Hyaenodontinae

Mounted skeleton of Hyaenodon horridus in the Royal Ontario Museum, photographed by Daderot.


Belongs within: Creodonta.

The Hyaenodontinae are a group of Eocene to Oligocene carnivorous, often cursorial mammals.

Characters (from Polly 1996): Hyaenodontids without metaconid, with narrow distal humerus, with nuchal crest extending to the mastoid process, with robust bridge over the foramen stylomastoid primitivum, without bony ridge dividing the posterior petrosal sinus from the foramen stylomastoid primitivum, with inflated posterior petrosal sinus, and with horse-shoe shaped subarcuate fossa.

<==Hyaenodontinae [Hyaenodontini]
    |--Leakitherium hiwegi S78
    |--Megistotherium osteothlastes S78
    |--Megalopterodon S78
    |--Hyaenodon Laizer & Parieu 1838 (see below for synonymy) V66
    |    |--H. andrewsi S78
    |    |--H. brachycephalus Osborn 1909 S68
    |    |--H. brevirostris V91
    |    |--H. cruentus V91
    |    |--H. horridus V91
    |    |--H. leptorhynchus S78
    |    |--H. matthewi S78
    |    `--H. pilgrimi S78
    |--Ischnognathus Stovall 1948 V66
    `--Hemipsalodon Cope 1885 V66

Hyaenodon Laizer & Parieu 1838 [incl. Neohyaenodon Thorpe 1922, Protohyaenodon Stock 1933, Pseudopterodon Schlosser 1887, Taxotherium Blainville 1841] V66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Polly, P. D. 1996. The skeleton of Gazinocyon vulpeculus gen. et comb. nov. and the cladistic relationships of Hyaenodontidae (Eutheria, Mammalia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16 (2): 303-319.

[S78] Savage, R. J. G. 1978. Carnivora. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 249-267. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[S68] Simons, E. L. 1968. African Oligocene mammals: introduction, history of study, and faunal succession. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, Bulletin 28: 1-21.

[V91] Valkenburgh, B. van. 1991. Iterative evolution of hypercarnivory in canids (Mammalia: Carnivora): evolutionary interactions among sympatric predators. Paleobiology 17 (4): 340-362.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1-126.

Mesonychoidea

Fossil remains of Dissacus praenuntius, from Yale Peabody Museum.


Belongs within: Cetferungulata.

The Mesonychoidea are a group of Palaeocene-Eocene carnivorous mammals. Though superficially similar to modern carnivorans, mesonychoids had hoof-like unguals and were more closely related to modern ungulates, probably in particular to artiodactyls.

<==Mesonychoidea V66
    |--Andrewsarchus O01 [incl. Paratriisodon O98; Andrewsarchinae]
    |    |--A. crassum O98
    |    |--*Paratriisodon’ henanensis Chow 1959 O98
    |    `--A. mongoliensis [incl. Paratriisodon gigas Chow et al. 1973] O98
    `--Mesonychia [Hapalodectini] TW01
         |--Hapalodectidae [Hapalodectinae] O98
         |    |--Hapalodectes compressus O01, O98
         |    `--Hapalorestes O98
         `--Mesonychidae [Mesonychinae] O98
              |  i. s.: Honanodon hebetis O98
              |--Dissacus O01 [incl. Hyaenodictis V66]
              |    |--D. indigenus HC97
              |    |--D. magushanensis HC97
              |    |--D. navajovius O98
              |    |--D. praenuntius O98
              |    `--D. willwoodensis O98
              `--+--Ankalagon saurognathus O01, O98
                 `--+--Sinonyx O01
                    `--+--Pachyaena Cope 1874 O01, C76
                       |    |--P. gigantea O98
                       |    |--P. gracilis O98
                       |    `--P. ossifraga Cope 1874 C76
                       `--+--Synoplotherium O01
                          `--+--Mesonyx [Mesonychidae] TW01
                             |    `--M. obtusidens O98
                             `--+--Mongolonyx O98
                                `--+--Mongolestes O98
                                   `--Harpagolestes orientalis Szalay & Gould 1966 TW01, BM78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM78] Barnes, L. G., & E. Mitchell. 1978. Cetacea. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 582-602. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[C76] Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.

[HC97] Huang X. & Chen L. 1997. Mammalian remains from the Late Paleocene of Guichi, Anhui. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 35 (1): 49-67.

[O98] O'Leary, M. A. 1998. Phylogenetic and morphometric reassessment of the dental evidence for a mesonychian and cetacean clade. In The Emergence of Whales (J. G. M. Thewissen, ed.) pp. 133-161. Plenum Press: New York.

[O01] O’Leary, M. A. 2001. The phylogenetic position of cetaceans: Further combined data analyses, comparisons with the stratigraphic record and a discussion of character optimization. American Zoologist 41: 487-506.

