Starry smooth-hound Mustelus asterias, copyright Hans Hillewaert.

Belongs within: Carcharhiniformes.

The Triakidae, houndsharks, are a group of small to medium-sharks that are most diverse in waters of the continental shelf, often at or close to the bottom of the water column (Compagno 1984).

Characters (from Compagno 1984): Head without laterally expanded blades; eyes elongated and fusiform, horizontally oval, or slitlike, with lengths over 1.5 to 2.5 times height; nictitating eyelids external, transitional or internal; spiracles present and small to moderately large; anterior nasal flaps varying from elongated to lobular to vestigial, rarely barbel-like; internarial width about 0.5 to 3.0 times in nostril width; labial furrows moderately long to very long; teeth small to moderately large, with acute and narrow to moderately large cusps and lateral cusplets in some species, but with these structures reduced or absent in others; teeth with strong basal ledges and grooves; teeth cuspidate and not bladelike, compressed and bladelike, or thickened and molariform; usually similar in both jaws but differentiated in a few species; posterior teeth not comblike; tooth rows 18 to 42/27 to 106. Precaudal pits absent. First dorsal fin moderately large to very large but not keel-like, usually much shorter than caudal fin; first dorsal base well ahead of pelvic bases, usually closer to pectoral bases than to pelvics but sometimes slightly closer to pelvics; midpoint of first dorsal base always in front of pelvic origins; pectoral fins with radials confined to bases of fins; ventral caudal lobe varying from absent to well-developed; no undulations or ripples in dorsal caudal margin. Neurocranium with supraorbital crests; vertebral centra with strong, wedge-shaped intermedial calcifications. Valvular intestine with a spiral valve of 4 to 11 turns. Some species with variegated colour patterns, most without them.

<==Triakidae [Emissolidae, Eugaleidae, Galei, Galeorhinoidae, Iagini, Musteli, Scylliodontes, Scylliogaleidae, Triakiana]
    |--Paratriakis bettrechiensis Herman 1977 CDZ93
    |--Furgaleus Whitley 1951 [=Fur Whitley 1943 non Jones 1940] C84
    |    `--*F. macki (Whitley 1943) [=*Fur macki; incl. Fur ventralis Whitley 1943, Furgaleus ventralis] C84
    |--Gogolia Compagno 1973 C84
    |    `--*G. filewoodi Compagno 1973 C84
    |--Scylliogaleus Boulenger 1902 C84
    |    `--*S. quecketti Boulenger 1902 C84
    |--Hypogaleus Smith 1957 C84
    |    `--H. hyugaensis (Miyosi 1939) (see below for synonymy) C84
    |--Hemitriakis Herre 1923 C84
    |    |--*H. leucoperiptera Herre 1923 [=Triakis leucoperiptera] C84
    |    `--H. japanica (Müller & Henle 1839) [=Galeus japanicus, Galeorhinus japanicus] C84
    |--Iago Compagno & Springer 1971 C84
    |    |--*I. omanensis (Norman 1939) [=Eugaleus omanensis, Galeorhinus omanensis] C84
    |    `--I. garricki Fourmanoir & Rivaton 1979 C84
    |--Galeorhinus Blainville 1816 (see below for synonymy) C84
    |    |--*G. galeus (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) C84
    |    |--G. minutissimus (Arambourg 1952) CDZ93
    |    `--G. mustelus D56
    |--Triakis Müller & Henle 1838 [=Triacis Gill 1862] C84
    |    |--T. (Triakis) C84
    |    |    |--*T. (T.) scyllium Müller & Henle 1839 [=T. scyllia; incl. Hemigaleus pingi Evermann & Shaw 1927] C84
    |    |    `--T. (T.) semifasciata Girard 1854 (see below for synonymy) C84
    |    `--T. (Cazon de Buen 1959) C84
    |         |--T. (C.) acutipinna Kato 1968 C84
    |         |--T. (C.) maculata Kner & Steindachner 1866 (see below for synonymy) C84
    |         `--T. (C.) megalopterus (Smith 1849) (see below for synonymy) C84
    `--Mustelus Linck 1790 (see below for synonymy) C84
         |--*M. mustelus (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) C84
         |--M. antarcticus Günther 1870 [incl. Emissola ganearum Whitley 1945, E. maugeana Whitley 1939] C84
         |--M. asterias Cloquet 1821 (see below for synonymy) C84
         |--M. californicus Gill 1864 C84
         |--M. canis (Mitchill 1815) B02 [=Squalus canis C84; incl. *Allomycter dissutus Guitart 1972 C84]
         |--M. dorsalis Gill 1864 C84
         |--M. fasciatus (Garman 1913) [=Galeorhinus fasciatus; incl. M. striatus Devincenzi 1920] C84
         |--M. griseus Pietschmann 1908 [incl. Cynias kanekonis Tanaka 1916, M. kanekonis] C84
         |--M. henlei (Gill 1863) [=Rhinotriacis henlei, Triakis henlei] C84
         |--M. higmani Springer & Lowe 1963 C84
         |--M. lenticulatus Phillipps 1932 C84
         |--M. lunulatus Jordan & Gilbert 1883 C84
         |--M. manazo Bleeker 1854 C84
         |--M. mento Cope 1877 [incl. M. abbotti Evermann & Radcliffe 1917, M. edulis Perez Canto in Philippi 1887] C84
         |--M. mosis Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899 C84
         |--M. norrisi Springer 1940 C84
         |--M. palumbes Smith 1957 C84
         |--M. punctulatus Risso 1826 [incl. M. mediterraneus Quignard & Capape 1972] C84
         |--M. schmitti Springer 1940 C84
         `--M. whitneyi Chirichigno 1973 C84

