Libellulidae

Male Rhyothemis plutonia, from here.


Belongs within: Paneurypalpidomorpha.
Contains: Brachydiplax, Orthetrum, Libellula, Agrionoptera.

The Libellulidae, skimmers and perchers, are a diverse group of dragonflies with antenodal costal and subcostal veins in strict alignment, and a rounded base to the hindwing in both sexes (Theischinger & Hawking 2006). Members of the group vary widely in appearance; some have strongly patterned wings, while others have entirely transparent wing membranes. The family is divided between several subfamilies, primarily on the basis of wing venation characters; members of the largest subfamily, the Sympetrinae, have forewings with the last antenodal crossvein not extending beyond the subcosta, the arculus between the first and second antenodal crossveins, and distinct radial and medial planates, and hindwings with a broad base and a highly visible anal loop.

Characters (from Theischinger & Hawking 2006): Wings with antenodal costal and subcostal veins in strict alignment, primary antenodals not discernible; sectors of arculus generally stalked at base; anal loop generally well developed; hindwing base rounded in both sexes. Lavae with labium ladle-shaped, bearing premental and palpal setae; labial palps smooth to strongly toothed; abdomen generally laterally and (more rarely) dorsally armed.

Libellulidae
    |--Trithemistinae WO91
    |    |--Austrothemis nigrescens (Martin 1901) WO91, TH06
    |    `--Trithemis SL89
    |         |--T. adelpha Selys 1878 SL89
    |         |--T. festiva [=Libellula festiva; incl. Dythemis infernalis] SL89
    |         |--T. fraterna SL89
    |         `--T. tirbyi Im92
    |--Zyxommatinae WO91
    |    |--Tholymis tillarga (Fabricius 1798) WO91, TH06
    |    `--Zyxomma TH06
    |         |--*Z. petiolatum Rambur 1842 SL89, TH06
    |         |--Z. atlanticum SL89
    |         |--Z. elgneri Ris 1913 TH06
    |         |--Z. multinervorum Carpenter 1897 TH06
    |         `--Z. obtusum SL89
    |--Brachydiplactinae WO91
    |    |--Brachydiplax TH06
    |    |--Raphismia bispina (Hagen 1867) WO91, TH06
    |    `--Nannophya Rambur 1842 WO91, T08a
    |         |--N. australis Brauer 1865 TH06
    |         |--N. dalei (Tillyard 1908) TH06
    |         |--N. occidentalis (Tillyard 1908) TH06 [=N. dalei occidentalis C70]
    |         |--N. paulsoni Theischinger 2003 TH06
    |         `--N. pygmaea [incl. N. exigua] SL89
    |--Tetrathemistinae WO91
    |    |--Tetrathemis TH06
    |    |    |--T. flavescens T08c
    |    |    |--T. irregularis TH06
    |    |    |    |--T. i. irregularis TH06
    |    |    |    `--T. i. cladophila Tillyard 1908 TH06
    |    |    `--T. platyptera TH06
    |    `--Nannophlebia WO91
    |         |--N. eludens Tillyard 1908 TH06
    |         |--N. imitans T08c
    |         |--N. injibandi Watson 1969 TH06
    |         |--N. lorquini T08c
    |         |--N. mudginberri Watson & Theischinger 1991 TH06
    |         `--N. risi Tillyard 1913 TH06
    |--Pantalinae WO91
    |    |--Pantala flavescens (Fabricius 1798) WO91, TH06 [incl. Libellula terminalis SL89, L. viridula SL89]
    |    |--Hydrobasileus brevistylus (Brauer 1865) WO91, TH06
    |    |--Trapezostigma WO91
    |    |    |--T. loewi Brauer 1866 T13
    |    |    `--T. stenoloba PH10
    |    |--Camacinia WO91
    |    |    |--C. gigantea TH06
    |    |    `--C. othello Tillyard 1908 TH06
