Eucynortella

Eucynortella duapunctata, copyright Sidclay Dias.


Belongs within: Cosmetidae.

Eucynortella is a genus of cosmetid harvestmen found in Central and South America characterised by a lack of dorsal armature on the scutum.

Characters (from Roewer 1923): Slender animals with long, thin legs. Areas 1–5 and free tergites 1–3 unarmed, without median tubercle or spine pairs. Second cheliceral segment small and normally developed in both sexes. Legs with basal segment of legs III and IV in both sexes of the same habitus and strength as in legs I and II; telotarsus II three-segmented; telotarsus I six-segmented; tarsi II–IV each more than six-segmented, variable. Secondary sexual dimorphism sometimes expressed in leg IV.

<==Eucynortella Roewer 1912 K03
    |--*E. spectabilis Roewer 1912 [=Cynorta spectabilis] K03
    |--E. annulipes (Pickard-Cambridge 1904) [=Cynorta annulipes, E. annulipas (l. c.)] K03
    |--E. cryptogramma Mello-Leitão 1942 K03
    |--E. duapunctata Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
    |--E. lineata Roewer 1963 K03
    |--E. longa Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 K03
    |--E. obscurior Mello-Leitão 1943 K03
    |--E. orbicularis Roewer 1947 K03
    |--E. panamensis Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 K03
    |--E. pauper Piza 1938 K03
    |--E. pumila Roewer 1947 K03
    |--E. sexpunctata Roewer 1927 K03
    |--E. signata Roewer 1963 K03
    `--E. woodi Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

Vonones

Vonones ornatus, copyright Lynette Elliott.


Belongs within: Cosmetidae.

Vonones is a genus of cosmetid harvestmen found primarily in North and Central America; this is the only genus of Cosmetidae found in the United States.

Characters (from Goodnight & Goodnight 1953): Dorsum with five areas, variously armed with tubercles and spines, without a large median spine on third area. First tarsus with five segments; distitarsi of both first and second tarsi with three segments. Third and fourth legs with simple untoothed claws.

<==Vonones Simon 1879 [incl. Libitioides Roewer 1912, Ornotus Goodnight & Goodnight 1942] K03
    |--*V. octotuberculatus Simon 1879 K03
    |--V. circumlineatus Goodnight & Goodnight 1953 K03
    |--V. granulatus Roewer 1947 K03
    |--V. malkini Goodnight & Goodnight 1953 K03
    |--V. ornatus (Say 1821) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--V. pelaezi (Goodnight & Goodnight 1942) [=*Ornotus pelaezi] K03
    |--V. pilosus Goodnight & Goodnight 1977 [=V. pilosa] K03
    |--V. planus Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 K03
    |--V. riveti (Roewer 1919) [=Libitioides riveti] K03
    |--V. sayi (Simon 1879) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--V. scabrissimus (Roewer 1912) [=Libitioides scabrissima] K03
    `--V. testaceus Roewer 1947 K03

Vonones ornatus (Say 1821) [=Gonyleptes ornatum, Cosmetus ornatus, Cynorta ornata, Metacynorta ornata, Vonones ornata, Vernones ornata (l. c.)] K03

Vonones sayi (Simon 1879) [=Cynorta sayi, Cy. sayii, Libitioides sayi, *L. ornata Roewer 1912 non Gonyleptes ornatum Say 1821, Vonones ornata; incl. Cosmetus albolineatus Sørensen 1884, Cynorta albolineata, Libitioides albolineatus, Vonones modestus Banks 1909, Platycynorta transversalis Roewer 1952] K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1953. The opilionid fauna of Chiapas, Mexico, and adjacent areas (Arachnoidea, Opiliones). American Museum Novitates 1610: 1–81.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

Metarhaucus

Dorsum of Metarhaucus lojanus, from Roewer (1912).


Belongs within: Cosmetidae.

Metarhaucus is a poorly defined genus of harvestmen found in Central and South America.

Characters (from Roewer 1923): Sturdy animals with strong (especially third and fourth) legs. Areas 1, 2 and 4 each with one median tubercle pair; area 3 with one median spine pair; area 5 and free tergites 1–3 unarmed. Second cheliceral segment much thicker in male than in female and distinctly rising above the first segment. Legs in both sexes with basal segment of legs III and especially IV much thicker and stronger than that of legs I and II; telotarsus II three-segmented; telotarsus I six-segmented; tarsi II–IV each more than six segments, variable.

<==Metarhaucus Pickard-Cambridge 1905 [incl. Erginus Simon 1879 non Jeffreys 1877] K03
    |--*M. fuscus Pickard-Cambridge 1905 [=Erginus fuscus] K03
    |--M. conspicuus Roewer 1927 K03
    |--M. devillei (Simon 1879) [=*Erginus devillei, Rhaucus devillei] K03
    |--M. lojanus (Roewer 1912) [=Erginus lojanus] K03
    |--M. ohausi (Roewer 1912) [=Erginus ohausi] K03
    |--M. reimoseri Roewer 1933 K03
    |--M. reticulatus Roewer 1912 [=Erginus reticulatus] K03
    |--M. serrifemur Roewer 1927 K03
    |--M. trilineatus (Sørensen 1932) [=Rhaucus trilineatus] K03
    |--M. unicolor Roewer 1957 K03
    `--M. variatus (Roewer 1912) [=Erginus variatus] K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

Cosmetus

Possible Cosmetus, copyright Arthur Anker.


Belongs within: Cosmetidae.

Cosmetus is a genus of harvestmen found in northern South America with short, slender, unarmed legs (Kury 2003).

Characters (from Kury 2003): Eyemound extremely flattened; outline of scutum without constrictions; area III with strong spines showing a high degree of fusion (sometimes fused into a single spine); legs short, slender, unarmed.

