Spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias, photographed by Doug Costa.

Belongs within: Selachimorpha.

The Squalidae, spiny dogfishes, are a group of sharks characterised by the lack of anal fin, with the two dorsal fins often preceded by a fixed spine.

<==Squalidae [Dalatiidae]
    |--Dalatiinae CDZ93
    |    |--Dalatias licha (Bonnaterre 1788) G60b (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--Isistius CDZ93
    |         |--I. brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) G60b
    |         |--I. plutodus B96
    |         `--I. trituratus (Winkler 1874) CDZ93
    |--Oxynotinae [Oxynotidae] CDZ93
    |    |--Protoxynotus misburgensis Herman 1975 CDZ93
    |    `--Oxynotus G60b
    |         |--O. bruniensis (Ogilby 1893) G60b
    |         |--O. centrina (Linnaeus 1758) G60a
    |         `--O. paradoxus Frade 1929 G60a
    |--Somniosinae CDZ93
    |    |--Cretascymnus adonis (Signeux 1950) CDZ93
    |    `--Somniosus G60b
    |         |--S. antarcticus Whitley 1939 G60b
    |         |--S. microcephalus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) B02
    |         |--S. pacificus B02
    |         `--S. rostratus B02
    |--Etmopterinae CDZ93
    |    |--Eoetmopterus Müller & Schollmann 1989 CDZ93
    |    |    |--‘Etmopterus’ hemmoorensis Herman 1982 CDZ93
    |    |    `--E. supracretaceus Müller & Schöllmann 1989 CDZ93
    |    `--Etmopterus G60b
    |         |--E. baxteri Garrick 1957 G60b
    |         |--E. brachyurus Smith & Radcliffe 1912 G60b
    |         |--E. gracilospinous B96
    |         |--E. lucifer Jordan & Snyder 1902 G60b (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--E. perryi B02
    |         |--E. princeps Collett 1904 G60a
    |         |--E. spinax PP64
    |         `--E. virens W92
    `--Squalinae CDZ93
         |--Protosqualus albertsii Thies 1981 CDZ93
         |--Squalogaleus Maisey 1976 CDZ93
         |    `--S. woodwardi Maisey 1976 CDZ93
         `--Squalus Linnaeus 1758 L58 [incl. Flakeus Whitley 1939 G60b, Koinga Whitley 1939 G60b]
              |--S. acanthias Linnaeus 1758 [incl. S. kirki Phillipps 1931, S. whitleyi Phillipps 1931] G60b
              |    |--S. a. acanthias G60b
              |    `--S. a. suckleyi G60b
              |--S. alsaticus F91
              |--S. blainvillei (Risso 1826) G61 (see below for synonymy)
              |--S. brevirostris Tanaka 1917 G60b
              |--S. centrina Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--S. cubensis Rivero 1936 G60b
              |--S. fernandinus Molina 1782 G60b
              |--S. lebruni G60b
              |--S. megalops (Macleay 1882) G60b
              |--S. pristis Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--S. spinax Linnaeus 1758 L58
              `--S. squatina Linnaeus 1758 L58

Squalidae incertae sedis:
  Euprotomicrus bispinatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) G60b
  Centroscyllium fabricii (Reinhardt 1825) G60b, B02
  Scymnodalatias G60b
    |--S. albicauda VF21
    `--S. sherwoodi (Archey 1921) [=Scymnodon sherwoodi] G60b
  Heteroscymnoides marleyi Fowler 1934 G60b
  Cirrhigaleus Tanaka 1912 G60b
    `--C. barbifer Tanaka 1912 G60b
  Squaliolus G60b
    |--S. laticaudus Smith & Radcliffe 1912 G60b
    `--S. sarmenti Noronha 1926 G60b
  Centroscymnus G60b
    |--C. coelolepis Bocage & Capello 1864 B02
    |--C. crepidater (Bocage & Capello 1864) G60b
    `--C. owstonii Garman 1906 G60b
  Scymnodon G60b
    |--S. ichiharai C84
    |--S. plunketi (Waite 1910) G60b (see below for synonymy)
    |--S. rossi NM72
    `--S. squamulosus [incl. S. obscurus] C84
  Deania G60b
    |--D. calcea (Lowe 1839) G60b (see below for synonymy)
    |--D. elegans Springer 1959 G60a
    |--D. natalense (Gilchrist 19220 G60a
    |--D. profundorum (Smith & Radcliffe 1912) G60a
    `--D. quadrispinosa (McCulloch 1915) G60b
  Centrophorus Müller & Henle 1833 [incl. Atractophorus Gilchrist 1922] NM72
    |--C. acus Garman 1906 G59
    |--C. armatus (Gilchrist 1922) [=*Atractophorus armatus] NM72
    |--C. granulosus BY99
    |--C. harrissoni McCulloch 1915 G60b
    |--C. scalptratus McCulloch 1915 G60b
    |--C. squamosus (Bonnaterre 1788) G60b (see below for synonymy)
    `--C. uyato G59
  Centropterus lividus Costa 1861 CDZ93

Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre 1788) G60b [incl. C. foliaceus Gunther 1877 G59, Scymnodon foliaceus G59, C. nilsoni Thompson 1930 G59]

Dalatias licha (Bonnaterre 1788) G60b [=Scymnus lichia G60a; incl. Scymnorhinus phillippsi Whitley 1931 G60a, Dalatias phillippsi G60a]

Deania calcea (Lowe 1839) G60b [=Acanthidium calceum G60a, Centrophorus calceus G60a; incl. A. aciculatum Garman 1906 G60a, Deania aciculata G60a, D. eglantina Jordan & Snyder 1902 G60a, Acanthidium hystricosum Garman 1906 G60a, D. hystricosa G60a, Centrophorus kaikourae Whitley 1934 G60a, D. kaikourae G60a, Acanthidium rostratum Garman 1906 G60a, D. rostrata G60a]

Etmopterus lucifer Jordan & Snyder 1902 G60b [incl. E. abernethyi Garrick 1957 G60a, Acanthidium molleri Whitley 1939 G60a, E. molleri G60a]

Scymnodon plunketi (Waite 1910) G60b [=Centrophorus plunketi G59; incl. Centrophorus waitei Thompson 1930 G60b, G59, Centroscymnus waitei G59]

Squalus blainvillei (Risso 1826) G61 [=S. blainville G61, S. blainvillii (l. c.) G61; incl. S. griffini Phillipps 1931 G60b, S. tasmaniensis Rivero 1936 G60b]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[B02] Burgess, G. H. 2002. Spiny dogfishes. Family Squalidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 48–57. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[BY99] Burrow, C. J., & G. C. Young. 1999. An articulated teleostome fish from the Late Silurian (Ludlow) of Victoria, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 57: 1–14.

[CDZ93] Cappetta, H., C. Duffin & J. Zidek. 1993. Chondrichthyes. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 593–609. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C84] Compagno, L. J. V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue vol. 4. Sharks of the World: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2—Carcharhiniformes. United Nations Development Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome.

[F91] Freess, W. B. 1991. Beiträge zur Kenntnis von Fauna und Flora des marinen Mitteloligozäns bei Leipzig. Altenburger Naturwissenschaftliche Forschungen 6: 3–74.

[G59] Garrick, J. A. F. 1959. Studies on New Zealand Elasmobranchii. Part VII.—The identity of specimens of Centrophorus from New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 127–141.

[G60a] Garrick, J. A. F. 1960a. Studies on New Zealand Elasmobranchii. Part XI.—Squaloids of the genera Deania, Etmopterus, Oxynotus and Dalatias in New Zealand waters. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 489–517.

[G60b] Garrick, J. A. F. 1960b. Studies on New Zealand Elasmobranchii. Part XII. The species of Squalus from New Zealand and Australia; and a general account and key to the New Zealand Squaloidea. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 519–557.

[G61] Garrick, J. A. F. 1961. A note on the spelling of the specific name of the immaculate spiny dogfish, Squalus blainvillei (Risso 1826). Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (4): 843.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[NM72] Nair, R. V., & S. L. Mohan. 1972. The deep sea spined dog fish Centrophorus armatus (Gilchrist) (Selachii: Sualidae) from the east coast of India, with a note on its taxonomy. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 193–199.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[VF21] Vullo, R., E. Frey, C. Ifrim, M. A. González González, E. S. Stinnesbeck & W. Stinnesbeck. 2021. Manta-like planktivorous sharks in Late Cretaceous oceans. Science 371: 1253–1256.

[W92] Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press: Belknap (USA).

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