    |    `--Tramea WO91
    |         |--T. euryale SL89
    |         |--T. eurybia Selys 1878 TH06
    |         |--T. loewii Kaup 1866 TH06
    |         |--T. propinqua Lieftinck 1942 TH06
    |         `--T. stenoloba (Watson 1962) TH06
    |--Rhyothemis [Rhyothemistinae] WO91
    |    |--R. alcestis T08b
    |    |--R. braganza Karsch 1890 TH06
    |    |--R. chloe T08b
    |    |--R. curiosa Selys Longchamps 1889 (see below for synonymy) SL89
    |    |--R. fulgens Selys Longchamps 1889 SL89
    |    |--R. fuliginosa SL89
    |    |--R. graphiptera (Rambur 1842) TH06
    |    |--R. phyllis (Sulzer 1776) TH06
    |    |    |--R. p. phyllis TH06
    |    |    |--R. p. beatricis TH06
    |    |    `--R. p. chloe TH06
    |    |--R. plutonia SL89
    |    |--R. princeps Kirby 1894 TH06
    |    |--R. resplendens Selys 1878 TH06
    |    `--R. vidua SL89
    |--Libellulinae WO91
    |    |--Orthetrum WO91
    |    |--Notolibellula bicolor Theischinger & Watson 1977 WO91, TH06
    |    |--Libellula RS10
    |    |--Agrionoptera WO91
    |    |--Potamarcha congener (Rambur 1842) O70, TH06
    |    |--Nannodythemis Brauer 1868 T08a
    |    |    |--*N. australis Brauer 1868 T08a
    |    |    |--N. dalei Tillyard 1908 T08a
    |    |    `--N. occidentalis Tillyard 1908 T08a
    |    `--Lathrecista WO91
    |         |--L. asiatica TH06
    |         |    |--L. a. asiatica TH06
    |         |    `--L. a. festa (Selys 1879) TH06 [=Agrionoptera festa SL89, Orthemis festa SL89]
    |         |--L. difficilis [=Agrionoptera difficilis, Orthemis difficilis] SL89
    |         |--L. pectoralis [=Agrionoptera pectoralis, Orthemis pectoralis] SL89
    |         `--L. simulans [=Agrionoptera simulans, Orthemis simulans] SL89
    `--Sympetrinae WO91
         |--Nannodiplax rubra Brauer 1868 WO91, TH06
         |--Rhodothemis lieftincki Fraser 1954 WO91, TH06
         |--Crocothemis WO91
         |    |--C. nigrifrons (Kirby 1894) TH06
         |    |--C. servilia [=Libellula servilia] SL89
         |    `--C. soror [=Trithemis soror] SL89
         |--Sympetrum K01
         |    |--S. flaveolum K01
         |    |--S. internum A07
         |    |--S. obtrusum A07
         |    |--S. pedemontanum K01
         |    |--S. rubicundulum A07
         |    |--S. sanguineum K01
         |    `--S. scoticum K01
         |--Diplacodes Kirby 1889 WO91, FB03
         |    |--D. bipunctata (Brauer 1865) TH06
         |    |--D. concinna [=Libellula concinna, Diplacina concinna] SL89
         |    |--D. flavistyla [=Libellula flavistyla, Diplacina flavistyla] SL89
         |    |--D. haematodes (Burmeister 1839) TH06
         |    |--D. melanopsis (Martin 1901) TH06
         |    |--D. nebulosa (Fabricius 1793) TH06 [=Libellula nebulosa SL89, Diplacina nebulosa SL89]
         |    |--D. tetra [=Libellula tetra, Diplacina tetra] SL89
         |    `--D. trivialis (Rambur 1842) TH06
         `--Neurothemis WO91 [incl. Polynevra SL89]
              |--N. basalis SL89
              |--N. degener Selys Longchamps 1879 [incl. Libellula intermedia] SL89
              |--N. feralis [incl. Libellula equestris] SL89
              |--N. fluctuans Selys 1879 SL89
              |    |--N. f. fluctuans SL89
              |    `--N. f. disparilis Kirby 1889 SL89
              |--N. oligoneura Brauer 1867 TH06
              `--N. stigmatizans (Fabricius 1775) TH06

