Musteloidea

Channel Islands spotted skunk Spilogale gracilis amphiala, photographed by Brian Kentosh.


Belongs within: Carnivora.
Contains: Conepatus, Procyonidae, Mustelidae.

The Musteloidea is a clade of mostly small-bodied carnivorans, including the weasels, raccoons and related taxa. Previously divided between the families Procyonidae and Mustelidae, more recent phylogenetic analyses have agreed in placing the skunks (Mephitidae) and red panda Ailurus fulgens outside the clade formed by the former two taxa.

Synapomorphies (from Flynn et al. 1988): Auditory bulla with caudal ectotympanic ventrally and posteriorly expanded, with relative shortening of carotid canal (reversed in some sublineages); alisphenoid canal absent; third upper and lower molars both absent.

<==Musteloidea FNT88
    |  i. s.: Megalictis Matthew 1907 D07
    |           `--M. ferox D07
    |--Mephitidae [Mephitinae] MJ11
    |    |--Conepatus V84
    |    |--Miomephitis pilgrimi MJ11
    |    |--Mephitis DD06
    |    |    |--M. macroura Lichtenstein 1832 MB86
    |    |    |    |--M. m. macroura [incl. M. macroura vittata] G69
    |    |    |    `--M. m. milleri Mearns 1897 MB86
    |    |    `--M. mephitis DD06
    |    |         |--M. m. mephitis B75
    |    |         |--M. m. avia B75
    |    |         |--M. m. hudsonica Richardson 1829 [=M. americana var. hudsonica] B75
    |    |         `--M. m. mesomelas B75
    |    `--Spilogale V84
    |         |--S. angustifrons Howell 1902 V84, MB86 [=S. gracilis angustifrons MB86]
    |         |--S. gracilis DD06
    |         |    |--S. g. gracilis DD06
    |         |    |--S. g. amphiala DD06
    |         |    `--S. g. leucoparia Merriam 1890 MB86
    |         |--S. putorius DD06
    |         |    |--S. p. putorius B75
    |         |    |--S. p. ambarvalis J68
    |         |    |--S. p. interrupta (Rafinesque 1820) [=Mephitis interrupta] B75
    |         |    `--S. p. tropicalis G69
    |         `--S. pygmaea V84
    `--+--Mustelictis olivieri MJ11
       `--+--+--Simocyon WW04
          |  `--Ailuridae [Ailurinae] MJ11
          |       |  i. s.: Amphictis ambigua MJ11
          |       |--Pristinailurus Wallace & Wang 2004 WW04
          |       |    `--*P. bristoli Wallace & Wang 2004 WW04
          |       `--+--Ailurus fulgens WW04
          |          |    |--A. f. fulgens R84
          |          |    `--A. f. styani R84
          |          `--Parailurus WW04
          |               |--P. anglicus WW04
          |               `--P. hungaricus WW04
          `--+--+--Procyonidae MJ11
             |  |--Broiliana WW04
             |  `--Pseudobassaris riggsi MJ11
             `--+--Mustelidae MJ11
                |--Plesiogale FNT88
                |--Promartes FNT88
                |--Aelurocyon FNT88
                |--Zodiolestes FNT88
                `--Plesictis Pomel 1846 FNT88, D07
                     |--P. genettoides D07
                     |--P. himilidens D07
                     |--P. mayeri D07
                     `--P. vireti D07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[DD06] Doty, J. B., & R. C. Dowler. 2006. Denning ecology in sympatric populations of skunks (Spilogale gracilis and Mephitis mephitis) in west-central Texas. Journal of Mammalogy 87 (1): 131–138.

[FNT88] Flynn, J. J., N. A. Neff & R. H. Tedford. 1988. Phylogeny of the Carnivora. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods vol. 2. Mammals pp. 73–116. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[J68] Johnson, M. L. 1968. Application of blood protein electrophoretic studies to problems in mammalian taxonomy. Systematic Zoology 17 (1): 23–30.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[MJ11] Meredith, R. W., J. E. Janečka, J. Gatesy, O. A. Ryder, C. A. Fisher, E. C. Teeling, A. Goodbla, E. Eizirik, T. L. L. Simão, T. Stadler, D. L. Rabosky, R. L. Honeycutt, J. J. Flynn, C. M. Ingram, C. Steiner, T. L. Williams, T. J. Robinson, A. Burk-Herrick, M. Westerman, N. A. Ayoub, M. S. Springer & W. J. Murphy. 2011. Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification. Science 334: 521–524.

[R84] Russell, J. K. 1984. Other procyonids. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 98–99. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[V84] Voigt, D. R. 1984. Skunks. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 114–115. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[WW04] Wallace, S. C., & X. Wang. 2004. Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America. Nature 431: 556–559.

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