[TW01] Thewissen, J. G. M., E. M. Williams, L. J. Roe & S. T. Hussain. 2001. Skeletons of terrestrial cetaceans and the relationship of whales to artiodactyls. Nature 413: 277-281.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1-126.

Notharctinae

Mounted skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus in the American Museum of Natural History, photographed by Claire Houck.


Belongs within: Euprimates.

The Notharctinae are a group of Eocene lemur-like primates found in Europe and North America, with the higher diversity in the latter. They were supported as a clade in the morphological analysis of Seiffert et al. (2009), but synapomorphies were not explicitly listed.

Notharctinae
    |  i. s.: Periconodon Stehlin 1916 MA05, S62
    |           `--*P. helveticus (Rütimeyer 1891) [=Pelycodus helveticus] S62
    |--+--Cantius Simons 1962 SSA03, S62
    |  |    |--*C. eppsi (Cooper 1932) [=Protoadapis eppsi] S62
    |  |    `--C. abditus BS07
    |  `--+--Barnesia hauboldi SP09
    |     `--Protoadapis Lemoine 1878 SP09, S62 [incl. Megatarsius Weigelt 1933 S62]
    |          |--*P. curvicuspidens Lemoine 1878 S62
    |          |--P. angustidens (Filhol 1888) [=Adapis angustidens; incl. Protadapis brachyrhynchus Stehlin 1912] S62
    |          |--P. copei S62
    |          |--P. raabi S62
    |          `--P. recticuspidens Lemoine 1878 (n. d.) [=Protiadapis recticuspidens] S62
    `--+--Notharctus Leidy 1870 SSA03, SKS05 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--‘Pelycodus’ angulatum Cope 1875 [=Tomitherium angulatus] C76
       |    |--N. crassus WR07
       |    |--‘Pelycodus’ frugivorus Cope 1875 [=Tomitherium frugivorus] C76
       |    |--‘Prototomus’ jarrovii Cope 1874 [=Pelycodus jarrovii, Tomitherium jarrovii] C76
       |    |--N. osborni WR07
       |    |--N. robustior WR07
       |    |--‘Tomitherium’ rostratum C76
       |    |--N. tenebrosus Leidy 1870 SKS05
       |    |--‘Tomitherium’ tutum Cope 1876 C76
       |    |--N. tyrannus BS07
       |    `--N. venticolus WR07
       `--Pronycticebus Grandidier 1904 SSA03, S62
            |--P. curvicuspidens SS05
            `--P. gaudryi Grandidier 1904 S62

Notharctus Leidy 1870 SSA03, SKS05 [incl. Limnotherium Marsh 1871 V66, Prosinopa Trouessart 1897 V66, Telmalestes Marsh 1872 V66, Telmatolestes Marsh 1872 V66, Thinolestes Marsh 1872 V66, Tomitherium Cope 1872 V66]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS07] Bloch, J. I., M. T. Silcox, D. M. Boyer & E. J. Sargis. 2007. New Paleocene skeletons and the relationship of plesiadapiforms to crown-clade primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (4): 1159-1164.

[C76] Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.

[SKS05] Scherf, H., B. Koller & F. Schrenk. 2005. Locomotion-related structures in the femoral trabecular architecture of primates and insectivores (Mammalia, Primates and Insectivora). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 101-112.

[SP09] Seiffert, E. R., J. M. G. Perry, E. L. Simons & D. M. Boyer. 2009. Convergent evolution of anthropoid-like adaptations in Eocene adapiform primates. Nature 461: 1118-1121.

[SSA03] Seiffert, E. R., E. L. Simons & Y. Attia. 2003. Fossil evidence for an ancient divergence of lorises and galagos. Nature 422: 421-424.

[SS05] Seiffert, E. R., E. L. Simons, W. C. Clyde, J. B. Rossie, Y. Attia, T. M. Bown, P. Chatrath & M. E. Mathison. 2005. Basal anthropoids from Egypt and the antiquity of Africa's higher primate radiation. Science 310: 300-304.

[S62] Simons, E. L. 1962. A new Eocene primate genus, Cantius, and a revision of some allied European lemuroids. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Geology 7 (1): 1-36.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1-126.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003-1006.

Cimolesta

Skeleton of Palaeosinopa from the Eocene Green River Formation of Wyoming, from Didier Descouens.


Belongs within: Asioryctitheria.

The Cimolesta is an assemblage of mostly Palaeogene eutherian mammals of uncertain relationships; though united by similarities in dentition, it is possible that these features are plesiomorphies for a broader group of eutherians. The Cretaceous to Palaeocene Cimolestidae have been placed by phylogenetic analysis outside the placental crown group (Wible et al. 2007) but other potential cimolestans have not yet been analysed phylogenetically. These include the Pantolestidae, a Palaeogene group of mammals that have been suggested to be semi-aquatic, possibly feeding on snails and other mollusks.

