Libellulidae

Female epaulet skimmer Orthetrum chrysostigma, copyright Muhammad Mahdi Karim.


Belongs within: Cavilabiata.

The Libellulidae, skimmers and perchers, are a diverse group of dragonflies with antenodal costal and subcostal veins in strict alignment, and a rounded base to the hindwing in both sexes (Theischinger & Hawking 2006). Members of the group vary widely in appearance; some have strongly patterned wings, while others have entirely transparent wing membranes.

Characters (from Theischinger & Hawking 2006): Wings with antenodal costal and subcostal veins in strict alignment, primary antenodals not discernible; sectors of arculus generally stalked at base; anal loop generally well developed; hindwing base rounded in both sexes. Lavae with labium ladle-shaped, bearing premental and palpal setae; labial palps smooth to strongly toothed; abdomen generally laterally and (more rarely) dorsally armed.

Libellulidae [Libellulinae]
    |--Diastatops NB01
    |--Nannothemis Brauer 1868 FB03
    |--Palaeothemis tillyardi Fraser 1923 FB03
    |--Neodythemis Karsch 1889 FB03
    |--Pantala flavescens (Fabricius 1798) TH06 [incl. Libellula terminalis SL89, L. viridula SL89]
    |--Diplax trivialis SL89
    |--Tyriobapta torrida SL89
    |--Lepthemis vesiculosa SL89
    |--Notolibellula bicolor Theischinger & Watson 1977 TH06
    |--Potamarcha congener (Rambur 1842) TH06
    |--Raphismia bispina (Hagen 1867) TH06
    |--Nannodiplax rubra Brauer 1868 TH06
    |--Rhodothemis lieftincki Fraser 1954 TH06
    |--Austrothemis nigrescens (Martin 1901) TH06
    |--Huonia melvillensis Brown & Theischinger 1998 TH06
    |--Tholymis tillarga (Fabricius 1798) TH06
    |--Hydrobasileus brevistylus (Brauer 1865) TH06
    |--Celithemis eponina A07
    |--Ladona P74
    |--Erythemis A07
    |--Pachydiplex A07
    |--Perithemis A07
    |--Acisoma SL89
    |    |--A. ascalaphoides SL89
    |    `--A. panorpoides SL89
    |--Orchithemis [incl. Calothemis] SL89
    |    |--O. pruinans (Selys 1878) [=Calothemis pruinans] SL89
    |    `--O. pulcherrima Brauer 1878 [incl. Calothemis exsudans Selys 1878] SL89
    |--Tetrathemis TH06
    |    |--T. irregularis TH06
    |    |    |--T. i. irregularis TH06
    |    |    `--T. i. cladophila Tillyard 1908 TH06
    |    `--T. platyptera TH06
    |--Camacinia TH06
    |    |--C. gigantea TH06
    |    `--C. othello Tillyard 1908 TH06
    |--Nesciothemis L55
    |    |--*N. farinosum (Förster 1898) (see below for synonymy) L55
    |    `--N. fitzgeraldi (Pinhey 1955) [=Orthetrum fitzgeraldi] L55
    |--Crocothemis TH06
    |    |--C. nigrifrons (Kirby 1894) TH06
    |    |--C. servilia [=Libellula servilia] SL89
    |    `--C. soror [=Trithemis soror] SL89
    |--Orthemis SL89
    |    |--O. congener SL89
    |    |--O. lineata SL89
    |    `--O. metallica SL89
    |--Trithemis SL89
    |    |--T. adelpha Selys 1878 SL89
    |    |--T. festiva [=Libellula festiva; incl. Dythemis infernalis] SL89
    |    |--T. fraterna SL89
    |    `--T. tirbyi Im92
    |--Nannophlebia TH06
    |    |--N. eludens Tillyard 1908 TH06
    |    |--N. injibandi Watson 1969 TH06
    |    |--N. mudginberri Watson & Theischinger 1991 TH06
    |    `--N. risi Tillyard 1913 TH06
    |--Tramea TH06
    |    |--T. euryale SL89
    |    |--T. eurybia Selys 1878 TH06
    |    |--T. loewii Kaup 1866 TH06
    |    |--T. propinqua Lieftinck 1942 TH06
    |    `--T. stenoloba (Watson 1962) TH06
    |--Nannophya TH06
    |    |--N. australis Brauer 1865 TH06
    |    |--N. dalei (Tillyard 1908) TH06
    |    |--N. occidentalis (Tillyard 1908) TH06
    |    |--N. paulsoni Theischinger 2003 TH06
    |    `--N. pygmaea [incl. N. exigua] SL89
    |--Zyxomma TH06
    |    |--*Z. petiolatum Rambur 1842 SL89, TH06
