Dryophthoridae

Granary weevil Sitophilus granarius, copyright Clemson University.


Belongs within: Coleoptera.
Contains: Platypodinae, Sphenophorini.

The Dryophthoridae are a group of weevils that mostly attack monocotyledons such as grasses and palms, with some species boring in dead or rotten wood of gymnosperms and angiosperms. They are characterised by tarsi with the claws separated by overlapping dorsal and ventral expansions of the apical cuticle (Zimmerman 1993). Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Platypodinae may also be nested within this group (Gillett et al. 2014).

<==Dryophthoridae (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--Platypodinae GC-P14
    |  `--Orthognathinae [Sipalides, Sipalini, Sipalininae] GC-P14
    |       |  i. s.: Sipalinus Marshall 1943 (see below for synonymy) Z93
    |       |           |--S. gigas (Fabricius 1775) B14 [=Calandra gigas B35]
    |       |           |    |--S. g. gigas Z93
    |       |           |    `--*S. g. granulatus (Fabricius 1801) (see below for synonymy) Z93
    |       |           `--S. hypocrita Z93
    |       `--Rhinostomini B14
    |            |--Yuccaborus B14
    |            `--Rhinostomus B14
    |                 |--R. barbirostris (Fabricius 1775) B14
    |                 `--R. niger B14
    `--Rhynchophorinae [Gymnopygi] GC-P14
         |  i. s.: Cyrtotrachelus DK08
         |         Cactophagus B14
         |           |--C. fahraei B14
         |           `--C. spinolae (Gyllenhal 1838) B14
         |--Sphenophorini Z93
         |--Polytus Faust 1894 [Polytini] Z93
         |    `--P. mellerborgii (Boheman 1838) (see below for synonymy) Z93
         |--Diocalandrini Z93
         |    |--Myocalandra Z93
         |    `--Diocalandra Faust 1894 Z93
         |         |--*D. frumenti (Fabricius 1801) (see below for synonymy) Z93
         |         `--D. taitense [=Toxorhinus taitensis] Z93
         |--Rhynchophorus Herbst 1795 [=Cordyle Thunberg 1797; Rhynchophori, Rhynchophorini] Z93
         |    |--*R. palmarum (Linnaeus 1758) Z93, L58 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--R. cruentatus [=Curculio cruentatus] M94
         |    |--R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1791) B14 [=Curculio ferrugineus Z93, Calandra ferruginea Z93]
         |    |--R. kaupii [incl. R. velutinus] M86
         |    `--R. vulneratus B14
         `--Sitophilus Schoenherr 1838 [Sitophili, Sitophilina, Sitophilini] Z93
              |--*S. oryzae (Linnaeus 1763) (see below for synonymy) Z93
              |--S. glandius Z93
              |--S. granarius (Linnaeus 1758) [=Curculio granarius, Calandra granaria] Z93
              |--S. linearis (Herbst 1795) (see below for synonymy) Z93
              |--S. mexicanus (Champion 1910) [=Calandra mexicana] Z93
              |--S. rugicollis Z93
              `--S. zeamais Motschulsky 1855 (see below for synonymy) Z93

Dryophthoridae incertae sedis:
  Anathymus singularis Pascoe 1885 M86
  Ganae pulchella Pascoe 1885 M86
  Laogonia intrusa M86
  Stromboscerinae [Stromboscerini] Z93
    |--Stromboscerus Z93
    |--Orthosinus Z93
    |--Xerodermus Z93
    |--Anius [incl. Nephius] Z93
    |--Synommatus Z93
    |--Dexipeus Z93
    |--Allaeotes Z93
    |--Synommatoides Morimoto 1978 Z93
    `--Dryophthoroides Roelofs 1879 [incl. Elatticus Pascoe 1885, Pembertonia Zimmerman 1944] Z93
         |--*D. sulcatus Roelofs 1879 Z93
         |--*Elatticus’ becarii Pascoe 1885 Z93
         |--D. parvungulis Marshall 1931 Z93
         `--D. seftoni (Zimmerman 1944) [=*Pembertonia seftoni] Z93
  Dryophthorinae [Dryophthori, Dryophthorides, Dryophthorini] B14
    |--Lithophthorus B14
    |--Spodotribus B14
    |--Psilodryophthorus B14
    |--Mesocordylus cylindraceus ML05
    |--Dryophthorus Germar 1824 (see below for synonymy) Z93
    |    |--‘Curculio’ lymexylon [incl. C. corticalis, *Bulbifer corticalis, *Dryophthorus corticalis] Z93
    |    |--D. americanus Bedel 1885 B14
    |    |--D. crenatus Eschscholtz in Boisduval 1835 B35
    |    |--*Tetraspartus’ bagoides Pascoe 1885 Z93
    |    `--*Tetratemnus’ sculpturatus Wollaston 1873
    `--Stenommatus Wollaston 1873 Z93
         |--*S. fryi Wollaston 1873 Z93
         |--S. inflexus Hustache 1938 Z93
         |--S. musae Marshall 1920 Z93
         |--S. nanus Z93
         |--S. ocularis [=Dryophthorus ocularis] Z93
         `--S. sulcifrons Z93