<==Cosmetus Perty 1833 K03 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*C. varius Perty 1833 K03
    |--C. arietinus (Mello-Leitão 1940) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--C. biacutus Roewer 1947 K03
    |--C. birramosus (González-Sponga 1998) [=Cosmetiplus birramosus] K03
    |--C. columnaris (Roewer 1928) -, KA-Z11 [=*Cosmetellus columnaris, Paecilaema columnaris] K03
    |--C. coxaepunctatus Roewer 1927 [=*Cosmetiplus coxaepunctatus, Paecilaema coxaepunctata] K03
    |--C. delicatus (Soares & Soares 1946) [=*Vervloetia delicata] K03
    |--C. flavopictus Simon 1880 K03
    |--C. mesacanthus Kollar in Koch 1839 [=C. mesacathus, C. mesacanthos (l. c.)] K03
    |--C. migdaliae (González-Sponga 1992) [=Cosmetiplus migdaliae] K03
    |--C. peruvicus (Avram & Soares 1983) [=*Orthogryne peruvica] K03
    |--C. pleurostigma Sørensen 1932 K03
    |--C. pulcher Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 [=C. pulchrus] K03
    |--C. serrulatus (González-Sponga 1992) [=Cosmetiplus serrulatus] K03
    |--C. soerenseni (Mello-Leitão 1942) [=Cosmetigryne soerenseni] K03
    |--C. turritus Sørensen 1932 [=C. tursitus (l. c.)] K03
    |--C. unispinosus (Roewer 1915) [=*Cosmetigryne unispinosa] K03
    `--C. variolosus Mello-Leitão 1942 K03

Nomen nudum: Cosmetus testudineus Roewer 1912 [=C. testitudineus (l. c.)] K03

Cosmetus Perty 1833 K03 [incl. Belemnometus Mello-Leitão 1940 K03, Cosmetellus Roewer 1928 K03, KA-Z11, Cosmetigryne Roewer 1916 K03, Cosmetiplus Roewer 1947 K03, Orthogryne Avram & Soares 1983 K03, Procosmetus Mello-Leitão 1942 K03, Vervloetia Soares & Soares 1946 K03]

Cosmetus arietinus (Mello-Leitão 1940) [=*Belemnometus arietinus; incl. *Procosmetus dubius Mello-Leitão 1942, B. dubius] K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the "Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)". Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

Flirtea

Flirtea sp., copyright Arthur Anker.


Belongs within: Cosmetidae.

Flirtea is a genus of harvestmen found in northern South America with thick and heavily denticulate legs.

Characters (from González-Sponga 1992): Ocular tubercule wide, transverse, with a groove in the center and small granules near the inner edge of the eyes. Opisthosoma with markedly convex lateral edges facing areas I to III. Opisthosomal areas weakly demarcated and with little ornamentation. Area III with two tubercles or low pyramidal spines. Tergites with aligned granules. Distal segment of chelicerae enlarged in males. Ambulatory legs short, thick, denticulate. Femora IV of male claviform. Basal segments of tarsi I thickened in males or rarely as distal. Tarsal segments of legs I = 6(3). Tarsal segments of legs II = 11–15(3). Claws not pectinate.

<==Flirtea Koch 1839 K03
    |--*F. picta (Perty 1833) [=Cosmetus pictus, Cynorta (Prasia) picta] K03
    |--F. alpha (Sørensen 1932) [=Rhaucus alpha] K03
    |--F. altagraciensis González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--F. andina Roewer 1927 K03
    |--F. araguitensis González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--F. clypeata (Sørensen 1932) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--F. erxlineae Mello-Leitão 1941 K03
    |--F. fusca (Sørensen 1932) [=Rhaucus fuscus] K03
    |--F. geographica (Sørensen 1932) [=Rhaucus geographicus] K03
    |--F. granulosa (Simon 1879) [=Erginus granulosus, Rhaucus granulosus] K03
    |--F. henrikseni González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--F. lateralis (Banks 1909) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--F. limbata (Sørensen 1932) [=Rhaucus limbatus] K03
    |--F. longifemoris González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--F. militaris (Simon 1879) [=Erginus militaris, Rhaucus militaris] K03
    |--F. montana González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--F. mutica (Sørensen 1932) [=Rhaucus muticus] K03
    |--F. papilionacea (Simon 1879) [=Erginus papilionaceus, Rhaucus papilionaceus] K03
    |--F. paucimaculata Roewer 1963 K03
    |--F. phalerata Koch 1839 [=Cynorta (Prasia) phalerata, Poecilaema phaleratum] K03
    |--F. quinquelineata (Simon 1879) [=Rhaucus quinquelineatus; incl. Metarhaucus albilineatus Roewer 1912] K03
    |--F. reticulata (Sørensen 1932) [=Rhaucus reticulatus] K03
    |--F. serripes (Simon 1879) [=Erginus serripes, Rhaucus serripes] K03
    |--F. simplex González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--F. sorenseni González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--F. tristis (Sørensen 1932) [=Rhaucus tristis] K03
    |--F. tuberculata (Sørensen 1932) [=Rhaucus tuberculatus] K03
    |--F. ventricosa (Simon 1879) [=Erginus ventricosus, Rhaucus ventricosus] K03
    |--F. venezuelana (Sørensen 1932) (see below for synonymy) K03
    `--F. withi González-Sponga 1992 K03

Flirtea clypeata (Sørensen 1932) [=Cynorta (Prasia) clypeata, Erginulus clypeatus, Euerginus clypeatus, Prasiana clypeata; incl. Eucynortula puncticulosa Roewer 1947] K03

Flirtea lateralis (Banks 1909) [=Vonones lateralis; incl. Eucynorta banksi Roewer 1947, Cynorta conspersa Banks 1914 non Cosmetus conspersus Perty 1833, E. conspersa, E. conpersa (l. c.)] K03

Flirtea venezuelana (Sørensen 1932) [=Cynorta (Prasia) venezuelana, Metarhaucus venezuelanus, Prasia striata ms; incl. Flirtea caracasensis Mello-Leitão 1940, Cynorta caracasensis, F. femoralis Roewer 1947] K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

González-Sponga, M. A. 1992. Aracnidos de Venezuela. Opiliones Laniatores II. Familia Cosmetidae. Biblioteca de la Academia de Ciencias Fisicas, Matematicas y Naturales Caracas—Venezuela 26: 1–432.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

Cynortula

Dorsum of Cynortula brevipes, from Roewer (1947).


Belongs within: Cosmetidae.

Cynortula is a genus of harvestmen found in Central and tropical South America.

See also: Cynortula, Cynortula.

Characters (from González-Sponga 1992): Ocular tubercle sub-elliptic, with abundant small granules. Abdominal areas I and II with small granules in the center; area III with very small tubercles. Tergites traversed by a row of very small granules. Distal segment of chelicerae similar in both sexes. Short and narrow ambulatory legs, femur IV slightly curved at base. Basal segments of tarsus I thickened in male. Tarsal segments of legs I = 7(3) in male, 6(3) in female. Tarsal segments of legs II = 12–17(3). Claws of legs III and IV not pectinate.

