Fibla hesperica, copyright Thijs Valkenburg.

Belongs within: Neuropterida.
Contains: Baissopteridae, Mesoraphidiidae, Raphidiidae.

The Raphidioptera, snakeflies, are a Holarctic group of predatory insects characterised by a remarkably elongate pronotum giving a appearance of a distinct 'neck'.

Characters (from Aspöck & Aspöck 1991): Mandibulate, endopterygote Neoptera; antennae multisegmented; compound eyes always present; ocelli present only in Raphidiidae; prothorax elongate; with two pairs of subequal wings; ovipositor long. Larvae terrestrial; with biting mouth-parts and lateral ocelli. Pupae decticous.

<==Raphidioptera [Raphidiida, Raphidiodea]
    |  i. s.: Archiinocellia Handlirsch 1910 E02
    |           `--*A. oligoneura Handlirsch 1910 E02
    |         Arariperaphidia Martins-Neto & Vulcano 1989 E02
    |           `--*A. rochai Martins-Neto & Vulcano 1989 E02
    |         Erma Navás 1918 [Ermidae] S63
    |--Priscaenigmatomorpha EWB18
    |    |--Chrysoraphidiidae EWB18
    |    `--Priscaenigmatidae AA04
    |         |--Priscaenigma Whalley 1985 AA04
    |         |    `--*P. obtusa Whalley 1985 E02
    |         `--Hondelagia Bode 1953 E02
    |              `--*H. reticulata Bode 1953 [=Mesoraphidia reticulata] E02
    `--Raphidiomorpha E02
         |--Juroraphidiidae EWB18
         `--+--Baissopteridae GE05
            `--+--Mesoraphidiidae GE05
               |--Alloraphidiidae GE05
               |    |--Pararaphidia Willmann 1994 E02
               |    |    |--P. deserta (Ponomarenko 1988) [=Alloraphidia deserta] E02
               |    |    `--P. vitimica (Martynova 1961) [=Proraphidia vitimica, Alloraphidia vitimica] E02
               |    |--Archeraphidia Ponomarenko 1988 E02
               |    |    |--*A. yakowlewi Ponomarenko 1988 E02
               |    |    |--A. baisensis Ponomarenko 1993 E02
               |    |    `--A. hosbayari Ponomarenko 1988 E02
               |    `--Alloraphidia Carpenter 1967 E02
               |         |--*A. dorfi Carpenter 1967 E02
               |         |--A. anomala Ren 1997 E02
               |         |--A. asiatica Ponomarenko 1993 E02
               |         `--A. petrosa Ponomarenko 1988 E02
               `--Raphidioidea [Neoraphidioptera, Raphidiina] AA04
                    |--Raphidiidae AA04
                    `--Inocelliidae AA04
                         |  i. s.: Parainocellia Aspöck & Aspöck 1968 AA04
                         |           |--P. bicolor WHW10
                         |           `--P. ressli AA91
                         |         Electrinocellia Engel 1995 E02
                         |           `--*E. peculiaris (Carpenter 1956) [=Inocellia peculiaris] E02
                         |         Succinofibla Aspöck & Aspöck 2004 AA04
                         |           `--*S. aperta Aspöck & Aspöck 2004 AA04
                         |         Sininocellia Yang 1985 AA04
                         |--Negha Navás 1916 VM20, AA04
                         |    `--N. meridionalis TW05
                         `--+--Inocellia Schneider 1843 VM20, AA04
                            |    |--I. crassicornis VM20
                            |    `--I. japonica VM20
                            `--Fibla Navás 1915 [incl. Burcha Navás 1915, Estoca Navás 1919] E02
                                 |  i. s.: F. erigena (Menge 1856) AA04 [=Raphidia erigena AA04, R. (Inocellia) erigena E02]
                                 |         F. exusta (Cockerell & Custer 1925) AA04 [=Inocellia exusta E02]
                                 |         F. maclachlani (Albarda 1891) VM20, E02 (see below for synonymy)
                                 |         *Estoca’ peyerimhoffi Navás 1919 E02
                                 |--F. (Fibla) AA04
                                 |    |--*F. (F.) hesperica Navás 1915 E02
                                 |    `--F. (F.) carpenteri Engel 1995 AA04
                                 `--F. (Reisserella) Aspöck & Aspöck 1971 [incl. Miofibla Nel 1993] E02
                                      |--F. (*R.) pasiphae Aspöck & Aspöck 1971 [=Inocellia (R.) pasiphae] E02
                                      `--F. (R.) cerdanica (Nel 1993) [=Miofibla cerdanica] E02

Fibla maclachlani (Albarda 1891) VM20, E02 [=Inocellia maclachlani E02, *Burcha maclachlani E02]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AA91] Aspöck, H., & U. Aspöck. 1991. Raphidioptera (snake-flies, camelneck-flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 521–524. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[AA04] Aspöck, U., & H. Aspöck. 2004. Two significant new snakeflies from Baltic amber, with discussion on autapomorphies of the order and its included taxa (Raphidioptera). Systematic Entomology 29: 11–19.

[E02] Engel, M. S. 2002. The smallest snakefly (Raphidioptera: Mesoraphidiidae): a new species in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar, with a catalogue of fossil snakeflies. American Museum Novitates 3363: 1–22.

[EWB18] Engel, M. S., S. L. Winterton & L. C. V. Breitkreuz. 2018. Phylogeny and evolution of Neuropterida: where have wings of lace taken us? Annual Review of Entomology 63: 531–551.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[S63] Steinmann, H. 1963. Raphidiopterological studies I. Navasana gen. n. from Hungary, Harraphidia gen. n. from Morocco, new Lesna Nav. and Subilla Nav. species from Europe. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 9 (1–2): 183–198.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[VM20] Vasilikopoulos, A., B. Misof, K. Meusemann, D. Lieberz, T. Flouri, R. G. Beutel, O. Niehuis, T. Wappler, J. Rust, R. S. Peters, A. Donath, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Mayer, D. Bartel, A. Böhm, S. Liu, P. Kapli, C. Greve, J. E. Jepson, X. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck. 2020. An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). BMC Evolutionary Biology 20: 64.

[WHW10] Winterton, S. L., N. B. Hardy & B. M. Wiegmann. 2010. On wings of lace: phylogeny and Bayesian divergence time estimates of Neuropterida (Insecta) based on morphological and molecular data. Systematic Entomology 35: 349–378.

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