Southern ostrich Struthio camelus australis female with chicks, copyright Bernard Dupont.

Belongs within: Palaeognathae.

The genus Struthio includes the ostrich S. camelus of Africa and its fossil relatives. The ostrich is readily distinguished from other living birds by its gigantic size and the presence of only two toes on the foot.

<==Struthio Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy) M02
    |--S. americanus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--S. anderssoni VR72
    |--S. asiaticus Milne-Edwards 1871 M02
    |--S. camelus Linnaeus 1758 C04
    |    |--S. c. camelus [incl. S. camelus spatzi Stresemann 1926] CS77
    |    |--S. c. australis Gurney 1868 CS77
    |    |--S. c. massaicus RN72
    |    |--S. c. molybdophanes RN72
    |    `--S. c. syriacus Rothschild 1919 CS77
    |--S. casuarius Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--S. chersonensis (Brandt 1873) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |--S. coppensi Mourer-Chauviré et al. 1996 M09
    |--S. cucullatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--S. karatheodoris Forsyth Major 1888 M02
    |--S. oldawayi VR72
    `--S. wimani VR72

Inorganic: Struthio camelus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Struthio Linnaeus 1758 [incl. Pachystruthio Kretzoi 1954, Palaeostruthio Burčak-Abramovič 1953, Struthiolithus Brandt 1873; Struthiolithidae, Struthionidae] M02

Struthio chersonensis (Brandt 1873) [=*Struthiolithus chersonensis; incl. S. adzalycensis Roščin 1962, S. alexejevi Roščin 1962, S. brachydactylus Burčak-Abramovič 1939, S. novorossicus Alekseev 1916, S. orlovi Kuročkin & Langu 1970, S. (*Pachystruthio) pannonicus Kretzoi 1954, *Palaeostruthio sternatus Burčak-Abramovič 1953] M02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C04] Clarke, J. A. 2004. Morphology, phylogenetic taxonomy, and systematics of Ichthyornis and Apatornis (Avialae: Ornithurae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 286: 1–179.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. Blandford Press: London.

[VR72] Vickers Rich, P. 1972. A fossil avifauna from the Upper Miocene Beglia Formation of Tunisia. Notes du Service Géologique 35: 29–66.

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