<==Cynortula Roewer 1912 K03
    |--*C. longipes (Pickard-Cambridge 1904) [=Cynorta longipes] K03
    |--C. alejandra Roewer 1957 K03
    |--C. biprocurvata Roewer 1952 K03
    |--C. bolivari Roewer 1952 K03
    |--C. brevipes Roewer 1947 K03
    |--C. cingulata Roewer 1933 K03
    |--C. figurata Roewer 1957 K03
    |--C. garna Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 K03
    |--C. granulata Roewer 1912 K03
    |--C. guttistriata Roewer 1947 K03
    |--C. ignacia Roewer 1957 K03
    |--C. koelpelii Roewer 1912 [=Cynorta koelpelii] K03
    |--C. limitata Roewer 1927 K03
    |--C. modesta (Sørensen 1932) [=Cynorta modesta] K03
    |--C. oblongata Roewer 1927 K03
    |--C. patellaris Roewer 1947 K03
    |--C. pectinipes Roewer 1947 K03
    |--C. pedalis (Banks 1909) [=Cynorta pedalis, Eucynortella pedalis] K03
    |--C. peruviana Roewer 1952 K03
    |--C. pizai Soares 1945 K03
    |--C. punctata Roewer 1947 K03
    |--C. quadrimaculata Roewer 1912 K03
    |--C. robusta Roewer 1947 K03
    |--C. santarosa Roewer 1957 K03
    |--C. stellata Roewer 1912 K03
    |--C. striata Roewer 1912 [=Cynorta striata] K03
    |--C. torquata Roewer 1947 K03
    |--C. unapunctata Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
    |--C. undulata Roewer 1947 K03
    |--C. venezuelensis Roewer 1915 (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--C. wheeleri Roewer 1931 K03
    `--C. zaca Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 K03

Cynortula venezuelensis Roewer 1915 [=Cynortula venezuelenesis (l. c.); incl. Cynorta dimorpha Sørensen 1932, Cynortula dimorpha] K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

González-Sponga, M. A. 1992. Aracnidos de Venezuela. Opiliones Laniatores II. Familia Cosmetidae. Biblioteca de la Academia de Ciencias Fisicas, Matematicas y Naturales Caracas—Venezuela 26: 1–432.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

Eucynorta

Dorsal view of Eucynorta tenuipes, from here.


Belongs within: Cosmetidae.

Eucynorta is a poorly defined genus of harvestmen found in Central and South America.

Characters (from Roewer 1923): Slim animals with long, thin legs. Scutum and free tergites 1–3 unarmed, area 3 only with a median pair of spines. Second cheliceral segment small and normally built in both sexes, or much thicker in male and standing higher than first segment. Legs in both sexes with basal sections of legs III–IV of the same habitus and strength as those of legs I–II; telotarsus II 3-segmented, telotarsus I 6-segmented; tarsi II–IV each more than 6-segmented, variable. Leg IV sometimes exhibiting secondary sexual characteristics in the male.

<==Eucynorta Roewer 1912 K03
    |--*E. quadripustulata (Simon 1879) [=Cynorta quadripustulata, C. (Prasia) quadripustulata] K03
    |--E. albimarginata Roewer 1963 K03
    |--E. albipustulata Roewer 1912 K03
    |--E. amazonica Piza 1938 K03
    |--E. analis Roewer 1927 K03
    |--E. areolata Roewer 1947 K03
    |--E. atra Roewer 1947 K03
    |--E. biguttata (Pickard-Cambridge 1904) [=Cynorta biguttata] K03
    |--E. bipectinata Roewer 1933 K03
    |--E. bipunctata (Pickard-Cambridge 1904) [=Cynorta bipunctata, E. cambridgei Mello-Leitão 1944] K03
    |--E. coccinelloides Mello-Leitão 1944 K03
    |--E. conigera (Pickard-Cambridge 1904) [=Cynorta conigera] K03
    |--E. difficilis Soares 1944 K03
    |--E. insularis (Banks 1905) [=Cynorta insularis, Metavonones insularis] K03
    |--E. interposita Roewer 1954 K03
    |--E. longispina (Pickard-Cambridge 1904) [=Cynorta longispina] K03
    |--E. lutea Roewer 1947 K03
    |--E. maculosa (Goodnight & Goodnight 1942) [=Eucynortula maculosa] K03
    |--E. malleata Roewer 1927 K03
    |--E. ornata Roewer 1952 K03
    |--E. picta Roewer 1947 K03
    |--E. pictipes (Banks 1909) [=Cynorta pictipes] K03
    |--E. puncticulata Roewer 1947 K03
    |--E. reducta Roewer 1947 K03
    |--E. reimoseri Roewer 1914 K03
    |--E. schmidti Goodnight & Goodnight 1947 K03
    |--E. tenuipes Roewer 1947 K03
    |--E. transversalis Roewer 1933 K03
    |--E. tristani (Banks 1909) [=Cynorta tristani] K03
    |--E. unicolor Roewer 1947 [=Cynorta unicolor] K03
    |--E. venosa Roewer 1927 K03
    |--E. vidua (Sørensen 1932) [=Cynorta vidua] K03
    |--E. virescens Mello-Leitão 1942 K03
    `--E. wiedenmayeri Schenkel 1953 K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

Litoralia

Litoralia junci, from here.


Belongs within: Cosmetidae.

Litoralia is a genus of cosmetid harvestmen found in Venezuela.

Characters (from González-Sponga 1992): Ocular tubercle small, elliptical, with granules near inner edge of eyes. Abdominal areas with abundant small granules; area III with larger ornamentation (from a convexity to a tuber in whose apex there is a spine). Tergites with aligned granules. Distal segment of chelicerae small, similar in both sexes. Femora and tibiae of ambulatory legs similar. Metatarsus I with the middle and distal thirds fusiform in male. Tarsal segments of leg I = 6–7 (3–4). Tarsal segments of leg III 9–14 (3). Claws of legs III and IV not pectinate.

<==Litoralia González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--L. poecilis (Roewer 1927) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--L. acerba González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--L. austera González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--L. bothropica González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--L. cordillerana González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--L. gibberosa González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--L. guariquensis González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--L. junci González-Sponga 1992 K03
    |--L. longipedis González-Sponga 1992 K03
    `--L. rubicunda González-Sponga 1992 K03

Litoralia poecilis (Roewer 1927) [=Cynorta poecilis; incl. Eucynortoides nigrispinulata Goodnight & Goodnight 1947, *Litoralia nigrispinulata] K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

González-Sponga, M. A. 1992. Aracnidos de Venezuela. Opiliones Laniatores II. Familia Cosmetidae. Acad. Cienc. Fisicas, Matematicas y Naturales, Caracas.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

Metavononoides

Metavononoides barbacenensis, from here.


Belongs within: Cosmetidae.

Metavononoides is a genus of long-legged short-legged harvestmen found in the Atlantic forest of eastern Brazil (Ferreira et al. 2006).

