Aconoidasida

Mature Plasmodium malariae schizont among red blood cells, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Belongs within: Sporozoa.

The Aconoidasida are a group of sporozoans lacking the conoid in at least the asexual stages of the life cycle; members of this group include species of significance to human such as malaria-causing Plasmodium and Theileria causing diseases in livestock.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2019): Apical complex lacking conoid in asexual motile stages; some diploid motile zygotes (ookinetes) with conoid; macrogametes and microgametes forming independently; heteroxenous.

<==Aconoidasida [Haematozoa] AS12
    |--Nephromycida AB19
    |    |--Cardiosporidium cionae AB19, SM10
    |    `--Nephromyces Giard 1888 [Nephromycida, Nephromycidae] SM10
    |--Haemospororida [Haemosporea, Haemosporidia] AS12
    |    |--Haemoproteus columbae AS12, E-KOS07
    |    |--Leucocytozoon simondi AS12, K92
    |    |--Mesnilium AS12
    |    |--Polychromophilus dionisi G10
    |    |--Bioccala deanei G10
    |    |--Dionisia AB19
    |    |--Haemocystidium AB19
    |    |--Hepatocystis AB19
    |    |--Nycteria AB19
    |    |--Parahaemoproteus AB19
    |    |--Saurocytozoon AB19
    |    `--Plasmodium AS12
    |         |--P. berghei SM03
    |         |--P. brasilianum E83
    |         |--P. chabaudi GLB04
    |         |--P. cynomolgi NMR-H99
    |         |--P. falciparum LCK03
    |         |--P. gallinaceum PB96
    |         |--P. knowlesi E83
    |         |--P. malariae PHK96
    |         |--P. melaniferum KK54
    |         |--P. ovale PHK96
    |         |--P. reichenowi GLB04
    |         |--P. relictum D05
    |         |--P. rodhaini E83
    |         |--P. schwetzi E83
    |         |--P. vivax C-SC04
    |         `--P. yoelii GLB04
    `--Piroplasmorida [Aconoidina, Piroplasmea, Piroplasmomorphina] AS12
         |  i. s.: Anthemosoma AB19
         |         Echinozoon AB19
         |         Haemohormidium terraenovae AB19, K-M02
         |         Sauroplasma AB19
         |         Serpentoplasma AB19
         |--+--Cytauxzoon felis SM10
         |  `--Theileria [Theileriidae] SM10
         |       |--T. annulata SM10
         |       |--T. buffeli FKK91
         |       |--T. hirci LC96
         |       |--T. lestoquardi SM10
         |       |--T. mutans MPV91
         |       |--T. orientalis FKK91
         |       |--T. parva SM10
         |       `--T. sergenti FKK91
         `--Babesia SM10
              |--B. bigemmina E-KOS07
              |--B. bovis LCK03
              |--B. caballi LC96
              |--B. divergens GK01
              |--B. equi PB96
              |--B. gibsoni MO08
              |--B. major LL96
              |--B. microti GK01
              |--B. motasi LC96
              |--B. odocoilei SM10
              |--B. ovata LC96
              `--B. rodhaini NMR-H99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[C-SC04] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E. Chao. 2004. Protalveolate phylogeny and systematics and the origins of Sporozoa and dinoflagellates (phylum Myzozoa nom. nov.) European Journal of Protistology 40: 185–212.

[D05] Derraik, J. G. B. 2005. Recommendations for mosquito control in zoological parks to reduce disease transmission risk. Weta 29: 16–20.

[E-KOS07] El-Kammah, K. M., L. M. I. Oyoun & S. A. Shafy. 2007. The role of Argas persicus (Acari: Ixodoidea) in the maintenance and transmission of Haemoproteus columbae and Borrelia anserina to poultry. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 215–221. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[E83] Ewald, P. W. 1983. Host-parasite relations, vectors, and the evolution of disease severity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 14: 465–485.

[FKK91] Fujisaki, K., T. Kamio & S. Kawazu. 1991. Theileria sergenti cannot be regarded as the same species as T. buffeli and T. orientalis because of its transmissibility only by Kaiseriana ticks. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 233–237. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[G10] Graciolli, G. 2010. Nycteribiidae (bat flies, spider bat flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1261–1266. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[GK01] Gray, J. S., & O. Kahl. 2001. Ticks as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in Europe. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 547–551. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[GLB04] Gray, M. W., B. F. Lang & G. Burger. 2004. Mitochondria of protists. Annual Review of Genetics 38: 477–524.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Cods. Family Gadidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 223–261. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[KK54] Klemmer, K., & H. E. Krampitz. 1954. Zur Kenntnis der Säugetierfauna Siziliens. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (3–4): 121–135.

[K92] Krylov, M. V. 1992. The origin of heteroxeny in Sporozoa. Parazitologiya 26 (5): 361–368.

[LCK03] Leander, B. S., R. E. Clopton & P. J. Keeling. 2003. Phylogeny of gregarines (Apicomplexa) as inferred from small-subunit rDNA and β-tubulin. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 345–354.

[LC96] Li, D., & Q. Chen. 1996. Studies on piroplasmoses and the tick (Ixodidae) vectors in China. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 469–471. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[LL96] Liebisch, A., & G. Liebisch. 1996. Hard ticks (Ixodidae) biting humans in Germany and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 465–468. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[MO08] Moore, R. B., M. Oborník, J. Janouškovec, T. Chrudimský, M. Vancová, D. H. Green, S. W. Wright, N. W. Davies, C. J. S. Bolch, K. Heimann, J. Šlapeta, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. M. Logsdon, Jr. & D. A. Carter. 2008. A photosynthetic alveolate closely related to apicomplexan parasites. Nature 451: 959–963.

[MPV91] Mwase, E. T., R. G. Pegram & M. G. R. Varma. 1991. The development and survival of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius (Acari: Ixodidae) under quasi-natural conditions in Zimbabwe. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 239–244. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[NMR-H99] Norén, F., Ø. Moestrup & A.-S. Rehnstam-Holm. 1999. Parvilucifera infectans Norén et Moestrup gen. et sp. nov. (Perkinsozoa phylum nov.): a parasitic flagellate capable of killing toxic microalgae. European Journal of Protistology 35: 233–254.

[PB96] Pawlowski, J., I. Bolivar, J. F. Fahrni, T. Cavalier-Smith & M. Gouy. 1996. Early origin of Foraminifera suggested by SSU rRNA gene sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 13 (3): 445–450.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[SM10] Saffo, M. B., A. M. McCoy, C. Rieken & C. H. Slamovits. 2010. Nephromyces, a beneficial apicomplexan symbiont in marine animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16190–16195.

[SM03] Saldarriaga, J. F., M. L. McEwan, N. M. Fast, F. J. R. Taylor & P. J. Keeling. 2003. Multiple protein phylogenies show that Oxyrrhis marina and Perkinsus marinus are early branches of the dinoflagellate lineage. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 355–365.

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