Cimolesta
    |--Cimolestidae WR07
    |    |--+--Batodon tenuis WR07
    |    |  `--Maelestes Wible, Rougier et al. 2007 WR07
    |    |       `--*M. gobiensis Wible, Rougier et al. 2007 WR07
    |    `--Cimolestes Marsh 1889 WR07, FN03
    |         |--*C. incisus Marsh 1889 V66
    |         |--C. cerberoides Lillegraven 1969 FN03
    |         |--C. cuspulus Gheerbrant 1992 GI06
    |         |--C. magnus Clemens & Russell 1965 FN03
    |         |--C. propalaeoryctes WR07
    |         |--C. simpsoni WR07
    |         `--C. stirtoni WR07
    `--Pantolestidae [Pantolesta] CW07
         |  i. s.: Dypsterna V66
         |           |--D. helbingi Dal Piaz 1930 V66
         |           `--D. woodi V66
         |--Pentacodontinae [Pentacondontidae] S78
         |    |--Coriphagus montanus Douglass 1908 S78, S35
         |    |--Pentacodon inversus S35
         |    `--Aphronorus Simpson 1935 S78, S35
         |         `--*A. fraudator Simpson 1935 S35
         `--Pantolestinae S78
              |--Cryptopithecus Schlosser 1890 V66
              |    `--*C. sideroolithicus Schlosser 1890 V66
              |--Pantolestes Cope 1872 C76
              |    |--*P. longicaudus Cope 1872 C76
              |    `--P. chacensis Cope 1875 C76
              |--Bessoecetor Simpson 1966 V66, SFY02
              |    `--*B. septentrionalis (Russell 1929) (see below for synonymy) SFY02
              |--Palaeosinopa Matthew 1901 V66, SFY02
              |    |--P. lutreola V66
              |    |--P. osborni V66
              |    `--P. veterrima V66
              `--Propalaeosinopa Simpson 1927 (n. d.) V66, SFY02
                   `--*P. albertensis Simpson 1927 (n. d.) SFY02

*Bessoecetor septentrionalis (Russell 1929) [=Diacodon septentrionalis, Propalaeosinopa septentrionalis; incl. Palaeosinopa diluculi Simpson 1935, Bessoecetor diluculi, Propalaeosinopa diluculi, B. thomsoni Simpson 1936, Pr. thomsoni] SFY02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C76] Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.

[CW07] Cote, S., L. Werdelin, E. R. Seiffert & J. C. Barry. 2007. Additional material of the enigmatic Early Miocene mammal Kelba and its relationship to the order Ptolemaiida. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (13): 5510-5515.

[FN03] Fox, R. C., & B. G. Naylor. 2003. A Late Cretaceous taeniodont (Eutheria, Mammalia) from Alberta, Canada. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie – Abhandlungen 229 (3): 393-420.

[GI06] Gheerbrant, E., M. Iarochene, M. Amaghzaz & B. Bouya. 2006. Early African hyaenodontid mammals and their bearing on the origin of the Creodonta. Geological Magazine 143 (4): 475-489.

[SFY02] Scott, C. S., R. C. Fox & G. P. Youzwyshyn. 2002. New earliest Tiffanian (late Paleocene) mammals from Cochrane 2, southwestern Alberta, Canada. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 691-704.

[S35] Simpson, G. G. 1935. New Paleocene mammals from the Fort Union of Montana. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 83 (2981): 221-244.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1-126.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003-1006.

Cnidaria

Thaumaptilon walcotti, copyright Simon Conway Morris.


Belongs within: Animalia.
Contains: Myxozoa, Medusozoa, Rugosa, Tabulata, Hexacorallia, Octocorallia.

The Cnidaria are an aquatic, mostly marine, group of invertebrates including corals, jellyfish and related taxa. The cnidarian body form is ancestrally radial with a single gut opening surrounded by tentacles; the individual zooid may be sessile (a polyp) or free-living (a medusa). Cnidarians are also characterised by the presence of stinging cells called nematocysts or cnidoblasts. Both these features may be modified to some degree in derived subgroups.

Among living cnidarians, the class Anthozoa has the zooid as a usually sessile polyp that develops directly from a planula (a flattened, bilateral larva). Anthozoan polyps may be solitary or colonial. The Middle Cambrian fossil Thaumaptilon walcotti bears a superficial resemblance to modern colonial anthozoans (particularly pennatulaceans) but may lie outside the cnidarian crown group (Shu et al. 2006). Other possible cnidarians of the early Cambrian include the Hydroconozoa, small, sessile organisms with a cup-like calcareous skeleton.

