Tipula oleracea, copyright David Nicholls.

Belongs within: Tipulidae.

The Tipulinae are a group of mostly large crane flies, with wing lengths commonly over 10 mm. The legs are particularly long and slender in members of the genera Dolichopeza, Megistocera and Brachypremna; other genera have stouter albeit still long legs (Alexander & Byers 1981).

Characters (from Alexander & Byers 1981): Size large; body lenght commonly over 8–10 mm; wing commonly over 10 mm, usually much larger. Terminal segment of palpus elongate; nasus usually distinct. Flagellum commonly with eleven segments. Wing with Sc1 usually atrophied or incomplete; CuA slightly constricted at branching of CuA1 and CuA2. Larva with spiracular disc bordered by six (rarely eight) usually subconical lobes usually arranged with two dorsally, two dorsolaterally, and two below spiracles; these lobes sometimes short and blunt or sclerotised and hook-like.

<==Tipulinae [Tipulini] AB81
    |--Megistocera longipennis AB81
    |--Brachypremna dispellens AB81
    |--Pselliophora margarita G09
    |--Clytocosma helmsi CM91
    |--Ptilogyna ramicornis CM91
    |--Stygeropsis A16
    |--Plusiomyia CM70
    |--Phymatopsis CM70
    |--Macromastix CM70
    |--Holorusia AB81
    |    |--H. hespera G09
    |    `--H. rubiginosa AB81
    |--Dolichopeza AB81
    |    |--D. americana WT11
    |    `--D. subalbipes TW05
    |--Prionocera AB81
    |    |--P. dimidiata AB81
    |    |--P. gracilistyla HP68
    |    `--P. parrii AB81
    |--Ischnotoma G09
    |    |  i. s.: I. eburnea G09
    |    |         I. rubriventris CM91
    |    |--I. (Ischnotoma) fagetorum G09
    |    |--I. (Icriomastix) jujuyensis G09
    |    `--I. (Neotipula) maya G09
    |--Ctenophora AB81
    |    |--C. apicata AB81
    |    |--C. (Tanyptera) dorsalis AB81
    |    `--C. (Phoroctenia) vittata AB81
    |         |--C. v. vittata AB81
    |         `--C. v. angustipennis AB81
    |--Ozodicera G09
    |    |--O. (Ozodicera) G09
    |    |    |--O. (O.) cinereipennis G09
    |    |    `--O. (O.) eurystyla G09
    |    `--O. (Dihexaclonus) G09
    |         |--O. (D.) macracantha G09
    |         `--O. (D.) panamensis G09
    |--Zelandotipula G09
    |    |--Z. associans G09
    |    |--Z. furcifera G09
    |    |--Z. gracilipes G09
    |    |--Z. laevis G09
    |    |--Z. novarae M83
    |    `--Z. sinuosa G09
    |--Leptotarsus [incl. Longurio] AB81
    |    |  i. s.: L. imperatorius CM91
    |    |         L. testaceus AB81
    |    |--L. (Pehlkea) G09
    |    |    |--L. (P.) colombianus G09
    |    |    `--L. (P.) regina G09
    |    `--L. (Tanypremna) G09
    |         |--L. (T.) incompletus G09
    |         `--L. (T.) opilio G09
    |--Nephrotoma Meigen 1803 [incl. Pachyrrhina Macquart 1834, Pales Meigen 1800 (n. n.)] A16
    |    |--*N. dorsalis A16
    |    |--N. australasiae ZS10
    |    |--‘Pachyrrhina’ crocata K01
    |    |--N. eucera [=Pachyrrhina eucera] A16
    |    |--N. ferruginea AB81
    |    |--N. flavescens V09
    |    |--‘Pachyrrhina’ histrio K01
    |    |--N. incurva A16
    |    |--N. lugens A16
    |    |--N. macrocera A16
    |    |--N. pedunculata A16
    |    |--N. penumbra Alexander 1916 A16
    |    |--‘Pachyrrhina’ scurra K01
    |    `--N. vittula A16
    `--Tipula Linnaeus 1758 A16
         |  i. s.: T. alta Doane 1912 A16
         |         T. angulata Loew 1864 [incl. T. decora Doane 1901] A16
         |         T. angustipennis Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. annulata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. apicalis Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. appendiculata Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. atrata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. australis Doane 1901 A16
         |         T. balioptera Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. bella Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. besselsi Osten Sacken 1876 A16
         |         T. bicornis Forbes 1891 A16
         |         T. brevicornis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. californica [=Pachyrrhina californica] A16
         |         T. ‘californica’ Doane 1912 non Pachyrrhina californica A16
         |         T. canadensis Loew 1864 A16
         |         T. carinifrons HP68
         |         T. cayuga Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. centralis Loew 1864 A16
         |         T. cincta Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. cincticornis A16
         |         T. collaris [=Pachyrrhina collaris] A16
         |         T. contaminata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. cornicina Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. crocata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. culiciformis L02
         |         T. cunctans Say 1823 [incl. T. casta Loew 1863, T. infuscata Loew 1863] A16
         |         T. dietziana Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. discolor Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. fallax Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. febrilis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. fenestrarum L02
         |         T. flavescens Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. florilega Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. fragilis Loew 1863 [incl. T. suspecta Loew 1863] A16
         |         T. fraterna Loew 1864 A16
         |         T. fuliginosa (Say 1823) [=Ctenophora fuliginosa; incl. T. speciosa Loew 1863] A16
         |         T. fungorum L02
         |         T. fuscipennis Meigen 1818 A16
         |         T. grata Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. hebes Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. hermannia Alexander 1916 [=T. fasciata Loew 1863 non Linnaeus 1767] A16
         |         T. hiemalis L02
         |         T. hortorum Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. ignobilis Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. imperfecta Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. irrorata F92
         |         T. jejuna A16
         |         T. johnsoniana Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. juniperina Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. kennicotti Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. latipennis Loew 1864 A16