Characters (from Ferreira et al. 2006): Body length 5–7 mm; U-shaped, lyre-like marking on dorsal scutum; mesotergum depressed; pair of median spines on area III; coxa I with bifid dorsobasal apophysis; legs long (more than 30 mm in smaller species).

<==Metavononoides Roewer 1928 FPK06 [=Metavononnoides (l. c.) K03]
    |--*M. barbacenensis (Mello-Leitão 1923) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--M. albisectus (Mello-Leitão 1942) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--M. albosigillatus (Mello-Leitão 1941) [=Poecilaemula albosigillata] K03
    |--M. bellus (Mello-Leitão 1932) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--M. brasiliensis (Mello-Leitão 1923) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--M. guttulosus (Mello-Leitão 1935) [=Cynorta guttulosa] K03
    |--M. luteopunctatus (Mello-Leitão 1931) [=Poecilaemula luteopunctata] K03
    |--M. lyra (Piza 1944) [=Cynortellana lyra] K03
    |--M. melanacanthus Ferreira, Pedroso & Kury 2005 FPK06
    |--M. orientalis (Mello-Leitão 1923) [=Metavonones orientalis] K03
    |--M. peculiaris (Roewer 1917) [=Poecilaemula peculiare, Paecilaemula peculiaris, Po. peculiaris] K03
    |--M. preciosus (Roewer 1928) FPK06 (see below for synonymy)
    `--M. renneri Ferreira, Pedroso & Kury 2006 FPK06

Metavononoides albisectus (Mello-Leitão 1942) [=Paecilaemula albisecta, Paecilaema albisectum; incl. Poecilaema tripartitum Mello-Leitão 1942, Pa. tripartitum] K03

*Metavononoides barbacenensis (Mello-Leitão 1923) [=Metavonones barbacenensis; incl. Metavononoides pustulatus Mello-Leitão 1932] K03

Metavononoides bellus (Mello-Leitão 1932) [=Paecilaemula bella, Poecilaemula bella; incl. Poecilaema lyra Sørensen 1932 non Cynortellana lyra Piza 1944, Poecilaemula lyra, Poecilaema muticum Sørensen 1932, Euerginus muticus, Poecilaema soerenseni Henriksen in Sørensen 1932, Poecilaemula soesenseni (l. c.)] K03

Metavononoides brasiliensis (Mello-Leitão 1923) [=Eucynorta brasiliensis, Paecilaemula brasiliensis, Poecilaemula brasiliensis] K03

Metavononoides preciosus (Roewer 1928) FPK06 [=Paecilaemula preciosa K03; incl. Poecilaema ornatissimum Mello-Leitão 1942 K03, Poecilaemula punctilineata Mello-Leitão 1935 K03, Metavononoides x-notatus Mello-Leitão 1936 K03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FPK06] Ferreira, C. P., D. R. Pedroso & A. B. Kury. 2006. A new species of Metavononoides from southern Espírito Santo, Brazil (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cosmetidae). Arquivos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro 64 (3): 231–234.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

Eucynortula

Eucynortula albipunctata, copyright Stuart Longhorn.


Belongs within: Cosmetidae.

Eucynortula is a poorly defined genus of harvestmen found in Central and South America.

Characters (from Roewer 1923): Slim animals with long thin legs. Scutum and free tergites 1–3 unarmed, only area 3 with one median pair of tubercles. Second cheliceral segment in both sexes small and normally built. Legs in both sexes with basal sections of legs III–IV of the same habitus and strength as those of legs I–II; telotarsus II 3-segmented, telotarsus I 6-segmented; tarsi II–IV each more than 6-segmented, variable. Leg IV sometimes exhibiting secondary sexual characteristics in the male.

<==Eucynortula Roewer 1912 K03
    |--*E. albipunctata (Pickard-Cambridge 1904) [=Cynorta albipunctata] K03
    |--E. alboirrorata Caporiacco 1951 K03
    |--E. auropicta Roewer 1947 K03
    |--E. bituberculata (Pickard-Cambridge 1904) [=Cynorta bituberculata] K03
    |--E. lata (Banks 1909) [=Cynorta lata] K03
    |--E. metatarsalis Roewer 1912 (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--E. multilineata Goodnight & Goodnight 1947 [=Cynorta multilineata] K03
    |--E. nannocornuta (Chamberlin 1925) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--E. pentapunctata Roewer 1947 K03
    |--E. puer Mello-Leitão 1943 K03
    |--E. rugipes Roewer 1947 K03
    `--E. ypsilon Roewer 1927 K03

Eucynortula metatarsalis Roewer 1912 [incl. E. metatarsalis medialis Roewer 1912, E. metatarsalis separata Roewer 1912] K03

Eucynortula nannocornuta (Chamberlin 1925) [=Cynorta nannocornuta, C. nannacornuta (l. c.); incl. E. dorsata Goodnight & Goodnight 1942, E. sexpunctata Goodnight & Goodnight 1942] K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

Ischyropsalis

Male Ischyropsalis hellwigii hellwigii, copyright Axel Schönhofer.


Belongs within: Ischyropsalidoidea.

Ischyropsalis is a genus of harvestmen found in Europe, members of which have conspicuously enlarged chelicerae in both sexes. Members of this genus are specialist predators of snails, using their large chelicerae to break open the snail's shell.

Characters (from Schönhofer 2013): Palps long and thin, elongated to enable interaction with the chelicerae. Chelicerae massive and enlarged, longer than the body; in most species glandular fields of males associated with knob-like apophyses exposing the field to dorsal and/or distal side. Truncus penis simple, filled up to two thirds with a single muscle; muscular tendon short; base of truncus divided into two short root-like structures; glans penis usually simple and conical, but inflated and distinct from the truncus in many species; the sclerotised ventral plate mostly short, from roughly rhombic to deeply bi-lobed at the base; sclerotised area of glans with several defined regions exhibiting dense fields of mostly very thick, long and backward-pointing hairs; glans gradually tapering into a long stylus, the latter simple and pointed, bent at the base but without contortion or additional structures. Tuber oculorum without spine. Dorsal armature mostly lacking, dorsum smooth, often glossy, in few species opisthosomal areas raised to low, pointed bumps. Two or many spine-like metapeltidial structures, arranged in a transversal row.

