Small-billed tinamou Crypturellus parvirostris, copyright Dario Sanches.

Belongs within: Aves.

The Tinamidae, tinamous, are superficially partridge-like birds found in South America. They are the only living flighted members of the palaeognath clade. Tinamous are small to medium-sized, plump terrestrial birds with short, strong legs and a rudimentary tail (Internet Bird Collection).

<==Tinamidae [Crypturi, Crypturidae, Dromaeomorphae, Pantinamidae, Tinami, Tinamiformes]
    |  i. s.: Nothocercus JT12
    |           |--N. bonapartei JT12
    |           |--N. julius JT12
    |           `--N. nigrocapillus JT12
    |         Taoniscus nanus JT12
    |         Crypturus soui S18
    |           |--C. s. soui S18
    |           `--C. s. modestus S18
    |--+--+--Eudromia Geoffroy St.-Hilaire 1832 JT12, B94 [Eudromiidae]
    |  |  |    |--E. elegans HK08
    |  |  |    `--E. formosa JT12
    |  |  `--Tinamotis Vigors 1837 JT12, B94 [Tinamotidae, Tinamotididae]
    |  |       |--T. ingoufi JT12
    |  |       `--T. pentlandii JT12
    |  `--+--Nothura JT12
    |     |    |--N. boraquira M03
    |     |    |--N. chacoensis JT12
    |     |    |--N. darwinii C04
    |     |    |--N. maculosa ZJM03
    |     |    `--N. minor JT12
    |     `--Nothoprocta JT12
    |          |  i. s.: N. ornata JT12
    |          |         N. pentlandii JT12
    |          |         N. taczanowskii JT12
    |          |--+--N. cinerascens BKB15
    |          |  `--Rhynchotus Spix 1825 BKB15, B94 [Rhynchotidae]
    |          |       |--R. maculicollis JT12
    |          |       `--R. rufescens M03
    |          `--+--N. curvirostris O93
    |             |--N. perdicaria BKB15
    |             |    |--N. p. perdicaria L81
    |             |    `--N. p. sanborni L81
    |             `--‘Tinamus’ tao BKB15
    `--+--Tinamus Hermann 1783 JT12, B94 [incl. Cryptura Illiger 1811 B94]
       |    |--T. castaneiceps S18
       |    |--T. guttatus HK08
       |    |--T. major (Gmelin 1789) [=Tetrao major] C04
       |    |--T. osgoodi JT12
       |    |--T. robustus [=T. major robustus] T62
       |    `--T. solitarius M03
       `--Crypturellus JT12
            |  i. s.: C. atrocapillus JT12
            |         C. bartletti JT12
            |         C. berlepschi JT12
            |         C. boucardi ZJM03
            |         C. brevirostris JT12
            |         C. casiquiare JT12
            |         C. cinereus JT12
            |         C. cinnamomeus M03
            |         C. duidae JT12
            |         C. erythropus JT12
            |         C. kerriae JT12
            |         C. noctivagus C04
            |         C. ptaritepui JT12
            |         C. transfasciatus JT12
            |--C. soui BKB15
            `--+--+--C. strigulosus BKB15
               |  `--C. undulatus BKB15
               `--+--+--C. obsoletus BKB15
                  |  `--C. tataupa JT12
                  `--+--C. parvirostris BKB15
                     `--C. variegatus BKB15

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[C04] Clarke, J. A. 2004. Morphology, phylogenetic taxonomy, and systematics of Ichthyornis and Apatornis (Avialae: Ornithurae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 286: 1–179.

[HK08] Hackett, S. J., R. T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. C. K. Bowie, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, W. A. Cox, K.-L. Han, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt & T. Yuri. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320: 1763–1768.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M03] Mayr, G. 2003. The phylogenetic affinities of the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex). Journal für Ornithologie 144: 157–175.

[O93] O'Hara, R. J. 1993. Systematic generalization, historical fate, and the species problem. Systematic Biology 42 (3): 231–246.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: Revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7–460.

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461–484.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS