Aulaciformes

Aulacus striatus, copyright Jesper Lund.


Belongs within: Evanioidea.
Contains: Gasteruption.

The Aulaciformes are a clade of parasitoid or larval predatory wasps characterised by the absence of the jugal lobe in the hind wing, fusion of the first and second metasomal terga, sexually dimorphic antennal segmentation, and elongate propleuron, and rigid attachment of the pronotum and mesepisternum (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Aulaciformes GE05
    |--Manlaya R02 [Baissidae GE05, Manlayinae]
    |    `--M. laevinota Rasnitsyn 1986 RJ93
    `--+--Aulacidae GE05
       |    |--Pristaulacus S96
       |    |    |--P. bilobatus S96
       |    |    |--P. canadensis S96
       |    |    |--P. fasciatus S96
       |    |    |--P. flavicrurus S96
       |    |    |--P. niger S96
       |    |    |--P. resutorivorus S96
       |    |    |--P. rufitarsis S96
       |    |    |--P. stigmaterus S96
       |    |    |--P. strangaliae HR11
       |    |    `--P. violaceus S96
       |    |--Aulacostethus apicalis R70
       |    |--Xuaulacites Hong 2002 H02
       |    |    `--*X. fushunensis Hong 2002 H02
       |    `--Aulacus R70
       |         |--A. aneurus S96
       |         |--A. brevicaudus S96
       |         |--A. burquei PK17
       |         |--A. digitalis S96
       |         |--A. dispilis S96
       |         |--A. fusicornis R70
       |         |--A. impolitus Smith 1991 S96
       |         |--A. lovei S96
       |         |--A. pallipes S96
       |         |--A. schiffi Smith 1996 S96
       |         `--A. striatus A71
       `--Gasteruptiidae [Gasteruptionidae, Kotujellidae] GE05
            |  i. s.: Tillywhimia R02
            |         Odontofoenus R70
            |--Kojutellitinae GE05
            |--Gasteruption N91
            `--Hyptiogastrinae GE05
                 |--Hyptiogaster thoracicus (Guérin-Méneville 1844) [=Foenus thoracicus] P57
                 |--Crassifoenus N91
                 |--Aulacofoenus N91
                 `--Eufoenus N91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P57] Pasteels, J. J. 1957. Revision du genre Gasteruption (Hymenoptera, Evanoidea, Gasteruptionidae). Espèces australiennes. Mémoires, Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, sér. 2, 56: 1–125.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Vespidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hymenoptera Linné, 1758 (=Vespida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 242–254. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Aulacidae (Hymenoptera) in the mid-Atlantic states, with a key to species of eastern North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 274–291.

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