Alismataceae

Arrowhead Sagittaria sagittifolia, copyright Algirdas.


Belongs within: Alismatanae.

The Alismataceae are a family of flowering herbs found in watery habitats in temperate and tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere (Healy & Edgar 1980).

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980): Annual or perennial, marsh or aquatic, sometimes lactiferous herbs, erect, rarely with floating leaves; hermaphrodite, monoecious or dioecious, Leaves all basal, long-petioled, sheathing; laminae linear-lanceolate, hastate, sagittate or cordate. Flowers actinomorphic, usually bisexual, in panicles or racemes; sepals 3, green, persistent; petals 3. deciduous, rarely 0. Stamens (3)-6 or more, hypogynous, free; anthers 2-celled. Carpels numerous, superior, free or rarely connate at base, arranged in a ring or irregularly packed over surface of receptacle; style persistent; ovules 1-several. Fruit a head or whorl of achenes, rarely of follicles.

Alismataceae
    |--Alisma DS04
    |    |--A. lanceolatum Withering 1796 HE80
    |    `--A. plantago-aquatica Linnaeus 1753 HE80
    `--+--Caldesia DS04
       |    |--C. oligococca DS04
       |    `--C. reniformis AGF98
       `--Sagittaria DS04
            |--S. latifolia DS04
            `--S. sagittifolia C55

Alismataceae incertae sedis:
  Wiesneria YY22
  Lophotocarpus YY22
  Limnophyton YY22
  Burnatia YY22
  Echinodorus Engelmann 1848 L08
    |  i. s.: E. africanus Rataj 1981 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. barthii Mühlberg 1986 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. gabrielii Rataj 1990 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. janii Rataj 1988 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. maculatus Somogyi 2006 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. multiflorus Rataj 1989 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. opacus Rataj 1970 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. portoalegrensis Rataj 1970 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. pseudohorizontalis Rataj 2002 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. schlueteri Rataj 1981 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. veronikae Rataj 1988 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. viridis Rataj 2002 (n. d.) L08
    |--*E. berteroi (Spreng.) Fassett 1955 (see below for synonymy) L08
    `--+--+--E. longipetalus Micheli 1881 (see below for synonymy) L08
       |  `--+--E. horizontalis Rataj 1969 [incl. E. interruptus Rataj 2004] L08
       |     `--E. tunicatus Small 1909 L08
       `--+--E. sect. Palaefolii Rataj 1975 L08
          |    |--E. major (Micheli) Rataj 1967 [=E. martii β major Micheli 1881] L08
          |    `--+--E. pubescens (Mart.) Seub. 1872 (see below for synonymy) L08
          |       `--+--E. inpai Rataj 1981 L08
          |          `--+--E. palaefolius (Nees & Mart.) Macbr. 1931 (see below for synonymy) L08
          |             `--+--E. decumbens Kasselm. 2000 L08
          |                `--E. subalatus (Mart.) Griseb. 1866 (see below for synonymy) L08
          `--+--+--E. heikobleheri Rataj 2004 L08
             |  `--E. grisebachii Small 1909 (see below for synonymy) L08
             `--+--E. lanceolatus Rataj 1968 non E. rostratus var. lanceolatus Engelm. 1890 L08
                `--+--+--E. trialatus Fassett 1955 L08
                   |  `--+--E. glandulosus Rataj 1969 L08
                   |     `--+--E. emersus Lehtonen 2008 L08
                   |        `--E. scaber Rataj 1969 (see below for synonymy) L08
                   `--+--+--E. bracteatus Micheli 1881 (see below for synonymy) L08
                      |  `--E. macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli 1881 [=Alisma macrophyllum Kunth 1841] L08
                      `--+--+--E. cylindricus Rataj 1975 L08
                         |  `--E. glaucus Rataj 1975 [incl. E. teretoscapus Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1994] L08
                         `--+--E. paniculatus Micheli 1881 (see below for synonymy) L08
                            `--+--+--E. reptilis Lehtonen 2008 L08
                               |  `--E. uruguayensis Arechav. 1903 (see below for synonymy) L08
                               `--+--E. cordifolius (Linnaeus) Griseb. 1857 (see below for synonymy) L08
                                  `--+--E. floribundus (Seub.) Seub. 1872 (see below for synonymy) L08
                                     `--+--E. grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Micheli 1881 (see below for synonymy) L08
                                        `--E. longiscapus Arechav. 1903 (see below for synonymy) L08
  Baldellia L08
  Helanthium (Benth. & Hook.) Britton 1905 L08
    |--H. bolivianum [=Echinodorus bolivianus] L08
    |--H. tenellum [=Echinodorus tenellus] L08
    `--H. zombiense [=Echinodorus zombiensis] L08
  Ranalisma L08
  Albidella nymphaeifolia [=Echinodorus nymphaeifolius] L08

*Echinodorus berteroi (Spreng.) Fassett 1955 [=Alisma berteroi Spreng. 1825, A. berteroanum Balb. ex Schult. & Schult. 1830; incl. Echinodorus rostratus var. lanceolatus Engelm. 1890, E. berteroi var. lanceolatus (Engelm.) Fassett 1955, E. cordifolius f. lanceolatus (Engelm.) Fernald 1936, E. rostratus f. lanceolatus (Engelm.) Fernald 1947, E. longilineatus Rataj 2004, E. patagonicus Speg. 1902, E. berteroi ssp. patagonicus (Speg.) Rataj 1969, Alisma rostrata Nutt. 1835, E. rostratus (Nutt.) Engelm. 1848] L08