    |    |--Z. atlanticum SL89
    |    |--Z. elgneri Ris 1913 TH06
    |    |--Z. multinervorum Carpenter 1897 TH06
    |    `--Z. obtusum SL89
    |--Libella SL89
    |    |--L. clelia SL89
    |    |--L. glauca Brauer 1865 SL89
    |    |--L. luzonica Brauer 1868 SL89
    |    |--L. pruinosa [=Libellula pruinosa] SL89
    |    `--L. testacea [=Libellula testacea] SL89
    |--Lathrecista TH06
    |    |--L. asiatica TH06
    |    |    |--L. a. asiatica TH06
    |    |    `--L. a. festa (Selys 1879) TH06 [=Agrionoptera festa SL89, Orthemis festa SL89]
    |    |--L. difficilis [=Agrionoptera difficilis, Orthemis difficilis] SL89
    |    |--L. pectoralis [=Agrionoptera pectoralis, Orthemis pectoralis] SL89
    |    `--L. simulans [=Agrionoptera simulans, Orthemis simulans] SL89
    |--Diplacina SL89
    |    |--*D. nana SL89
    |    |--D. braueri SL89
    |    |--D. militaris SL89
    |    |--D. nigrilabris SL89
    |    |--D. obscura SL89
    |    `--D. smaragdina SL89
    |--Sympetrum P74
    |    |--S. flaveolum K01
    |    |--S. internum A07
    |    |--S. obtrusum A07
    |    |--S. pedemontanum K01
    |    |--S. rubicundulum A07
    |    |--S. sanguineum K01
    |    `--S. scoticum K01
    |--Diplacodes Kirby 1889 FB03
    |    |--D. bipunctata (Brauer 1865) TH06
    |    |--D. concinna [=Libellula concinna, Diplacina concinna] SL89
    |    |--D. flavistyla [=Libellula flavistyla, Diplacina flavistyla] SL89
    |    |--D. haematodes (Burmeister 1839) TH06
    |    |--D. melanopsis (Martin 1901) TH06
    |    |--D. nebulosa (Fabricius 1793) TH06 [=Libellula nebulosa SL89, Diplacina nebulosa SL89]
    |    |--D. tetra [=Libellula tetra, Diplacina tetra] SL89
    |    `--D. trivialis (Rambur 1842) TH06
    |--Neurothemis TH06 [incl. Polynevra SL89]
    |    |--N. basalis SL89
    |    |--N. degener Selys Longchamps 1879 [incl. Libellula intermedia] SL89
    |    |--N. feralis [incl. Libellula equestris] SL89
    |    |--N. fluctuans Selys 1879 SL89
    |    |    |--N. f. fluctuans SL89
    |    |    `--N. f. disparilis Kirby 1889 SL89
    |    |--N. oligoneura Brauer 1867 TH06
    |    `--N. stigmatizans (Fabricius 1775) TH06
    |--Leucorrhinia P74
    |    |--L. frigida MG06
    |    |--L. hudsonica B-PE07
    |    |--L. intacta MG06
    |    |--L. intermedia Iw92
    |    |    |--L. i. intermedia Iw92
    |    |    `--L. i. ijimai Asahina 1961 Iw92
    |    |--L. pectoralis K01
    |    |--L. proxima MG06
    |    `--L. rubicunda K01
    |--Libellula RS10
    |    |--L. angelina Selys 1883 Iw92
    |    |--L. depressa Im92
    |    |--L. edwardsii de Selys 1848 E12
    |    |--L. lydia RS10
    |    |--L. quadrimaculata Iw92
    |    |    |--L. q. quadrimaculata Iw92
    |    |    `--L. q. asahinai Iw92
    |    |--L. saturata TW05
    |    `--L. separata de Selys 1847 E12
    |--Agrionoptera TH06
    |    |--A. insignis TH06 [=Libellula insignis SL89]
    |    |    |--A. i. insignis TH06
    |    |    `--A. i. allogenes Tillyard 1908 TH06
    |    |--A. lineata SL89
    |    |--A. longitudinalis TH06
    |    |    |--A. l. longitudinalis TH06
    |    |    `--A. l. biserialis Selys 1879 TH06
    |    |--A. malaccensis SL89
    |    `--A. mysis Selys 1878 SL89
    |--Rhyothemis SL89
    |    |--R. braganza Karsch 1890 TH06
    |    |--R. curiosa Selys Longchamps 1889 (see below for synonymy) SL89
    |    |--R. fulgens Selys Longchamps 1889 SL89
    |    |--R. fuliginosa SL89
    |    |--R. graphiptera (Rambur 1842) TH06
    |    |--R. phyllis (Sulzer 1776) TH06
    |    |    |--R. p. phyllis TH06
    |    |    |--R. p. beatricis TH06
    |    |    `--R. p. chloe TH06
    |    |--R. plutonia SL89
    |    |--R. princeps Kirby 1894 TH06
