Raphidia ophiopsis, copyright Guido Bohne.

Belongs within: Raphidioptera.

The Raphidiidae are a group of snakeflies characterised by the presence of three ocelli and a tube-like pronotum laterally covering the pleural region (Aspöck & Aspöck 1991).

    |--Agulla Navás 1914 VM20, A02
    |    |--A. adnixa K67
    |    |--A. astuta RD77
    |    `--A. bicolor WHW10
    `--+--Mongoloraphidia VM20
       |    |--M. eklipes GE05
       |    |--M. martynovae WHW10
       |    `--M. sororcula VM20
       `--+--+--+--Ohmella VM20
          |  |  |    |--O. baetica VM20
          |  |  |    |    |--O. b. baetica VM20
          |  |  |    |    `--O. b. bolivari VM20
          |  |  |    `--O. coffini Nel 1993 E02
          |  |  `--Atlantoraphidia maculicollis VM20
          |  `--+--Xanthostigma VM20
          |     |    |--X. gobicola VM20
          |     |    `--X. xanthostigma PK17
          |     `--+--Puncha Navás 1915 VM20, S63
          |        |    `--P. ratzeburgi VM20
          |        `--Venustoraphidia nigricollis VM20
          `--+--+--+--Subilla Navás 1916 VM20, S63
             |  |  |    |--S. confinis VM20
             |  |  |    |--S. schneideri S63
             |  |  |    |--S. sericea S63
             |  |  |    `--S. sulfuricosta Steinmann 1963 S63
             |  |  `--Phaeostigma VM20
             |  |       |--P. divina VM20
             |  |       |--P. major VM20
             |  |       `--P. robusta AA91
             |  `--+--Turcoraphidia amara VM20
             |     `--+--Parvoraphidia microstigma VM20
             |        `--Ornatoraphidia flavilabris VM20
             `--+--Dichrostigma flavipes VM20
                `--Raphidia Linnaeus 1758 E02 (see below for synonymy)
                     |--*R. ophiopsis Linnaeus 1758 E02
                     |--R. baltica Carpenter 1956 AA04
                     |--R. creedei Carpenter 1936 E02
                     |--R. elegans (Cockerell 1907) [=*Megaraphidia elegans] E02
                     |--R. euxina Navas 1915 [=R. (*Pretzmannia) euxina] E02
                     |--R. exhumata Cockerell 1909 [incl. R. pulveris Cockerell 1914] E02
                     |--R. flaviceps K01
                     |--R. funerata GE05
                     |--R. mediterranea VM20
                     |--R. mortua Rohwer 1909 E02
                     |--R. notata RD77
                     |--R. nuchensis Aspöck, Aspöck & Martynova 1968 [=R. (*Aserbeidshanoraphidia) nuchensis] E02
                     |--R. oblita A99
                     |--R. palaeoformis Aspöck & Aspöck 1968 [=R. (*Nigroraphidia) palaeoformis] E02
                     |--R. tranquilla Scudder 1890 [=Archiraphidia tranquilla; incl. Inocellia somnolenta Scudder 1890] E02
                     |--R. tumulata (Scudder 1890) (see below for synonymy) E02
                     `--R. veterana (Scudder 1890) [=Inocellia veterana, *Dictyoraphidia veterana] E02

Raphidiidae incertae sedis:
  Succinoraphidia Aspöck & Aspöck 2004 [Succinoraphidiinae] AA04
    `--*S. exhibens Aspöck & Aspöck 2004 AA04
  Lesna Navás 1915 S63
    |--L. adanana S63
    |--L. belinayi S63
    |--L. biroi S63
    |--L. caucasica S63
    |--L. davidi S63
    |--L. hungarica S63
    |--L. laticaput Steinmann 1963 S63
    |--L. longicauda S63
    |--L. lestica Steinmann 1963 S63
    |--L. major S63
    |--L. navasi Steinmann 1963 S63
    |--L. notata S63
    |--L. parnassia S63
    |--L. pilicollis S63
    `--L. stigmata Steinmann 1963 S63
  Glavia Navás 1916 S63
  Alena Navás 1916 S63
  Rhaphidilla Navás 1915 S63
  Navasana Steinmann 1963 S63
    `--*N. perumbrata Steinmann 1963 S63
  Harraphidia Steinmann 1963 S63
    `--*H. harpyia Steinmann 1963 S63

Raphidia Linnaeus 1758 E02 [=Rhaphidia Burmeister 1839 S63; incl. Archiraphidia Handlirsch 1910 E02, Aserbeidshanoraphidia Aspöck & Aspöck 1968 E02, Dictyoraphidia Handlirsch 1910 E02, Megaraphidia Cockerell 1907 E02, Nigroraphidia Aspöck & Aspöck 1968 E02, Pretzmannia Aspöck & Aspöck 1968 E02; Raphidiinae]

Raphidia tumulata (Scudder 1890) [=Inocellia tumulata, *Archiraphidia tumulata; incl. Inocellia eventa Scudder 1890, Archiraphidia eventa] E02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A02] Aspöck, U. 2002. Phylogeny of the Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). Zoologica Scripta 31: 51–55.

[AA91] Aspöck, H., & U. Aspöck. 1991. Raphidioptera (snake-flies, camelneck-flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 521–524. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[AA04] Aspöck, U., & H. Aspöck. 2004. Two significant new snakeflies from Baltic amber, with discussion on autapomorphies of the order and its included taxa (Raphidioptera). Systematic Entomology 29: 11–19.

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (transl. 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[E02] Engel, M. S. 2002. The smallest snakefly (Raphidioptera: Mesoraphidiidae): a new species in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar, with a catalogue of fossil snakeflies. American Museum Novitates 3363: 1–22.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K01] Klapálek, F. 1901. Neuropteroidák [Neuropteroiden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 203–221. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K67] Koch, L. E. 1967. The genus Chasmoptera (Neuroptera: Nemopteridae), with the description of a new species from Western Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society, London (B) 36 (9–10): 137–146.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S63] Steinmann, H. 1963. Raphidiopterological studies I. Navasana gen. n. from Hungary, Harraphidia gen. n. from Morocco, new Lesna Nav. and Subilla Nav. species from Europe. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 9 (1–2): 183–198.

[VM20] Vasilikopoulos, A., B. Misof, K. Meusemann, D. Lieberz, T. Flouri, R. G. Beutel, O. Niehuis, T. Wappler, J. Rust, R. S. Peters, A. Donath, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Mayer, D. Bartel, A. Böhm, S. Liu, P. Kapli, C. Greve, J. E. Jepson, X. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck. 2020. An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). BMC Evolutionary Biology 20: 64.

[WHW10] Winterton, S. L., N. B. Hardy & B. M. Wiegmann. 2010. On wings of lace: phylogeny and Bayesian divergence time estimates of Neuropterida (Insecta) based on morphological and molecular data. Systematic Entomology 35: 349–378.

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