Echinodorus bracteatus Micheli 1881 [incl. E. bracteatus var. efenestratus Fassett 1955, E. bracteatus ssp. efenestratus (Fassett) Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1986] L08

Echinodorus cordifolius (Linnaeus) Griseb. 1857 [=Alisma cordifolia Linnaeus 1753, Sagittaria cordifolia (Linnaeus) Lam. 1788; incl. Echinodorus fluitans Fassett 1955, E. cordifolius ssp. fluitans (Fassett) Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1986, E. ovalis Wright ex Sauvalle 1870, Sagittaria radicans Nutt. 1835, E. radicans (Nutt.) Engelm. 1848] L08

Echinodorus floribundus (Seub.) Seub. 1872 [=Alisma floribundum Seub. 1847, E. grandiflorus α floribundus (Seub.) Micheli 1881; incl. E. grandiflorus var. aureus Fassett 1955, E. grandiflorus ssp. aureus (Fassett) Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1986, Alisma pubescens β claussenii Seub. 1847, E. grandiflorus var. claussenii Rataj 1969, E. grandiflorus var. longibracteatus Rataj 1969, E. muricatus Griseb. 1858, E. macrophyllus β muricatus (Griseb.) Micheli 1881, E. puncatus Micheli 1881] L08

Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Micheli 1881 [=Alisma grandiflorum Cham. & Schltdl. 1827; incl. E. argentinensis Rataj 1970, E. floridanus Haynes & Burkhalter 1998, E. grandiflorus β ovatus Micheli 1881, E. pellucidus Rataj 1975] L08

Echinodorus grisebachii Small 1909 [incl. E. amazonicus Rataj 1970, E. amphibius Rataj 1967, E. bleherae Rataj 1970, E. eglandulosus Holm-Niels. & Haynes 1985, E. gracilis Rataj 1967, E. grisebachii var. minor Kasselm. 2001 nec E. ellipticus δ minor (Seub.) Micheli 1881 nec E. sellowianus var. minor Buchenau 1903, E. parviflorus Rataj 1970] L08

Echinodorus longipetalus Micheli 1881 [incl. Sagittaria brevipedicellata Kuntze 1898, E. brevipedicellatus (Kuntze) Buchenau 1903, E. reticulatus Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1986] L08

Echinodorus longiscapus Arechav. 1903 [=E. grandiflorus var. longiscapus (Arechav.) Hauman 1915, E. sellowianus var. major Buchenau 1903 non E. martii β major Micheli 1881, E. sellowianus var. minor Buchenau 1903 non E. ellipticus δ minor (Seub.) Micheli 1881, E. longiscapus var. minor (Buchenau) Tronc. 1964, E. aschersonianus var. nulliglandulosus Rataj 1970, E. sellowianus Buchenau 1903] L08

Echinodorus palaefolius (Nees & Mart.) Macbr. 1931 [=Sagittaria palaefolia Nees & Mart. 1823, Alisma palaefolium (Nees & Mart.) Kunth 1841; incl. A. ellipticum Mart. 1830, E. ellipticus α latifolia Micheli 1881, E. palaefolius var. latifolius (Micheli) Rataj 1971, Alisma ellipticum β minus Seub. 1847, Echinodorus ellipticus δ minor (Seub.) Micheli 1881, E. palaefolius var. minus (Seub.) Rataj 1971, E. piauhyensis Kasselm. 2001, Alisma virgata Hook. & Arn. 1838, E. virgatus (Hook. & Arn.) Micheli 1881] L08

Echinodorus paniculatus Micheli 1881 [incl. E. paniculatus var. brevifolia Haumann 1915, E. paniculatus var. dubius Fassett 1955, E. paniculatus f. latifolia Chodat & Hassler 1903 non E. ellipticus α latifolia Micheli 1881] L08

Echinodorus pubescens (Mart.) Seub. 1872 [=Alisma pubescens Mart. 1830, E. ellipticus β pubescens (Mart.) Micheli 1881; incl. E. macrocarpus Rataj 1975] L08

Echinodorus scaber Rataj 1969 [=E. macrophyllus ssp. scaber (Rataj) Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1986; incl. E. scaber var. proliferatus Rataj 1969] L08

Echinodorus subalatus (Mart.) Griseb. 1866 [=Alisma subalatus Mart. 1830; incl. A. andrieuxii Hook. & Arn. 1838, Echinodorus andrieuxii (Hook. & Arn.) Small 1909, E. subalatus ssp. andrieuxii (Hook. & Arn.) Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1986, Alisma intermedium Mart. 1830, E. intermedius (Mart.) Griseb. 1866, E. longistylis Buchenau 1903, E. andrieuxii var. longistylis (Buchenau) Rataj 1971, E. martii Micheli 1881, E. ellipticus γ ovata Micheli 1881] L08

Echinodorus uruguayensis Arechav. 1903 [=E. martii var. uruguayensis (Arechav.) Hauman 1915; incl. E. aschersonianus Graebn. 1911, E. horemanii Rataj 1970, E. uruguayensis var. minor Kasselm. 2001 nec E. ellipticus δ minor (Seub.) Micheli 1881 nec E. sellowianus var. minor Buchenau 1903 nec E. grisebachii var. minor Kasselm. 2001, E. osiris Rataj 1970] L08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[L08] Lehtonen, S. 2008. An integrative approach to species delimitation in Echinodorus (Alismataceae) and the description of two new species. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 525–563.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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