    |    |--R. resplendens Selys 1878 TH06
    |    `--R. vidua SL89
    |--Brachydiplax TH06
    |    |  i. s.: B. chalybea Brauer 1868 [incl. B. maria Selys 1878] SL89
    |    |         B. denticauda (Brauer 1867) TH06 [=Diplax denticauda SL89]
    |    |         B. duivenbodi (Brauer 1866) TH06
    |    |         B. gestroi SL89
    |    |         B. gracilis [=Microthemis gracilis] SL89
    |    |         B. melanops SL89
    |    |         B. sobrina [=Libellula sobrina] SL89
    |    `--B. (Microdiplax Selys Longchamps 1889) SL89
    |         |--B. (*M.) thoracantha [=Raphisma thoracantha; incl. B. bispina] SL89
    |         `--B. (M.) delicatula Selys Longchamps 1889 SL89
    `--Orthetrum Newman 1833 L55
         |--O. abbotti Calvert 1892 (see below for synonymy) L55
         |--O. africanum (Selys 1887) [=Lepthemis sabina var. africana] L55
         |    |--O. a. africanum L55
         |    `--O. a. sagitta Ris 1919 L55
         |--O. anceps (Schneider 1845) L55 [=Libellula anceps L55; incl. L. ramburii de Selys 1847 L55, E12]
         |--O. angustiventre (Rambur 1842) [=Libellula angustiventris] L55
         |--O. austeni (Kirby 1900) [=Thermorthemis austeni] L55
         |--O. azureum (Rambur 1842) [=Libellula azurea] L55
         |--O. balteatum Lieftinck 1933 TH06
         |--O. boumiera Watson & Arthington 1978 TH06
         |--O. brachiale (Palisot de Beauvois 1805) [=Libellula brachialis] L55
         |--O. brunneum (Fonscolombe 1837) [=Libellula brunnea] L55
         |--O. caffrum (Burmeister 1839) [=Libellula caffra] L55
         |--O. caledonicum (Brauer 1865) TH06
         |--O. cancellatum (Linné 1758) [=Libellula cancellata] L55
         |--O. capense (Calvert 1893) [=Libellula (Orthetrum) capensis, O. stemmale capense] L55
         |    |--O. c. capense L55
         |    `--O. c. falsum Longfield 1955 L55
         |--O. chrysostigma (Burmeister 1839) L55 [=Libellula chrysostigma L55; incl. L. barbara de Selys 1847 L55, E12]
         |--O. coerulescens (Fabricius 1798) [=Libellula coerulescens] L55
         |--O. guineense Ris 1909 [=O. chrysostigma guineense] L55
         |--O. helena L55
         |--O. hintzi Schmidt 1951 [incl. O. hintzi zernyi Schmidt 1951] L55
         |--O. icteromelas Ris 1910 L55
         |--O. julia Kirby 1900 L55
         |--O. kristenseni Ris 1911 L55
         |--O. lugubre Ris 1915 [=O. azureum lugubre] L55
         |--O. machadoi Longfield 1955 L55
         |--O. macrostigma Longfield 1947 L55
         |--O. microstigma Ris 1911 L55
         |    |--O. m. microstigma L55
         |    `--O. m. imitans Schmidt 1951 L55
         |--O. migratum Lieftinck 1951 TH06
         |--O. milloti Fraser 1949 [=O. stemmale milloti] L55
         |--O. monardi Schmidt 1951 L55
         |--O. nitidinerve (Selys 1841) [=Libellula nitidinerve] L55
         |--O. poecilops Iw92
         |    |--O. p. poecilops Iw92
         |    `--O. p. miyajimaensis (Yuki & Doi 1938) Iw92
         |--O. ransonneti (Brauer 1865) [=Libellula ransonneti] L55
         |--O. rubens Barnard 1937 L55
         |--O. sabina (Drury 1770) TH06 [=Libellula sabina SL89, Lepthemis sabina SL89; incl. Li. gibba SL89]
         |--O. serapia Watson 1984 TH06
         |--O. stemmale (Burmeister 1839) [=Libellula stemmalis] L55
         |    |--O. s. stemmale [incl. Libellula coarctata Rambur 1842, L. contracta Rambur 1842] L55
         |    |--O. s. kalai Longfield 1936 L55
         |    |--O. s. lemur Ris 1909 L55
         |    `--O. s. wrighti (Selys 1869) [=Libellula wrighti] L55
         |--O. taeniolatum (Schneider 1845) [=Libellula taeniolata; incl. O. brevistylum Kirby 1898] L55
         |--O. trinacria (Selys 1841) [=Libellula trinacria] L55
         `--O. villosovittatum (Brauer 1868) TH06