<==Ischyropsalis Koch 1839 (see below for synonymy) S13
    |--*I. kollari Koch 1839 (see below for synonymy) S13
    |--I. adamii Canestrini 1873 (see below for synonymy) S13
    |--I. cantabrica Luque & Labrada 2012 S13
    |--I. carli Lessert 1905 [incl. I. pentelica Roewer 1950] S13
    |--I. dentipalpis Canestrini 1872 [incl. I. helvetica Roewer 1916] S13
    |--I. dispar Simon 1872 [incl. I. archeri Roewer 1950, I. goodnighti Roewer 1950, I. noltei Dresco 1972] S13
    |--I. gigantea Dresco 1968 S13
    |--I. hadzii Roewer 1950 [=Phalangium cancroides Schmidt 1851 non Acarus cancroides Linnaeus 1758] S13
    |--I. hellwigii (Panzer 1794) S13 [=Phalangium hellwigii S13, Opilio helwigii D04]
    |    |--I. h. hellwigii S13 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--I. h. lucantei Simon 1879 [incl. I. superbus Simon 1881, I. superba] S13
    |--I. hispanica Roewer 1953 [=I. hispanum] S13
    |--I. lithoclasica Schönhofer & Martens 2010 S13
    |--I. luteipes Simon 1872 S13 (see below for synonymy)
    |--I. magdalenae Simon 1881 S13 [=I. madalenae (l. c.) S13, I. madelenae D04]
    |--I. manicata Koch 1869 (see below for synonymy) S13
    |--I. muellneri Hamann 1898 [=I. muelleri (l. c.); incl. I. alfkeni Roewer 1950, I. corcyraea Roewer 1914] S13
    |--I. navarrensis Roewer 1950 [incl. I. espagnoli Dresco 1968, I. nicaea Roewer 1950, I. turki Roewer 1950] S13
    |--I. nodifera Simon 1879 (see below for synonymy) S13
    |--I. petiginosa Simon 1913 [=I. pectiginosa (l. c.)] S13
    |--I. pyrenaea Simon 1872 [=I. helwigi var. pyrenaea] S13
    |    |--I. p. pyrenaea [incl. I. moreana Roewer 1950, I. pyrenaea venasquensis Dresco 1967] S13
    |    `--I. p. alpinula Martens 1978 S13
    |--I. ravasinii Hadži 1942 S13
    |--I. redtenbacheri Doleschall 1852 R23
    |--I. robusta Simon 1872 [=Ischiropsalis robusta; incl. I. lusitanica Roewer 1923] S13
    `--I. strandi Kratochvíl 1936 [incl. I. knirschi Roewer 1950, I. ruffoi Caporiacco 1947] S13

Ischyropsalis Koch 1839 [=Ischiropsalis (l. c.); incl. Lhermia Lucas 1866, Lermia (l. c.), Odontopalpa Hadži 1931; Ischyropsalidinae] S13

Ischyropsalis adamii Canestrini 1873 [incl. I. amseli Roewer 1950, I. apuanus Caporiacco 1930, I. apuana, I. kratochvili Roewer 1950, I. apuanus nanus Dresco 1968] S13

Ischryosalis hellwigii hellwigii (Panzer 1794) S13 [incl. I. crassichelis Roewer 1950 S13, I. frankenbergi Bartoš 1938 S13, I. franzi Roewer 1950 S13, I. herbstii Koch 1847 S13, I. pectinifera Hadži 1928 S13, I. plicata Roewer 1923 S13, I. taunica Müller 1924 S13, I. tunica D04]

*Ischyropsalis kollari Koch 1839 [incl. I. bosnica Roewer 1914, I. danubia Roewer 1950, I. nivalis Roewer 1950, I. reimoseri Roewer 1950, I. scutata Roewer 1950, I. segregata Roewer 1950, I. spinichelis Roewer 1950, I. strasseri Roewer 1950, I. styriaca Roewer 1950, I. tirolensis Roewer 1950, I. (Odontopalpa) triglavensis Hadži 1931, I. troglodytes Roewer 1950] S13

Ischyropsalis luteipes Simon 1872 S13 [incl. I. caporiaccoi Roewer 1950 S13, I. caporioccoi (l. c.) S13, I. pestae Roewer 1950 S13, *Lhermia spinipes Lucas 1866 (n. o.) S13, Lermia (l. c.) spinipes R23]

Ischyropsalis manicata Koch 1869 [=I. manicatus (l. c.); incl. I. austriaca Roewer 1950, I. balcanica Roewer 1950, I. dacica Roewer 1916, I. ionatae Wajgel 1874 (n. n.), I. ionatai, I. kaestneri Roewer 1940, I. helvetica milleri Kratochvíl 1934] S13

Ischyropsalis nodifera Simon 1879 [incl. I. asturica Roewer 1950, I. corsica Roewer 1950, I. janetscheki Roewer 1950, I. sharpi Simon 1879] S13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S13] Schönhofer, A. L. 2013. A taxonomic catalogue of the Dyspnoi Hansen and Sørensen, 1904 (Arachnida: Opiliones). Zootaxa 3679 (1): 1–68.

Ischyropsalidoidea

Sabacon cf. cavicolens, copyright Marshal Hedin.


Belongs within: Palpatores.
Contains: Ischyropsalis.

The Ischyropsalidoidea are a clade of harvestmen found in the Holarctic region, members of which have an unsegmented ovipositor in females, and a penis with a single muscle in males (Shultz 1998).

