafinesque 1815; Clupanodontidae, Clupanodontini] NR73
    |    |         |--*C. thrissa (Linnaeus 1758) NR73 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         |--C. oglina (Lesueur 1818) [=Megalops oglina] NR73
    |    |         `--C. pseudohispanicus F16
    |    `--Dorosoma Rafinesque 1820 [Dorosomatini] NR73
    |         |--D. (Dorosoma) NR73
    |         |    |--D. (D.) cepedianum (Lesueur 1818) [=Megalops cepediana; incl. *D. notata Rafinesque 1820] NR73
    |         |    |--D. (D.) anale Meek 1904 NR73
    |         |    |--D. (D.) chavesi Meek 1907 NR73
    |         |    `--D. (D.) smithi Hubbs & Miller 1941 NR73
    |         `--D. (Signalosa Evermann & Kendall 1898) NR73
    |              `--D. (S.) petenense (Günther 1866) (see below for synonymy) NR73
    |--Alosinae MWN99
    |    |--Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829) MWN99 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Tenualosa MWN99
    |    |    |--T. ilisha (Hamilton-Buchanan 1822) MWN99 [=Hilsa ilisha B96]
    |    |    |--T. macrura (Bleeker 1852) [=Alausa macrurus, Hilsa macrura, Macrura macrura] MWN99
    |    |    |--T. reevesii (Richardson 1846) (see below for synonymy) MWN99
    |    |    |--T. thibaudeaui (Durand 1940) MWN99
    |    |    `--T. toli (Valenciennes 1847) [=Hilsa toli; incl. Alausa ctenolepis Bleeker 1852] MWN99
    |    `--Alosa [incl. Caspialosa] FWA06
    |         |  i. s.: A. alabamae B96
    |         |         A. finta P61
    |         |         ‘Caspialosa’ kessleri P61
    |         |           |--C. k. kessleri P61
    |         |           `--C. k. volgensis P61
    |         |         A. pontica (Eichwald 1838) SE08
    |         |--A. (Alosa) FWA06
    |         `--A. (Pomolobus) FWA06
    |              |--A. (P.) aestivalis (Mitchill 1814) FWA06, M02
    |              |--A. (P.) chrysochloris FWA06
    |              |--A. (P.) mediocris (Mitchill 1814) FWA06, M02
    |              `--A. (P.) pseudoharengus (Wilson 1811) FWA06, M02
    `--Clupeinae MWN99
         |--Sardinella MWN99
         |--Clupea L58
         |--Escualosa MWN99
         |    |--E. elongata Wongratana 1983 MWN99
         |    `--E. thoracata (Valenciennes 1847) MWN99 (see below for synonymy)
         |--Amblygaster MWN99
         |    |--A. clupeoides Bleeker 1849 [=Sardinella clupeoides] MWN99
         |    |--A. leiogaster (Valenciennes 1847) (see below for synonymy) MWN99
         |    |--A. perforatum JR10
         |    `--A. sirm (Walbaum 1792) MWN99 (see below for synonymy)
         |--Sardinops MWN99
         |    |--S. caerulea CH97
         |    |--S. melanostictus IM04
         |    |--S. neopilchardus (Steindachner 1879) MWN99
         |    |--S. ocellata W81
         |    `--S. sagax B96
         `--Herklotsichthys MWN99
              |--H. blackburni (Whitley 1948) MWN99
              |--H. castelnaui (Ogilby 1897) MWN99
              |--H. collettei Wongratana 1987 MWN99
              |--H. dispilonotus (Bleeker 1852) [=Harengula dispilonotus] MWN99
              |--H. gotoi Wongratana 1983 MWN99
              |--H. koningsbergeri (Weber & de Beaufort 1912) [incl. Harengula maccullochi Whitley 1931] MWN99
              |--H. lippa (Whitley 1931) MWN99
              |--H. punctatus MWN99
              `--H. quadrimaculatus (Rüppell 1837) MWN99