<==Cnidaria
    |--Thaumaptilon walcotti SCM06, CM98
    |--Hydroconus [Hydroconozoa] EL11
    `--+--+--Myxozoa J-GP07
       |  `--Medusozoa J-GP07
       `--Anthozoa [Zoantharia] J-GP07
            |  i. s.: Striatopora EB01
            |           |--S. flexuosa EB01
            |           `--S. linneana Y92
            |         Palaeocyclus EB01
            |         Flosmaris mutsuensis C-SC03
            |         Neoclisiophyllum qaidamense CSZ03
            |         Cravenia CSZ03
            |         Rylstonia oulongbulukensis CSZ03
            |         Palaeosmilia planum CSZ03
            |         Dibuniphyllum CSZ03
            |           |--D. bipartitum CSZ03
            |           `--D. vaughani CSZ03
            |         Kueichouphyllum CSZ03
            |           |--K. keishihkuanense ZP86
            |           `--K. sinense CSZ03
            |         Hexaphyllia qinghaiensis CSZ03
            |         Lonsdaleia stelcki CSZ03
            |         Ekvasophyllum heijianshanensis CSZ03
            |         Cystocyathoclisia sinensis CSZ03
            |         Siphonophyllia oppressa CSZ03
            |         Enygmophyllum CSZ03
            |         Kakwiphyllum qinghaiensis CSZ03
            |         Tabulogyra HS02
            |         Calamoseris HS02
            |         Calamophylliopsis HS02
            |         Felixigyra HS02
            |         Embolophyllum aequiseptatum TC71
            |         Tipheophyllum bartrumi [=Eridophyllum bartrumi] F71
            |         Nebulipora ovulum Eichwald 1854 (n. d.) PP05
            |         Mackenzia costalis CM98
            |         Spongophyllum Edwards & Haime 1851 E13
            |           |--S. bipartitum (Etheridge 1889) E13, F71 [=Lonsdaleia (Spongophyllum) bipartita F71]
            |           |--S. enorme Etheridge 1913 E13 [=Crinophyllum enorme F71, Yassia enormis F71]
            |           |--S. giganteum Etheridge 1899 E13, F71 [=Australophyllum giganteum F71]
            |           |--S. halysitoides Etheridge 1918 F71
            |           `--S. kunthi Schlüter 1881 E13
            |         Cystophrentis kolahoensis ZP86
            |         Keyserlingophyllum keyserlingophylloides ZP86
            |         Kueichowpora suni ZP86
            |         Pseudouralinia tamgpakouensis ZP86
            |         Arachnolasma ZP86
            |           |--A. simplex ZP86
            |           `--A. sinense ZP86
            |         Aulina ZP86
            |           |--A. carinata ZP86
            |           `--A. puerilis ZP86
            |         Yuanophyllum kansuense ZP86
            |         Waagenophyllum DX84
            |           |--W. indicum DX84
            |           |    |--W. i. indicum DX84
            |           |    `--W. i. zhesiense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--W. stereoseptatum DX84
            |           |--W. virgalense DX84
            |           |    |--W. v. virgalense DX84
            |           |    `--W. v. mongoliense DX84
            |           `--W. wumengense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Mandulapora permica Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Zhesipora Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 2001
            |           `--*Z. permica Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Carinoverbeekiella DX84
            |           |--C. madreporitea Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--C. minor Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--C. platiformis Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           `--C. sinensis Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Pseudowaagenophyllum DX84
            |           |--P. elegantulum Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           `--P. vesiculosum Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Damuqiphyllum DX84
            |           |--D. rotiforme Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           `--D. wumengense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Protomichelinia mandulaensis Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Pseudofavosites finitimus DX84
            |           |--P. f. finitimus DX84
            |           `--P. f. minor Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Lophocarinophyllum yakovlevi DX84
            |           |--L. y. yakovlevi DX84
            |           `--L. y. minuta DX84
            |         Michelinia DX84
            |           |--M. cylindrica Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           `--M. porifera F71
            |         Tachylasma DX84
            |           |--T. concavetabulatum Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--T. longiseptatum Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--T. magnum DX84
            |           |    |--T. m. magnum DX84
            |           |    `--T. m. intercalare Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--T. variable DX84
            |           `--T. zhesiense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Gerthia crassoseptata Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Wentzelella damuqiensis Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Diphycarinophyllum baotegense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Paracaninia tzuchiangensis DX84
            |         Pleophyllum DX84
            |           |--P. baytuganense DX84
            |           |--P. ephippiomorphum Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--P. sinense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           `--P. zhesiense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Amygdalophylloides asteroides Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Acanthohalysites F71
            |           |--A. australis (Etheridge 1898) [=Halysites australis] F71
            |           |--A. gamboolicus (Etheridge 1904) [=Halysites gamboolicus] F71
            |           |--A. peristephesicus (Etheridge 1904) [=Halysites peristephesicus] F71
            |           `--A. pycnoblastoides (Etheridge 1904) [=Halysites pycnoblastoides] F71
            |         Acanthophyllum F71
            |           |  i. s.: A. mansfieldense (Dun 1898) [=Cyathophyllum mansfieldense] F71
            |           `--A. (Acanthophyllum) F71
            |                |--A. (A.) aequiseptatum Hill 1940 F71
            |                `--A. (A.) clermontense (Etheridge 1911) [=Cyathophyllum clermontensis] F71
            |         Mesophyllum cornubovis (Etheridge 1899) [=Actinocystis cornubovis] F71
            |         Amygdalophyllum F71
            |           |--A. etheridgei Dun & Benson 1920 F71
            |           `--A. inopinatum (Etheridge 1900) [=Koninckophyllum inopinatum] F71
            |         Aphrophyllum hallense Smith 1920 F71
            |         Arachnophyllum epistomoides Etheridge 1909 F71
            |         Araeopora australis Nicholson & Etheridge 1879 F71
            |         Aulophyllum davidis Etheridge 1891 F71
            |         Baeophyllum colligatum Hill 1940 F71
            |         Billingsaria banksi F71