*Diocalandra frumenti (Fabricius 1801) [=Calandra frumenti, Sitophilus frumenti; incl. C. bifasciata Boisduval 1835, Sphenophorus cruciger Motschulsky 1858, C. montrouzieri Chevrolat 1882, Sp. palmarum Montrouzier 1860, C. palmarum non Curculio palmarum Linnaeus 1758, C. punctigera Pascoe 1885, C. sechellarum Kolbe 1910, Sitophilus stigmaticollis Gyllenhal 1838, C. stigmaticollis, Diocalandra frumenti var. stigmaticollis, Sitophilus subfasciatus Boheman 1838, Si. subsignatus Gyllenhal 1838] Z93

Dryophthoridae [Calandraeides, Calandridae, Calandrides, Calandrina, Calendridae, Calendrinae, Cryptopygi, Rhynchophoridae, Rhynchophorides]

Dryophthorus Germar 1824 [=Bulbifer Dejean 1821 (n. o.); incl. Tetraspartus Pascoe 1885, Tetratemnus Wollaston 1873] Z93

Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman 1838) [=Sitophilus mellerborgii, Calandra mellenborgi (l. c.), Polytus mellenborgi (l. c.); incl. Sphenophorus musaecola Fairmaire 1898, Calandra remota Sharp 1885] Z93

*Rhynchophorus palmarum (Linnaeus 1758) Z93, L58 [=Curculio palmarum Z93, Calendra palmarum L02, *Cordyle palmarum Z93]

Sipalinus Marshall 1943 [incl. Hyposipalus Voss 1940 (nom. inv.), Sipalus Schoenherr 1825 non Fischer 1813] Z93

*Sipalinus gigas granulatus (Fabricius 1801) [=Calandra granulata, Sipalus granulatus; incl. Sipalus cristatus Schaufuss 1885, Sipalus misumenus Boheman 1845] Z93

Sitophilus linearis (Herbst 1795) [=Rhynchophorus linearis, Calandra linearis; incl. Cordyle striatus Thunberg 1815, Sitophilus linearis striatus, S. tamarindi Christy 1834] Z93

*Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus 1763) [=Curculio orysa, Calandra orizae (l. c.), Ca. oryzae, Curculio oryzae; incl. Ca. oryzae var. minor Sasaki 1899, Ca. sasakii Takahashi 1928] Z93

Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky 1855 [incl. Calandra chilensis Philippi 1864, Ca. oryzae platensis Zacher 1922, Cossonus quadrimacula Walker 1859] Z93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[DK08] Dohm, P., D. Kovač, A. Freidberg & R. Bin Hashim. 2008. Biology of the Oriental bamboo-inhabiting fly Felderimyia gombakensis and observations on mating trophallaxis in Felderimyia (Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae, Phytalmiinae, Acanthonevrini). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 311–318.

[GC-P14] Gillett, C. P. D. T., A. Crampton-Platt, M. J. T. N. Timmermans, B. H. Jordal, B. C. Emerson & A. P. Vogler. 2014. Bulk de novo mitogenome assembly from pooled total DNA elucidates the phylogeny of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Molecular Biology and Evolution 31 (8): 2223–2237.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, "Coleoptera" (continued). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 183–204.

[ML05] Marvaldi, A. E., & A. A. Lanteri. 2005. Key to higher taxa of South American weevils based on adult characters (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 78: 65–87.

[M94] May, B. M. 1994. An introduction to the immature stages of Australian Curculionoidea. In: Zimmerman, E. C. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May pp. 365–728. CSIRO Australia.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

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