Mounted skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus in the American Museum of Natural History, photographed by Claire Houck.

Belongs within: Euprimates.

The Notharctinae are a group of Eocene lemur-like primates found in Europe and North America, with the higher diversity in the latter. They were supported as a clade in the morphological analysis of Seiffert et al. (2009), but synapomorphies were not explicitly listed.

    |  i. s.: Periconodon Stehlin 1916 MA05, S62
    |           `--*P. helveticus (Rütimeyer 1891) [=Pelycodus helveticus] S62
    |--+--Cantius Simons 1962 SSA03, S62
    |  |    |--*C. eppsi (Cooper 1932) [=Protoadapis eppsi] S62
    |  |    `--C. abditus BS07
    |  `--+--Barnesia hauboldi SP09
    |     `--Protoadapis Lemoine 1878 SP09, S62 [incl. Megatarsius Weigelt 1933 S62]
    |          |--*P. curvicuspidens Lemoine 1878 S62
    |          |--P. angustidens (Filhol 1888) [=Adapis angustidens; incl. Protadapis brachyrhynchus Stehlin 1912] S62
    |          |--P. copei S62
    |          |--P. raabi S62
    |          `--P. recticuspidens Lemoine 1878 (n. d.) [=Protiadapis recticuspidens] S62
    `--+--Notharctus Leidy 1870 SSA03, SKS05 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--‘Pelycodus’ angulatum Cope 1875 [=Tomitherium angulatus] C76
       |    |--N. crassus WR07
       |    |--‘Pelycodus’ frugivorus Cope 1875 [=Tomitherium frugivorus] C76
       |    |--‘Prototomus’ jarrovii Cope 1874 [=Pelycodus jarrovii, Tomitherium jarrovii] C76
       |    |--N. osborni WR07
       |    |--N. robustior WR07
       |    |--‘Tomitherium’ rostratum C76
       |    |--N. tenebrosus Leidy 1870 SKS05
       |    |--‘Tomitherium’ tutum Cope 1876 C76
       |    |--N. tyrannus BS07
       |    `--N. venticolus WR07
       `--Pronycticebus Grandidier 1904 SSA03, S62
            |--P. curvicuspidens SS05
            `--P. gaudryi Grandidier 1904 S62

Notharctus Leidy 1870 SSA03, SKS05 [incl. Limnotherium Marsh 1871 V66, Prosinopa Trouessart 1897 V66, Telmalestes Marsh 1872 V66, Telmatolestes Marsh 1872 V66, Thinolestes Marsh 1872 V66, Tomitherium Cope 1872 V66]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BS07] Bloch, J. I., M. T. Silcox, D. M. Boyer & E. J. Sargis. 2007. New Paleocene skeletons and the relationship of plesiadapiforms to crown-clade primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (4): 1159-1164.

[C76] Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.

[SKS05] Scherf, H., B. Koller & F. Schrenk. 2005. Locomotion-related structures in the femoral trabecular architecture of primates and insectivores (Mammalia, Primates and Insectivora). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 101-112.

[SP09] Seiffert, E. R., J. M. G. Perry, E. L. Simons & D. M. Boyer. 2009. Convergent evolution of anthropoid-like adaptations in Eocene adapiform primates. Nature 461: 1118-1121.

[SSA03] Seiffert, E. R., E. L. Simons & Y. Attia. 2003. Fossil evidence for an ancient divergence of lorises and galagos. Nature 422: 421-424.

[SS05] Seiffert, E. R., E. L. Simons, W. C. Clyde, J. B. Rossie, Y. Attia, T. M. Bown, P. Chatrath & M. E. Mathison. 2005. Basal anthropoids from Egypt and the antiquity of Africa's higher primate radiation. Science 310: 300-304.

[S62] Simons, E. L. 1962. A new Eocene primate genus, Cantius, and a revision of some allied European lemuroids. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Geology 7 (1): 1-36.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1-126.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003-1006.

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