            |         Campophyllum F71
            |           |--C. columnare Etheridge 1891 F71
            |           |--C. lindstromi F71
            |           `--C. recessum Hill 1940 F71
            |         Caninophyllum sumphuens (Etheridge 1891) [=Zaphrentis sumphuens] F71
            |         Cavanophyllum trochoides (Hill 1940) [=Mictophyllum trochoides] F71
            |         Cionodendron columen Benson & Smith 1923 F71
            |         Coccoseris speleana Hill 1957 F71
            |         Coenites pinaxoides Etheridge 1921 F71
            |         Favistella Hall 1847 [Thecidae] W77
            |           |--F. cerioides Hill 1941 F71
            |           |--F. neminghensis (Etheridge 1918) [=Columnaria neminghensis] F71
            |           `--F. stellata Hall 1847 [incl. Columnaria alveolata Edwards & Haime 1851] W77
            |         Columnaria pauciseptata Etheridge 1897 [=Columnopora (l. c.) pauciseptata] F71
            |         Gephuropora duni Etheridge 1920 [=Favosites (Columnopora) duni] F71
            |         Conocyathus cyclocostatus Tenison-Woods 1877 F71
            |         Conosmilia bicycla Tenison-Woods 1877 F71
            |         Xystriphyllum F71
            |           |--X. dunstani (Etheridge 1911) [=Cyathophyllum dunstani] F71
            |           |--X. giganteum H79
            |           `--X. mitchelli (Etheridge 1892) [=Cyathophyllum mitchelli] F71
            |         Trapezophyllum elegantulum (Dun 1898) [=Cyathophyllum elegantulum] F71
            |         Cystiphyllum australe [incl. C. (Microplasma) australasica] F71
            |         Desmidopora nicholsoni Etheridge 1902 F71
            |         Zeolasma gemmiforme (Etheridge 1902) [=Diphyphyllum gemmiforme, Disphyllum gemmiforme] F71
            |         Phacellophyllum porteri (Etheridge 1890) (see below for synonymy) F71
            |         Disphyllum F71
            |           |--D. praecox Hill 1940 F71
            |           `--D. robustum (Etheridge 1899) [=Diphyphyllum robustum] F71
            |         Amplexus arundinaceus [=Zaphrentis (Plerophyllum) arundinaceus] F71
            |         Australophyllum cyathophylloides (Etheridge 1911) [=Spongophyllum cyathophylloides] F71
            |         Eddastraea grandis (Dun 1918) [=Phillipsastraea grandis] F71
            |         Endophyllum schluteri Etheridge 1898 F71
            |         Sanidophyllum colligatum (Etheridge 1920) [=Endophyllum schluteri var. colligatum] F71
            |         Falsicatenipora chillagoensis (Etheridge 1904) [=Halysites chillagoensis] F71
            |         Thamnopora F71
            |           |--T. marmionensis (Etheridge 1914) [=Favosites marmionensis] F71
            |           |--T. pulchra Y92
            |           `--T. wilkinsoni (Etheridge 1891) [=Trachypora wilkinsoni] F71
            |         Fossopora wellingtonensis Etheridge 1903 F71
            |         Lyrielasma F71
            |           |--L. aggregatum (Hill 1940) [=Grypophyllum aggregatum] F71
            |           `--L. subcaespitosum [=Cyathophyllum subcaespitosum] F71
            |         Halysites F71
            |           |--H. cratus Etheridge 1904 F71
            |           |--H. lithostrotonoides Etheridge 1904 F71
            |           `--H. sussmilchi Etheridge 1904 F71
            |         Schedohalysites orthopteroides (Etheridge 1904) [=Halysites orthopteroides] F71
            |         Heliolites F71
            |           |--H. daintreei (see below for synonymy) F71
            |           `--H. porosus F71
            |         Plasmopora F71
            |           |--P. gippslandica [incl. Heliolites regularis Dun 1927] F71
            |           `--P. heliolitoides (see below for synonymy) F71
            |         Hercophyllum shearsbyi F71
            |         Phaulactis shearsbyi [=Cyathophyllum shearsbyi, Hercophyllum shearsbyi] F71
            |         Litophyllum konincki [=Amplexopora konincki] F71
            |         Microplasma F71
            |           |--M. parallelum Etheridge 1899 F71
            |           `--M. trupanonoides (Etheridge 1920) [=Syringopora (Microplasma) trupanonoides] F71
            |         Mictocystis endophylloides Etheridge 1908 F71
            |         Sterictophyllum creswelli [=Cyathophyllum creswelli, Mictophyllum creswelli] F71
            |         Mycophyllum F71
            |           |--M. crateroides (Etheridge 1894) [=Mucophyllum crateroides] F71
            |           `--M. liliiforme (Etheridge 1907) [=Tryplasma liliiformis] F71
            |         Nyctopora stevensi F71
            |         Phillipsastraea F71
            |           |--P. currani Etheridge 1892 F71
            |           `--P. hennahi H79
            |         Zenophila walli (Etheridge 1892) [=Phillipsastraea walli] F71
            |         Propora conferta [incl. Plasmopora shearsbyi Dun 1927] F71
            |         Plasmoporella convexotabulata F71
            |         Pseudamplexus princeps (Etheridge 1907) [=Tryplasma princeps] F71
            |         Pycnostylus F71
            |           |--P. congregationis (Etheridge 1907) [=Tryplasma congregationis] F71
            |           `--P. dendroides (Etheridge 1907) [=Tryplasma dendroides] F71
            |         Rhizophyllum F71
            |           |--R. enorme Etheridge 1903 F71
            |           |--R. interpunctatum [incl. R. australe] F71
            |           |--R. robustum Shearsby 1906 F71
            |           `--R. yassense Shearsby 1905 F71
            |         Sanidophyllum davidis Etheridge 1899 F71
            |         Smilotrochus vacuus Tenison-Woods 1877 F71
            |         Symplectophyllum mutatum F71
            |         Thamnophyllum curtum Hill 1941 F71
            |         Tryplasma F71
            |           |--T. columnare Etheridge 1907 [=T. columnaris] F71
            |           |--T. delicatulum Etheridge 1907 [=T. delicatula] F71
            |           |--T. derrengullense Etheridge 1907 [=T. derrengullensis] F71
            |           |--T. lonsdalei Etheridge 1890 (see below for synonymy) F71
            |           |--T. vermiformis Etheridge 1907 F71
            |           `--T. wellingtonensis Etheridge 1895 F71
            |         Vepresiphyllum falciforme Etheridge 1920 F71
            |         Microcyclus multiradiatus N79
            |         Radiastraea N79
            |           |--R. tapetiformis N79
            |           |--R. trochomisca N79
            |           `--R. verrilli N79
            |         Taimyrophyllum N79
            |           |--T. stirps N79
            |           `--T. triadorum N79
            |         Heterocorallia G02
            |         Rugosa G02
            |         Tabulata G02
            |         Xianguangia EL11
            |         Aguayoina Bermúdez 1938 LT64
            |           `--*A. asterostomata Bermúdez 1938 LT64
            |         Petraia M87
            |           |--P. bina M87
            |           `--P. corniculum M87
            |--Arrowipora EL11
            `--+--Hexacorallia G02
               `--Octocorallia CS-P86