Galeorhinus Blainville 1816 [incl. Eugaleus Gill 1864, Galeus Cuvier 1817 non Rafinesque 1810, Notogaleus Whitley 1943] C84

*Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Squalus galeus; incl. Galeus australis Macleay 1881, Galeorhinus australis, Galeus canis Bonaparte 1834, Galeus chilensis Perez Canto 1886, Galeorhinus chilensis, Galeus communis Owen 1853, Carcharhinus cyrano Whitley 1930, Galeus linnei Malm 1877, Galeus molinae Philippi 1887, Galeus nilssoni Bonaparte 1846, Squalus rhinophanes Peron 1807, Galeorhinus rhinophanes, Notogaleus rhinophanes, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen 1950, Galeus vulgaris Fleming 1828, Galeus zyopterus Jordan & Gilbert 1883, Galeorhinus zyopterus] C84

Hypogaleus hyugaensis (Miyosi 1939) [=Eugaleus hyugaensis; incl. Galeorhinus (*Hypogaleus) zanzibariensis Smith 1957] C84

Mustelus Linck 1790 [=Mustellus Fischer 1813; incl. Allomycter Guitart 1972, Cynias Gill 1903, Emissola Jarocki 1822, Galeus Leach 1818 nec Rafinesque 1810 nec Cuvier 1817, Murmille Setna & Sarangdhar 1946, Myrmillo Gistel 1848, Pleuracromylon Gill 1864, Rhinotriacis Gill 1863] C84

Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1821 [incl. Squalus albomaculatus Plucar 1845, S. edentulus Doderlein 1881, S. hinnulus Blainville 1825, Mustelus plebejus Bonaparte 1834, M. stellatus Risso 1826,] C84

*Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Squalus mustelus; incl. Mustelus equestris Bonaparte 1834, Mustelus laevis Linck 1790, Mustellus levis Risso 1826, Mustelus vulgaris Cloquet 1821] C84

Triakis (Cazon) maculata Kner & Steindachner 1866 [=T. maculatus; incl. Mustelus nigromaculatus Evermann & Radcliffe 1917] C84

Triakis (Cazon) megalopterus (Smith 1849) [=Mustelus megalopterus; incl. M. natalensis Steindachner 1866, Triakis natalensis, M. nigropunctatus Smith 1952] C84

Triakis (Triakis) semifasciata Girard 1854 [=T. semifasciatum; incl. T. californicus Gray 1851 (n. n.), Mustelus felis Ayres 1854, T. felis] C84

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B02] Branstetter, S. 2002. Smooth dogfishes. Family Triakidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 37–38. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[CDZ93] Cappetta, H., C. Duffin & J. Zidek. 1993. Chondrichthyes. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 593–609. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C84] Compagno, L. J. V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue vol. 4. Sharks of the World: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2—Carcharhiniformes. United Nations Development Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

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