<==Ischyropsalidoidea [Ischropsalidae, Ischyropsalidae, Ischyropsalidoidae]
    |  i. s.: Piankhi Dunlop, Bartel & Mitov 2012 DBM12
    |           `--*P. steineri Dunlop, Bartel & Mitov 2012 DBM12
    |--Ischyropsalididae S13
    |    |--Ischyropsalis S13
    |    `--Ceratolasmatinae [Ceratolasmatidae] S13
    |         |--Ceratolasma Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 S98
    |         |    `--*C. tricantha Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 GG42
    |         `--Acuclavella Shear 1986 G07b, G07a
    |              |--*A. cosmetoides Shear 1986 S13
    |              |--A. merickeli Shear 1986 BH09
    |              |--A. quattuor Shear 1986 E90
    |              `--A. shoshone Shear 1986 E90
    `--+--Taracidae S13
       |    |--Taracus Simon 1879 GV09, S98
       |    |    |--*T. packardi Simon 1879 S79
       |    |    |--T. birsteini Ljovuschkin 1971 DBM12
       |    |    |--T. gertschi Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 GG42
       |    |    |--T. malkini Goodnight & Goodnight 1945 GG45
       |    |    |--T. nigripes Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 GG43
       |    |    |--T. pallipes Banks 1894 R23
       |    |    |--T. silvestrii Roewer 1929 S13
       |    |    `--T. spinosus Banks 1894 [=T. spinosa] R23
       |    `--+--Crosbycus Roewer 1914 S10
       |       |    |--*C. dasycnemus (Crosby 1911) [=Nemastoma dasycnemum] S13
       |       |    |--C. pentelicus Roewer 1951 (n. d.) S13
       |       |    `--C. speluncarum Roewer 1951 (n. d.) S13
       |       `--Hesperonemastoma Gruber 1970 GV09, S10
       |            |--*H. pallidimaculosum (Goodnight & Goodnight 1945) (see below for synonymy) S10
       |            |--H. kepharti (Crosby & Bishop 1924) [=Nemastoma kepharti] S13
       |            |--H. modestum (Banks 1894) BH09 [=Nemastoma modesta BH09, N. modestum R23]
       |            |--H. packardi (Roewer 1914) (see below for synonymy) S10
       |            `--H. smilax Shear 2010 S10
       `--Sabacon Simon 1879 (see below for synonymy) S13
            |--*S. paradoxus Simon 1879 G02 [=Sa. paradoxum G02, Scotolemon paradoxus D04]
            |--S. akiyoshiensis Suzuki 1963 [=S. akiyoshiense] S13
            |--S. altomontanus Martens 1983 [=S. altomontanum] S13
            |--S. astoriensis Shear 1975 E90
            |--S. briggsi Shear 1975 E90
            |--S. bryantii (Banks 1898) (see below for synonymy) S13
            |--S. cavicolens (Packard 1884) (see below for synonymy) S13
            |--S. chomolongmae Martens 1972 S13
            |--S. claviger (Menge 1854) [=Nemastoma clavigerum; incl. S. bachofeni Roewer 1939] D06
            |--S. crassipalpis (Koch 1879) G07a, CL00 (see below for synonymy)
            |--S. crassipes S66
            |--S. dentipalpis Suzuki 1949 [=S. dentipalpe] S13
            |--S. dhaulagiri Martens 1972 S13
            |--S. distinctus Suzuki 1974 [=S. distinctum] S13
            |--S. franzi Roewer 1953 S13
            |--S. gonggashan Tsurusaki & Song 1993 TS93
            |--S. imamurai Suzuki 1964 T06
            |--S. iriei Suzuki 1974 S13
            |--S. ishizuchi Suzuki 1974 S13
            |--S. jiriensis Martens 1972 S13
            |--S. makinoi Suzuki 1949 T06
            |    |--S. m. makinoi [incl. S. habei Suzuki 1965] S13
            |    `--S. m. sugimotoi Suzuki & Tsurusaki 1983 S13
            |--S. martensi Tsurusaki & Song 1993 TS93
            |--S. mitchelli Crosby & Bishop 1924 E90
            |--S. occidentalis (Banks 1894) [=Phlegmacera occidentalis] BH09
            |--S. okadai Suzuki 1941 DBM12
            |--S. palpogranulatus Martens 1972 [=S. palpogranulatum] S13
            |--S. pasonianus Luque 1991 (see below for synonymy) S13
            |--S. picosantrum Martens 1983 S13
            |--S. pygmaeus Miyosi 1942 TT05 [=S. pygmaeum TM00]
            |--S. relictus Marten 1972 [=S. relictum] S13
            |--S. satoikioi Miyosi 1942 S13
            |--S. sergeidedicatus Martens 1989 [=S. sergeidedicatum] S13
            |--S. sheari Cokendolpher 1984 E90
            |--S. simoni Dresco 1952 S13
            |--S. siskiyou Shear 1975 E90
            |--S. unicornis Martens 1972 DBM12
            `--S. viscayanus Simon 1881 [=S. viscayanum, S. viscayasanum, S. vizcayanus] S13
                 |--S. v. viscayanus [incl. S. inflatus Dresco 1955 (n. n.)] S13
                 `--S. v. ramblaianus Martens 1983 [=S. viscayanum ramblaianum] S13

Hesperonemastoma packardi (Roewer 1914) [=Nemastoma packardi, N. troglodytes Packard 1877 non Leiobunum troglodytes Wankel 1861] S10

*Hesperonemastoma pallidimaculosum (Goodnight & Goodnight 1945) [=Nemastoma pallidimaculosa, N. pallidimaculosum] S10

Sabacon Simon 1879 [incl. Parasabacon Hansen & Sørensen 1904, Phlegmacera Packard 1884, Tomicomerus Pavesi 1899; Sabaconidae] S13

Sabacon bryantii (Banks 1898) [=Phlegamacera bryantii, S. bryanti (l. c.), *Tomicomerus bryantii, T. bryanti (l. c.); incl. T. bispinosus Pavesi 1899] S13

Sabacon cavicolens (Packard 1884) [=*Phlegmacera cavicolens, P. cavicoleus (l. c.); incl. Nemastoma inops Packard 1884, Hesperonemastoma inops, Sabacon jonesi Goodnight & Goodnight 1942, S. spinosus Weed 1893] S13

Sabacon crassipalpis (Koch 1879) G07a, CL00 [=Nemastoma crassipalpe G07a, *Parasabacon crassipalpis G07a, Sabacon crassipalpe CL00]

Sabacon pasonianus Luque 1991 [=S. picosantrum pasonianum, S. picosantrum asonianum (l. c.), S. picosantrum asoniarum (l. c.)] S13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BH09] Bragg, P. D., & R. G. Holmberg. 2009. The harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) of British Columbia. J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Columbia 106: 29–37.

[CL00] Chemeris, A. N., & D. V. Logunov. 2000. Notes on two species of Sabacon Simon, 1879 from the mountains of South Siberia (Arachnida: Opiliones: Sabaconidae). Arthropoda Selecta 9 (3): 207–213.

[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[D06] Dunlop, J. A. 2006. Baltic amber harvestman types (Arachnida: Opiliones: Eupnoi and Dyspnoi). Fossil Record 9 (2): 167–182.

[DBM12] Dunlop, J. A., C. Bartel & P. G. Mitov. 2012. An enigmatic spiny harvestman from Baltic amber. Fossil Record 15 (2): 91–101.

[E90] Edgar, A. L. 1990. Opiliones (Phalangida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 529–581. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[GV09] Giribet, G., L. Vogt, A. Pérez González, P. Sharma & A. B. Kury. 2009. A multilocus approach to harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) phylogeny with emphasis on biogeography and the systematics of Laniatores. Cladistics 25: 1–30.

[GG42] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1942. New American Phalangida. American Museum Novitates 1164: 1–4.

[GG43] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1943. New and little known phalangids from the United States. American Midland Naturalist 29 (3): 643–656.

[GG45] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1945. Phalangida from the United States. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 53: 239–245.

[G02] Gruber, J. 2002. Origin and gender of the name Sabacon Simon, 1879 (Opiliones: Palpatores: Ischyropsalidoidea). Newsl. Brit. Arachnol. Soc. 96: 6.