Cnidaria incertae sedis:
  Psammocoryne M62
  Bellonella rigida GR98
  ‘Cymodocea’ Lamouroux 1816 non Rafinesque 1814 BR05
  Stylina Lamarck 1816 BR05
  Toxorchis kellneri B26
  Aglaura hemistoma B26
  Erythropodium caribaeorum R96
  ‘Ptolemaia’ McCutcheon & Wilson 1961 non Osborn 1908 V66
  Branchiocerianthus imperator T95
  Tirasiana Bekker 1977 G79
    |--*T. concentralis Bekker 1977 G79
    |--T. cocardia EL11
    |--T. coniformis EL11
    `--T. disciformis EL11
  Protolyella S89
  Cyclomedusa Sprigg 1947 (see below for synonymy) G79
    |--*C. davidi Sprigg 1947 G79
    |--‘Madigania’ annulata EL11
    |--C. delicata EL11
    |--C. gigantea G79
    |--‘Tateana’ inflata EL11
    |--C. minima EL11
    |--C. plana G79
    |--C. radiata EL11
    `--‘Spriggia’ wadei EL11
  Ediacaria Sprigg 1947 [incl. Beltanella Sprigg 1947, Protodipleurosoma Sprigg 1949] G79
    |--*E. flindersi Sprigg 1947 G79
    |--‘Beltanella’ gilesi EL11
    |--‘Protodipleurosoma’ rugulosum EL11
    `--‘Protodipleurosoma’ wardi EL11
  Lorenzinites Glaessner & Wade 1966 G79
    `--*L. rarus Glaessner & Wade 1966 G79
  Medusinites Glaessner & Wade 1966 G79
    |--*M. asteroides (Sprigg 1949) [=Medusina asteroides] G79
    |--M. paliji EL11
    `--M. patellaris EL11
  Planomedusites Sokolov 1972 G79
    `--*P. grandis Sokolov 1972 G79
  Pseudorhizostomites Sprigg 1949 [incl. Pseudorhopilema Sprigg 1949] G79
    `--*P. howchini Sprigg 1949 G79
  Cosmetira pilodella D56
  ‘Turris’ pileata D56
  Khmeria Mansay 1914 M65