Libellulidae incertae sedis:
  Diastatops NB01
  Nannothemis Brauer 1868 FB03
  Palaeothemis tillyardi Fraser 1923 FB03
  Neodythemis Karsch 1889 FB03
  Diplax trivialis SL89
  Tyriobapta torrida SL89
  Lepthemis vesiculosa SL89
  Huonia melvillensis Brown & Theischinger 1998 TH06
  Celithemis eponina A07
  Ladona P74
  Erythemis rufa A07, T08c
  Pachydiplex A07
  Perithemis A07
  Acisoma SL89
    |--A. ascalaphoides SL89
    `--A. panorpoides SL89
  Orchithemis [incl. Calothemis] SL89
    |--O. pruinans (Selys 1878) [=Calothemis pruinans] SL89
    `--O. pulcherrima Brauer 1878 [incl. Calothemis exsudans Selys 1878] SL89
  Nesciothemis L55
    |--*N. farinosum (Förster 1898) (see below for synonymy) L55
    `--N. fitzgeraldi (Pinhey 1955) [=Orthetrum fitzgeraldi] L55
  Orthemis SL89
    |--O. congener SL89
    |--O. lineata SL89
    `--O. metallica SL89
  Libella SL89
    |--L. clelia SL89
    |--L. glauca Brauer 1865 SL89
    |--L. luzonica Brauer 1868 SL89
    |--L. pruinosa [=Libellula pruinosa] SL89
    `--L. testacea [=Libellula testacea] SL89
  Diplacina SL89
    |--*D. nana SL89
    |--D. braueri SL89
    |--D. militaris SL89
    |--D. nigrilabris SL89
    |--D. obscura SL89
    `--D. smaragdina SL89
  Leucorrhinia K01
    |--L. frigida MG06
    |--L. hudsonica B-PE07
    |--L. intacta MG06
    |--L. intermedia Iw92
    |    |--L. i. intermedia Iw92
    |    `--L. i. ijimai Asahina 1961 Iw92
    |--L. pectoralis K01
    |--L. proxima MG06
    `--L. rubicunda K01

Nomen nudum: Libellula brevialata Münster ex Weijenbergh 1869 FB03

*Nesciothemis farinosum (Förster 1898) [=Orthetrum farinosum; incl. Hadrothemis hyalina Fraser 1927 (n. n.), O. pollinosum Karsch 1899] L55

Rhyothemis curiosa Selys Longchamps 1889 [incl. R. curiosa var. apicalis Selys Longchamps 1889, R. curiosa var. transversa Selys Longchamps 1889] SL89

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A07] Anderson, T. M. 2007. An assessment of water mite parasitism of dragonflies based on museum collections. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 61–69. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[B-PE07] Behan-Pelletier, V. M., & B. Eamer. 2007. Aquatic Oribatida: adaptations, constraints, distribution and ecology. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 71–82. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[C70] CSIRO. 1970. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne University Press.

[FB03] Fleck, G., G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs, E. Jarzembowski, R. Coram & A. Nel. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Stenophlebioptera (Odonata: Epiproctophora). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 39 (1): 55–93.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K01] Klapálek, F. 1901. Neuropteroidák [Neuropteroiden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 203–221. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L55] Longfield, C. 1955. The Odonata of N. Angola. Part I. Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 11–63.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[NB01] Nel, A., G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs & G. Fleck. 2001. A new family of Anisoptera from the Upper Jurassic of Karatau in Kazakhstan (Insecta: Odonata: Juragomphidae n. fam.) Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 314: 1–9.

[O70] O’Farrell, A. F. 1970. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 241–261. Melbourne University Press.

[P74] Paulson, D. R. 1974. Reproductive isolation in damselflies. Systematic Zoology 23 (1): 40–49.

[PH10] Pinder, A. M., S. A. Halse, R. J. Shiel & J. M. McRae. 2010. An arid zone awash with diversity: patterns in the distribution of aquatic invertebrates in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 205–246.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[SL89] Selys Longchamps, E. de. 1889. Odonates de Sumatra comprenant les espèces recueillies à Pulo Nias par M. le D.r E. Modigliani. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 444–484.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[TH06] Theischinger, G., & J. Hawking. 2006. The Complete Field Guide to Dragonflies of Australia. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[T08a] Tillyard, R. J. 1908a. On the genus Nannodythemis, with descriptions of new species. [Neuroptera: Odonata]. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 444–455, pl. 6.

[T08b] Tillyard, R. J. 1908b. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 629.

[T08c] Tillyard, R. J. 1908c. On some remarkable Australian Libellulinae. Part II. Descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 637–649, pl. 14.

[WO91] Watson, J. A. L., & A. F. O’Farrell. 1991. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 294–310. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

Last updated: 23 October 2017.

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