Clupeidae incertae sedis:
  Sprattus sprattus B96
  Palonia castelnaui B96
  Amazonsprattus scintilla B96
  Ethmalosa fimbriata EA03
  Ornategulum W79
  Horaclupea G88
  Opisthonema Gill 1862 M02, BR05
    `--O. oglinum (LeSueur 1818) M02
  Etrumeus M02
    |--E. teres (DeKay 1842) M02
    `--E. whiteheadi M02
  Clupeoides M58
    |--C. multispinis Hardenberg 1941 M58
    `--C. papuensis (Ramsay & Douglas-Ogilby 1886) [=Corica papuensis] M58
  Kowala venulosa (Weber & de Beaufort 1912) [=Clupeoides venulosus] M58
  Sardinia YT27
    |--S. neopilchardus Steindachner 1879 (see below for synonymy) YT27
    `--S. pilchardus BM03
  Brevoortia M02
    |--B. gunteri P61
    |--B. patronus M02
    |--B. smithi M02
    `--B. tyrannus (Latrobe 1802) M02
  Harengula YT27
    |--H. abbreviata G75
    |--H. antipoda (Hector 1872) (see below for synonymy) YT27
    |--H. humeralis F15
    |--H. koningsbergeri (Weber & de Beaufort 1912) [=Clupea (Harengula) koningsbergeri] M58
    |--H. macrolepis G75
    |--H. macrophthalmus F15
    |--H. ovalis (Bennett 1830) (see below for synonymy) M58
    `--H. schrammii (Bleeker 1849) [=Alausa schrammii] M58
  Sierrathrissa leonensis MWN99
  Thrattidion noctivagus MWN99
  Knightia vetusta Grande 1982 P93
  Limnothrissa B50
  Stolothrissa B50

Inorganic: Harengula zunsai minilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87

Amblygaster leiogaster (Valenciennes 1847) [=Sardinella leiogaster; incl. Clupea okinawensis Kishinouye 1908] MWN99

Amblygaster sirm (Walbaum 1792) MWN99 [=Clupea sirm M58, Sardinella sirm MWN99; incl. Sardinops dakini Whitley 1937 MWN99, Sardinella leiogastroides Bleeker 1854 MWN99, C. pinguis Günther 1872 MWN99, Harengula pinguis M58]

*Clupanodon thrissa (Linnaeus 1758) NR73 [=Clupea thrissa M58, Dorosoma thrissa NR73, Konosirus thrissa JR10, Meletta thryssa NR73, *Thrissa thrissa NR73; incl. Clupanodon haihoensis Oshima 1926 MWN99, Chatoessus maculatus Richardson 1846 MWN99, Dorosoma maculatum NR73, D. maculatus NR73, Chatoessus osbeckii Valenciennes 1848 NR73, Clupanodon osbeckii NR73, Dorosoma osbeckii NR73, Clupea triza Linnaeus 1758 MWN99, Dorosoma triza NR73]

Dorosoma (Signalosa) petenense (Günther 1866) [=Meletta petenensis, Signalosa petenensis; incl. *S. atchafalayae Evermann & Kendall 1898] NR73

Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847) MWN99 [incl. Clupea coval Cuvier 1829 M58, Kowala coval MWN99, C. huae Tirant 1883 MWN99, Meletta lile Valenciennes 1847 MWN99, C. macrolepis Steindachner 1879 MWN99]

Harengula antipoda (Hector 1872) [=Clupea spratus var. antipodum, Amblygaster antipodus, C. antipoda; incl. C. holodon Regan 1916] YT27

Harengula ovalis (Bennett 1830) [=Clupea ovalis; incl. C. kunzei Macleay 1880, Sardinella kunzei, C. moluccensis Günther 1880, C. (Harengula) moluccensis, Harengula punctata Whitley 1927, C. venenosa Meyer 1885] M58

Hilsa kelee (Cuvier 1829) MWN99 [=Macrura kelee MWN99; incl. Alosa brevis Bleeker 1848 MWN99, M. brevis M58, Clupea durbanensis Regan 1906 MWN99, M. durbanensis MWN99, Alausa kanagurta Bleeker 1852 MWN99, Hilsa kanagurta MWN99, Alosa malayana Bleeker 1866 MWN99, Clupea platygaster Günther 1868 MWN99]

*Konosirus punctatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) NR73, MWN99 [=Chatoessus punctatus NR73, Clupanodon punctata NR73, Cl. punctatus NR73, Dorosoma punctatum NR73; incl. Ch. aquosus Richardson 1846 (n. o.) NR73]

Sardinia neopilchardus Steindachner 1879 [=Clupanodon neopilchardus, Clupea neopilchardus, Amblygaster neopilchardus] YT27

Tenualosa reevesii (Richardson 1846) [=Hilsa reevesii, Macrura reevesii; incl. Clupea sinensis Linnaeus 1758 (n. d.)] MWN99

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[YT27] Young, M., & G. M. Thomson. 1927. Occurrence of pilchards and sprats in New Zealand seas. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 314–319.

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