Cyclomedusa Sprigg 1947 [incl. Madigania Sprigg 1949 non Whitley 1945, Spriggia Southcott 1958, Tateana Sprigg 1949] G79

Heliolites daintreei [incl. H. regularis var. humewoodensis Dun 1927, H. jackii Dun 1927, H. wellingtonensis Dun 1927 (n. n.), H. yassensis Dun 1927] F71

Phacellophyllum porteri (Etheridge 1890) [=Diphyphyllum porteri; incl. D. porteri var. mitchellensis Etheridge 1899] F71

Plasmopora heliolitoides [incl. Heliolites distans Dun 1927, H. distans var. humewoodensis Dun 1927, H. distans var. intermedia Dun 1927, H. distans var. minuta Dun 1927] F71

Tryplasma lonsdalei Etheridge 1890 [incl. T. lonsdalei var. minor Etheridge 1907, T. lonsdalei var. scalariformis Etheridge 1907] F71

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[CS-P86] Clausen, C., & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Cnidaria. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 33–42. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[CM98] Conway Morris, S. 1998. The Crucible of Creation. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[DX84] Ding Y., Xia G., Duan C., Li W., Liu X. & Liang Z. 1984. Study on the early Permian stratigraphy and fauna in Zhesi district, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu (Inner Mongolia). Bulletin Tianjin Institure Geol. Min. Res. 10.

[EB01] Eckert, J. D., & C. E. Brett. 2001. Early Silurian (Llandovery) crinoids from the Lower Clinton Group, western New York State. Bulletins of American Paleontology 360: 1–88.

[EL11] Erwin, D. H., M. Laflamme, S. M. Tweedt, E. A. Sperling, D. Pisani & K. J. Peterson. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science 334: 1091–1097.

[E13] Etheridge, R., Jr. 1913. A very remarkable species of Spongophyllum from the Upper Silurian rocks of New South Wales. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (3): 35–37, pls 4–7.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

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[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

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Placentalia

Skeletal restoration of the Palaeocene Escavadodon zygus, from Rose & Lucas (2000).


Belongs within: Asioryctitheria.
Contains: Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Cetferungulata, Glires, Euarchonta.

The Placentalia is the crown clade of placental mammals, distinguished from other living mammals by the live birth of offspring after their extended development in the mother, nourished by a well-developed placenta. Many recent studies have supported the recognition of four major clades (Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria and Euarchontaglires) within placentals, but the relationships of these clades remain contentious. Also uncertain is the placement of a number of fossil groups such as the Palaeanodonta, Palaeogene insectivores that have been suggested to be related to either the Xenarthra (anteaters, sloths and armadillos) or the Pholidota (pangolins).

Synapomorphies (from Wible et al. 2007): Penultimate upper premolar parastylar lobe absent or small; ultimate lower premolar anterolingual cingulid absent; M2 postcingulum present, extending to labial margin; condyloid crest absent; inferior petrosal sinus endocranial.