[G07a] Gruber, J. 2007a. Dyspnoi: historical systematic synopsis. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 131–135. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G07b] Gruber, J. 2007b. Ceratolasmatidae Shear, 1986. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 136–142. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S13] Schönhofer, A. L. 2013. A taxonomic catalogue of the Dyspnoi Hansen and Sørensen, 1904 (Arachnida: Opiliones). Zootaxa 3679 (1): 1–68.

[S10] Shear, W. A. 2010. Hesperonemastoma smilax, n. sp., a remarkable new harvestman from a cave in West Virginia, with comments on other reported cave-dwelling Hesperonemastoma species (Opiliones, Ischyropsalidoidea, Sabaconidae). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 72 (2): 105–110.

[S98] Shultz, J. W. 1998. Phylogeny of the Opiliones (Arachnida): an assessment of the “Cyphopalpatores” concept. Journal of Arachnology 26: 257–272.

[S79] Simon, E. 1879. Descriptions d’Opiliones nouveaux. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 22 (Comptes-Rendus): lxx–lxxv.

[S66] Suzuki, S. 1966. Four remarkable phalangids from Korea. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 39 (2): 95–106.

[T06] Tsurusaki, N. 2006. Harvestmen of Shimane Prefecture, western Honshu, Japan: an annotated list of species with special reference to geographic variation (Arachnida: Opiliones). In: Board of the Shimane Meeting of the Japanese Society of Biological Education (ed.) Shin Shimane no Seibutsu pp. 153–170. Board of the Shimane Meeting of the Japanese Society of Biological Education: Izuno (Japan).

[TM00] Tsurusaki, N., & H. Minato. 2000. Opiliones of Wakayama Prefecture, Honshu, Japan. Nankiseibutu 42 (1): 3–8.

[TS93] Tsurusaki, N., & D. Song. 1993. Two new species of Sabacon from Sichuan Province, China (Arachnida: Opiliones: Sabaconidae). Zoological Science 10: 155–159.

[TT05] Tsurusaki, N., M. Takanashi, N. Nagase & T. Shimada. 2005. Fauna and biogeography of harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) of the Oki Islands, Japan. Acta Arachnologica 54 (1): 51–63.

Troguloidea

Pair of Dicranolasma soerensenii, copyright Salvatore Canu.


Belongs within: Palpatores.
Contains: Nemastomatidae, Trogulidae.

The Troguloidea is a clade of harvestmen found in Holarctic region, primarily characterised by features of the genitalia. Members of this clade possess two muscles in the penis, and aciniform vaginal glands and outer circular muscles in the ovipositor (Giribet & Kury 2007).

<==Troguloidea [Eupagosterni, Troguloidae]
    |  i. s.: Eotrogulus [Eotrogulidae] K13
    |           `--E. fayoli Thevenin 1901 D07
    |         Nemastomoides Thevenin 1901 D07 [incl. Protopilio D07; Nemastomoididae K13]
    |           |--N. elaveris Thevenin 1901 D07
    |           `--N. longipes (Petrunkevitch 1913) [=Protopilio longipes] D07
    |--Nipponopsalis Martens & Suzuki 1966 M76 [Nipponopsalididae GE02]
    |    |--*N. abei (Sato & Suzuki 1939) S73 [=Ischyropsalis abei M76]
    |    |    |--N. a. abei S73
    |    |    `--N. a. longipes Suzuki 1973 S73
    |    |--N. coreana (Suzuki 1966) [=Ischyropsalis coreana] S13
    |    `--N. yezoensis (Suzuki 1958) [=Ischyropsalis yezoensis] S13
    `--+--+--Nemastomatidae GE02
       |  `--Ameticos Garwood, Dunlop et al. 2011 GS14, GD11
       |       `--*A. scolos Garwood, Dunlop et al. 2011 GD11
       `--+--Trogulidae GE02
          `--Dicranolasma Sørensen 1873 GE02, R23 (see below for synonymy)
               |--*D. scabrum (Herbst 1799) [=Opilio scaber; incl. D. schmidti Hadži 1928] S13
               |--D. apuanum Marcellino 1971 G98
               |--D. cretaeum Gruber 1998 G98
               |--D. cristatum Thorell 1876 G98
               |--D. giljarovi Šilhavý 1966 G98
               |--D. hirtum Loman 1894 (see below for synonymy) S13
               |--D. hoberlandti Šilhavý 1956 G98
               |--D. kurdistanum Staręga 1970 G98
               |--D. mladeni Karaman 1990 G98
               |--D. opilionoides (Koch 1867) (see below for synonymy) S13
               |--D. pauper Dahl 1903 G98
               |--D. ponticum Gruber 1998 G98
               |--D. ressli Gruber 1998 G98
               |--D. soerensenii Thorell 1876 S13 (see below for synonymy)
               |--D. thracium Staręga 1976 G98
               `--D. verhoeffi Dahl 1903 G98

Dicranolasma Sørensen 1873 GE02, R23 [incl. Amopaum Sørensen 1873 R23; Dicranolasmatidae, Dicranolasmatinae, Dicranolasmatini, Dicranolasmidae]

Dicranolasma hirtum Loman 1894 [incl. D. diomedeum Kulczyński 1907, D. diomedaeum (l. c.), D. napoli Goodnight & Goodnight 1944] S13

Dicranolasma opilionoides (Koch 1867) [=Trogulus opilionoides; incl. D. kettyi Marcellino 1968, D. kettyae, *Amopaum spinipalpe Sørensen 1873] S13

Dicranolasma soerensenii Thorell 1876 S13 [=Amopaum soerenseni D04, D. soerenseni S13; incl. D. latifrons Simon 1879 D04, D. wiehlei Kraus 1959 D04]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[D07] Dunlop, J. A. 2007. Paleontology. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 247–265. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[GD11] Garwood, R. J., J. A. Dunlop, G. Giribet & M. D. Sutton. 2011. Anatomically modern Carboniferous harvestmen demonstrate early cladogenesis and stasis in Opiliones. Nature Communications 2 (444): 1–7.

[GS14] Garwood, R. J., P. P. Sharma, J. A. Dunlop & G. Giribet. 2014. A Paleozoic stem group to mite harvestmen revealed through integration of phylogenetics and development. Current Biology 24 (9): 1017–1023.

[GE02] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler & C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18: 5–70.