Nomen nudum: Libellula brevialata Münster ex Weijenbergh 1869 FB03

*Nesciothemis farinosum (Förster 1898) [=Orthetrum farinosum; incl. Hadrothemis hyalina Fraser 1927 (n. n.), O. pollinosum Karsch 1899] L55

Orthetrum abbotti Calvert 1892 [incl. O. flavidulum Kirby 1898, O. mundulum Morton 1928, O. phillipsi Kirby 1896] L55

Rhyothemis curiosa Selys Longchamps 1889 [incl. R. curiosa var. apicalis Selys Longchamps 1889, R. curiosa var. transversa Selys Longchamps 1889] SL89

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A07] Anderson, T. M. 2007. An assessment of water mite parasitism of dragonflies based on museum collections. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress, pp. 61-69. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[B-PE07] Behan-Pelletier, V. M., & B. Eamer. 2007. Aquatic Oribatida: adaptations, constraints, distribution and ecology. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress, pp. 71-82. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FB03] Fleck, G., G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs, E. Jarzembowski, R. Coram & A. Nel. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Stenophlebioptera (Odonata: Epiproctophora). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 39 (1): 55-93.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K01] Klapálek, F. 1901. Neuropteroidák [Neuropteroiden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 203-221. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L55] Longfield, C. 1955. The Odonata of N. Angola. Part I. Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 11-63.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772-794.

[NB01] Nel, A., G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs & G. Fleck. 2001. A new family of Anisoptera from the Upper Jurassic of Karatau in Kazakhstan (Insecta: Odonata: Juragomphidae n. fam.) Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 314: 1-9.

[P74] Paulson, D. R. 1974. Reproductive isolation in damselflies. Systematic Zoology 23 (1): 40-49.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079-1083.

[SL89] Selys Longchamps, E. de. 1889. Odonates de Sumatra comprenant les espèces recueillies à Pulo Nias par M. le D.r E. Modigliani. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 444-484.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

[TH06] Theischinger, G. & J. Hawking. 2006. The Complete Field Guide to Dragonflies of Australia. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

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