Placentalia (see below for synonymy)
    |--Afrotheria GP11
    `--+--+--Xenarthra GP11
       |  `--Palaeanodonta BAA04
       |       |  i. s.: Palaeanodon Matthew 1918 BAA04
       |       |           `--P. ignavus Matthew 1918 BAA04
       |       |         Eurotamandua Storch 1981 BAA04
       |       |           `--E. joresi DC01
       |       |         Tubulodon [incl. Alocodontulum, Pentapassalus] RL00
       |       |         Propalaeanodon RL00
       |       |--Auroratherium [Epoicotheriidae] RL00
       |       |    `--A. sinense RL00
       |       |--Metacheiromys Wortman 1903 [Metacheiromyidae] BAA04
       |       |    |--M. dasypus RL00
       |       |    `--M. marshi RL00
       |       `--Escavadodontidae RL00
       |            |--Amelotabes RL00
       |            `--Escavadodon Rose & Lucas 2000 RL00
       |                 `--*E. zygus Rose & Lucas 2000 RL00
       `--+--Laurasiatheria GP11
          |    |--Lipotyphla WR07
          |    `--+--Chiroptera ANG03
          |       `--Cetferungulata WR07
          `--Euarchontaglires WR07
               |--+--Sinomylus AM05
               |  `--Glires GP11
               `--Euarchonta GP11

Placentalia incertae sedis:
  Ernanodon antelios DC01
  Paracosoryx wilsoni MHL03
  Plioceros dehlini MHL03
  Colodon occidentalis MHL03
  Tingamarra Godthelp, Archer et al. 1992 LA02
    `--*T. porterorum Godthelp, Archer et al. 1992 LA02
  Kharmerungulatum Prasad, Verma et al. 2007 PV07
    `--*K. vanvaleni Prasad, Verma et al. 2007 PV07
  Scalopoides Wilson 1960 P04
  Parapodemus Scaub 1938 P04
  Germanomys Heller 1936 P04
  Blackia Mein 1970 P04
  Sulimskia Reumer 1984 P04
  Stachomys Kowalski 1960 P04
  Smithozapus Sulimski 1962 P04
  Pliopetes Kretzoi 1959 P04
  Kowalskia Fahlbusch 1969 P04
  Prospalax Méhely 1908 P04
  Paenelimnoecus Baudelot 1972 P04
  Alloblarinella Storch 1995 P04
  Orientalomys De Bruijn & Van der Meulen 1975 P04
  Archaeodesmana Topachevskij & Pashkov 1983 P04
  Blancomys Van de Weerd, Adrover et al. 1977 P04
  Stephanomys Schaub 1938 P04
  Castyllomys Michaux 1969 P04
  Occitanomys Michaux 1969 P04
  Pseudomeriones Schaub 1934 P04
  Spermophilinus De Bruijn & Mein 1968 P04
    `--S. bredai M-SK04
  Keramidomys Hartenberger 1966 P04
  Tylodon Gervais 1848 V66

Placentalia [Afroinsectiphilia, Altungulata, Anagalida, Archonta, Boreoeutheria, Bruta, Cheiroptères, Dilambdodonta, Edentata, Educabilia, Eparctocyona, Epitheria, Gyrencephala, Menotyphla, Pantomesaxonia, Pedimanes, Unguiculata, Ungulata, Ungulatomorpha, Volitantia, Zalambdodonta]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM05] Asher, R. J., J. Meng, J. R. Wible, M. C. McKenna, G. W. Rougier, D. Dashzeveg & M. J. Novacek. 2005. Stem Lagomorpha and the antiquity of Glires. Science 307: 1091-1094.

[ANG03] Asher, R. J., M. J. Novacek & J. H. Geisler. 2003. Relationships of endemic African mammals and their fossil relatives based on morphological and molecular evidence. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 10 (1-2): 131-194.

[BAA04] Bergqvist, L. P., E. A. L. Abrantes & L. dos S. Avilla. 2004. The Xenarthra (Mammalia) of São José de Itaboraí Basin (upper Paleocene, Itaboraian), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Geodiversitas 26 (2): 323-337.

[DC01] Delsuc, F., F. M. Catzeflis, M. J. Stanhope & E. J. P. Douzery. 2001. The evolution of armadillos, anteaters and sloths depicted by nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies: Implications for the status of the enigmatic fossil Eurotamandua. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 268: 1605-1615.

[GP11] Goswami, A., G. V. R. Prasad, P. Upchurch, D. M. Boyer, E. R. Seiffert, O. Verma, E. Gheerbrant & J. J. Flynn. 2011. A radiation of arboreal basal eutherian mammals beginning in the Late Cretaceous of India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (39): 16333-16338.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[MHL03] Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of Rhombomylus (Mammalia, Glires): Implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 275: 1-247.

[M-SK04] Moyà-Solà, S., M. Köhler, D. M. Alba, I. Casanovas-Vilar & J. Galindo. 2004. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, a new Middle Miocene great ape from Spain. Science 306: 1339-1344.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403-491.

[PV07] Prasad, G. V. R., O. Verma, A. Sahni, V. Parmar & A. Khosla. 2007. A Cretaceous hoofed mammal from India. Science 318: 937.

[RL00] Rose, K. D., & S. G. Lucas. 2000. An early Paleocene palaeanodont (Mammalia, ?Pholidota) from New Mexico, and the origin of Palaeanodonta. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20 (1): 139-156.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1-126.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003-1006.