         |         T. littoralis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. loewiana Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. longicornis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. longiventris Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. lunata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. macrocephala Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. macrolabis Loew 1864 A16
         |         T. macrosterna [=Pachyrrhina macrosterna] A16
         |         T. maculata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. mainensis Alexander 1916 [incl. T. laevigata ms] A16
         |         T. mandan Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. marci Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. maxima W01
         |         T. megaura Doane 1901 A16
         |         T. mingwe Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. monilis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. morrisoni Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. motatrix Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. nigra Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. nobilis [=Pachyrrhina nobilis] A16
         |         T. notata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. pachyrhinoides Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. pallida Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. palustris Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. parshleyi Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. pectinicornis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. penicillata Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. penobscot Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. perlongipes Johnson 1909 A16
         |         T. phalaenoides Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. piliceps Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. pinnicornis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. plumosa Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. polymera [=Pachyrrhina polymera] A16
         |         T. praecisa Loew 1872 A16
         |         T. pratensis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. pubera Loew 1864 A16
         |         T. putris Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. quaylii AB81
         |         T. rangiferina Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. regelationis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. replicata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. rivosa Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. rostrata L02
         |         T. seminole Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. septentrionalis Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. serrulata Loew 1864 A16
         |         T. serta Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. subfasciata Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. submaculata Loew 1863 [incl. T. bidens ms] A16
         |         T. sulphurea A16
         |         T. taughannock Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. tephrocephala Loew 1864 A16
         |         T. ternaria Loew 1864 A16
         |         T. terrestris Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. tesselata Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. tremula Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. trinidadensis [=Pachyrrhina trinidadensis] A16
         |         T. triton Alexander 1916 A16
         |         T. trivittata M90
         |         T. tuscarora Alexander 1916 [incl. T. hamata ms] A16
         |         T. umbrosa Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. unimaculata [=Pachyrrhina unimaculata] A16
         |         T. valida Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. variegata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. varipennis I92
         |         T. vernalis K01
         |         T. versicolor Loew 1863 A16
         |         T. vibratoria Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--T. (Tipula) G09
         |    |--T. (T.) oleracea Linnaeus 1758 G09, L58
         |    `--T. (T.) paludosa AB81
         |--T. (Angarotipula) illustris AB81
         |--T. (Bellardina) cydippe G09
         |--T. (Cinctotipula Alexander 1916) A16
         |    `--T. (*C.) algonquin Alexander 1916 A16
         |--T. (Eumicrotipula) G09
         |    |--T. (E.) armillatus G09
         |    |--T. (E.) balloui G09
         |    |--T. (E.) exilis G09
         |    |--T. (E.) ligulipenicillata G09
         |    |--T. (E.) michoacana G09
         |    |--T. (E.) monilifera G09
         |    `--T. (E.) virgulata G09
         |--T. (Lunatipula) AB81
         |    |--T. (L.) dorsimacula AB81
         |    |--T. (L.) monticola Alexander 1916 AB81, A16
         |    `--T. (L.) triplex AB81
         |--T. (Microtipula) [incl. Nephrotomodes] G09
         |    |--T. (M.) amazonica G09
         |    |--T. (M.) armatipennis G09
         |    |--T. (M.) aymara G09
         |    |--T. (M.) contemplata G09
         |    |--T. (M.) smilodon G09
         |    `--T. (M.) smithi G09
         |--T. (Nesotipula) pribilovia AB81
         |--T. (Nippotipula) abdominalis AB81
         |--T. (Tipulodinodes) lacteipes AB81
         |--T. (Trichotipula Alexander 1916) A16
         |    `--T. (*T.) oropezoides A16
         `--T. (Yamatotipula) AB81
              |--T. (Y.) caloptera Loew 1863 AB81, A16
              |--T. (Y.) eluta Loew 1863 AB81, A16
              |--T. (Y.) noveboracensis AB81
              |--T. (Y.) strepens Loew 1863 AB81, A16
              `--T. (Y.) tricolor AB81

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A16] Alexander, C. P. 1916. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Diptera, Part 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 458–514, pls 16–21.

[AB81] Alexander, C. P., & G. W. Byers. 1981. Tipulidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 153–190. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G09] Gelhaus, J. K. 2009. Tipulidae (crane flies, tipúlidos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 193–236. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[HP68] Holmes, R. T., & F. A. Pitelka. 1968. Food overlap among coexisting sandpipers on northern Alaskan tundra. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 305–318.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: features facilitating coexistence. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 121–135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 25 April 2018.

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