Lowland tapir Tapirus terrestris, copyright Geoff Gallice.

Belongs within: Perissodactyla.
Contains: Rhinocerotidae.

The Ceratomorpha, tapirs and rhinoceroses, are a group of graviportal, heavily built odd-toed hoofed mammals. The tapirs Tapirus are characterised by snouts with a short, fleshy proboscis and are found in forests of south-east Asia and South and Central America.

Synapomorphies (from Hooker & Dashzeveg 2004): M3 hypolophid complete; P3 paraconid strong and approaching height of paraconid; upper molars with metaconal fold consistently joined to metaconule forming complete metaloph; lower preultimate molar with hypolophid complete, comprising equal buccal and lingual segments joined into long unnotched loph, with hypoconulid median; post P1 diastema absent.

    |--Pachynolophus HD04
    |    |--P. hookeri Godinot in Godinot et al. 1987 HD04
    |    |--P. lavocati F02
    |    `--P. livinerensis F02
    `--+--Karagalax mamikhelensis HD04
       `--+--+--Rhinocerotidae J84
          |  `--+--Lophialetidae RH14
          |     |    |--Lophialetes expeditus RH14
          |     |    `--Schlosseria magister RH14
          |     `--Deperetellidae RH14
          |          |--Deperetella cristatum RH14
          |          `--Teleolophus medius RH14
          `--Tapiroidea D07
               |  i. s.: Miotapirus Schlaikjer 1937 D07
               |           |--M. harrisonensis D07
               |           `--M. marslandensis D07
               |--Helaletidae RH14
               |    |--Heptodon Cope 1882 HD04, D07
               |    |    |--H. calciculus D07
               |    |    |--H. minimus D07
               |    |    |--H. niushanensis D07
               |    |    |--H. posticus D07
               |    |    `--H. tienshanensis MHL03
               |    `--Helaletes nanus RH14
               `--Tapirus [Tapiridae] J84
                    |  i. s.: T. americanus G96
                    |         T. haysii R76
                    |           |--T. h. haysii R76
                    |           `--T. h. californicus R76
                    |--T. indicus FS15
                    `--+--T. augustus FS15
                       `--+--+--T. (Tapirella) bairdii G69, FS15
                          |  `--+--T. copei FS15
                          |     `--T. veroensis FS15
                          `--+--T. rondoniensis FS15
                             `--+--T. pinchaque FS15
                                `--T. terrestris FS15

Ceratomorpha incertae sedis:
  Protapirus F02
  Triplopus F02
  Alicornops complanatum CS04
  Didermoceros sumatrensis A71
  Amynodentopsis JJ84
  Indricotherium Forster Cooper 1911 D07
    |--I. asiaticum A26
    |--I. bughtiense D07
    |--I. orgosensis D07
    |--I. prohorovi D07
    `--I. transauralicum D07
  Parelasmotherium DW04
    |--P. linxiaense DW04
    `--P. simplum DW04
  Sinotherium DW04
  Shansirhinus Kretzoi 1942 DW04
    |--*S. brancoi (Schlosser 1903) [=Rhinoceros brancoi] DW04
    `--S. ringstromi Kretzoi 1942 DW04
  Hyracodon Leidy 1850 D07
    |--H. browni D07
    |--H. leidyanus D07
    |--H. medius D07
    |--H. nebraskensis D07
    |--H. petersodi D07
    `--H. priscidens D07
  Metamynodon Scott & Osborn 1887 D07 [Amynodontidae G88, Amynodontinae, Metamynodontini]
    |--M. chadronensis D07
    |--M. mckinneyi D07
    `--M. planifrons D07
  Cadurcodon Kretzoi 1942 D07
    |--C. ardynense D07
    `--C. saisanensis D07
  Diceratherium Marsh 1875 D07
    |--D. annectens D07
    |--D. armatum D07
    |--D. gregorii D07
    |--D. niobrarense D07
    `--D. tridactylum D07
  Menoceras Troxell 1921 D07
    |--M. arikarensis D07
    `--M. barbouri D07
  Baluchitherium A26
    |--B. grangeri A26
    |--B. mongoliense A26
    `--B. osborni A26
  Elasmotherium Fischer 1808 FS15, D07
    |--E. caucasicum D07
    |--E. inexpectatum D07
    `--E. sibiricum D07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A26] Andrews, R. C. 1926. On the Trail of Ancient Man: A narrative of the field work of the central Asiatic expeditions. G. P. Putnam's Sons: New York.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[CS04] Chaimanee, Y., V. Suteethorn, P. Jintasakul, C. Vidthayanon, B. Murandat & J.-J. Jaeger. 2004. A new orang-utan relative from the Late Miocene of Thailand. Nature 427: 439–441.

[DW04] Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 78 (1): 8–14.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[F02] Froehlich, D. J. 2002. Quo vadis eohippus? The systematics and taxonomy of the early Eocene equids (Perissodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 134: 141–256.

[G96] Geoffroy, É. L. 1796. Observations sur le tapir, Tapir americanus. Bulletin de la Société Philomatique, a ses Correspondans 48–49: 1.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[HD04] Hooker, J. J., & D. Dashzeveg. 2004. The origin of chalicotheres (Perissodactyla, Mammalia). Palaeontology 47 (6): 1363–1386.

[J84] Janis, C. 1984. Odd-toed ungulates. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals pp. 40–41. Torstar Books: New York.

[JJ84] Janis, C., & P. J. Jarman. 1984. The hoofed mammals. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals pp. 28–39. Torstar Books: New York.

[MHL03] Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of Rhombomylus (Mammalia, Glires): implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 275: 1–247.

[R76] Ray, C. E. 1976. Fossil marine mammals of Oregon. Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 420–436.

[RH14] Rose, K. D., L. T. Holbrook, R. S. Rana, K. Kumar, K. E. Jones, H. E. Ahrens, P. Missiaen, A. Sahni & T. Smith. 2014. Early Eocene fossils suggest that the mammalian order Perissodactyla originated in India. Nature Communications 5: 5570.

Last updated: 31 July 2018.

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