Giribet, G., & A. B. Kury. 2007. Phylogeny and biogeography. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 62–87. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G98] Gruber, J. 1998. Beiträge zur Systematik der Gattung Dicranolasma (Arachnida: Opiliones, Dicranolasmatidae). I. Dicranolasma thracium Staręga und verwandte Formen aus Südosteuropa und Südwestasien. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien. Serie B. Botanik und Zoologie 100: 489–537.

[K13] Kury, A. B. 2013. Order Opiliones Sundevall, 1833. Zootaxa 3703: 27–33.

[M76] Martens, J. 1976. Genitalmorphologie, System und Phylogenie der Weberknechte (Arachnida: Opiliones). Entomologica Germanica 3 (1–2): 51–68.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S13] Schönhofer, A. L. 2013. A taxonomic catalogue of the Dyspnoi Hansen and Sørensen, 1904 (Arachnida: Opiliones). Zootaxa 3679 (1): 1–68.

[S73] Suzuki, S. 1973. Opiliones from the South-west Islands, Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, Series B, Division 1, 24: 205–279.

Liparetrus

Liparetrus sp., copyright Fir0002.


Belongs within: Melolonthinae.

Liparetrus is a diverse genus of chafers endemic to Australia; the genus' diversity makes it difficult to define categorically, but species are small and robust with short elytra and/or a pale, transparent posterior margin to the rear coxae (Britton 1980).

Characters (from Britton 1980): Small (length 3–14 mm), of stout build; elytra usually short, so that propygidium is largely exposed; eye usually truncate posteriorly and so almost semicircular in outline; posterior coxae usually with pale transparent posterior margins; proximal (second) tooth on outer edge of anterior tibia, when present, not closely applied to base of tibia; labrum not fused to clypeus; claws without pulvilli; propygidium and penultimate ventrite usually fused into a continuous ring, without trace of a longitudinal suture which normally separates the two on each side; antennae usually 9-segmented, rarely 7- or 8-segmented; antenna1 club always 3-lamellate.

<==Liparetrus Guérin-Méneville 1831 [incl. Liparetra Hope 1837] HW92
    |  i. s.: L. collesi Britton 1980 HW92
    |         L. lottinii M86
    |--L. nudipennis group B80
    |    |--L. nudipennis Germar 1848 B80
    |    `--L. squamipennis Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. squamiger group B80
    |    |--L. bellarus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. imbricatus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. squamiger Macleay 1886 B80
    |--L. sericeus group B80
    |    |--L. collessi Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. picipennis Germar 1848 [incl. L. nitidior Macleay 1886, L. obscurus Macleay 1886 non Blanchard 1853] B80
    |    |--L. sericeus Macleay 1871 [incl. L. latiusculus Macleay 1886] B80
    |    `--L. triangulatus Britton 1959 B80
    |--L. erythropterus group B80
    |    |--L. dispar Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. ebeninus Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. erythropterus Blanchard 1851 B80
    |    `--L. puer Blackburn 1905 [incl. L. longipilis Lea 1924] B80
    |--L. convexior group B80
    |    |--L. adelus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. argenteus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. carnei Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. convexior Macleay 1886 [incl. L. caviceps Blackburn 1888] B80
    |    |--L. newmani Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. pallidus Macleay 1871 B80
    |--L. dixoni group B80
    |    |--L. armstrongi Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. dixoni Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. jubatus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. rotundipennis Macleay 1886 [incl. L. simplex Blackburn 1888] B80
    |    |--L. sericeipennis Macleay 1886 B80
    |    `--L. wilsoni Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. alienus group B80
    |    |--L. alienus Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. diversus Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. limbatus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. opacus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. pauxillus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. pusillus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. suavis Blackburn 1889 B80
    |    `--L. vicinus Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. discoidalis group B80
    |    |--L. bakeri Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. bimaculatus Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. discoidalis Macleay 1864 B80
    |    |--L. hattanus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. orestes Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. reburrus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. ulingus Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. ferrugineus group B80
    |    |--L. confusus Blackburn 1912 B80
    |    |--L. convexus Boisduval 1835 (see below for synonymy) B80
    |    |--L. curtulus Burmeister 1855 [incl. L. brunneipennis Blackburn 1892, L. ubiquitosus Macleay 1886] B80
    |    |--L. erythropygus Blanchard 1851 B80
    |    |--L. ferrugineus Blanchard 1851 B80
    |    |--L. mimicus Lea 1917 B80
    |    `--L. teres Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. laetus group B80
    |    |--L. albipennis Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. cribripennis Lea 1924 B80
    |    |--L. geminatus Lea 1924 B80
    |    |--L. laetus Blackburn 1888 [incl. L. basicollis Lea 1917] B80
    |    |--L. longidens Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. modestus Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    `--L. stygius Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. discipennis group B80
    |    |--*L. discipennis Guérin-Méneville 1831 B80, HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--L. aethiops Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. albohirtus Masters 1886 [=L. basalis Macleay 1864 non Blanchard 1851] B80
    |    |--L. gravidus Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. squamosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. rotundicollis Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. trichopygus Lea 1917 B80
    |    `--L. ventralis Blackburn 1905 B80
    |--L. atratus group B80
    |    |--L. amabilis Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. asper Macleay 1886 [incl. L. spretus Blackburn 1892] B80
    |    |--L. atratus Burmeister 1855 B80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--L. hirpex Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. mixtus Lea 1919 B80
    |    |--L. monartus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. subsquamosus Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. tristis Blanchard 1851 B80
    |    `--L. uniformis Blanchard 1851 B80
    |--L. luridipennis group B80
    |    |--L. carnabyi Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. cribriceps Lea 1924 B80
    |    |--L. flavipennis Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. glabripennis Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. lepidopygus Lea 1917 [incl. L. trichosternus Lea 1917] B80
    |    |--L. lissapterus Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. luridipennis Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. necessarius Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. trivialis Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. vestitus Blanchard 1846 B80, HW92
    |         |--L. v. vestitus [incl. L. nigroumbratus Blackburn 1888, L. pruinosus Burmeister 1855] HW92
    |         `--L. v. sedani Blackburn 1888 HW92
    |--L. monticola group B80
    |    |--L. atomus Britton 1959 B80
    |    |--L. flavopictus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. gilvus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. glaber Macleay 1871 [=L. laevatus Macleay 1886; incl. L. parvulus Macleay 1871] B80
    |    |--L. luridus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. micros Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. minor Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. monticola (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) B80
    |    |--L. ‘pygmaeus’ Britton 1980 non Burmeister 1855 B80
    |    `--L. unidentatus Lea 1917 B80
    |--L. capillatus group B80
    |    |--L. amplus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. angulatus Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. capillatus Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. cognatus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. laevis Blanchard 1851 (see below for synonymy) B80
    |    |--L. rothei Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. rotundiformis Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. rubicundus Macleay 1864 [incl. L. irregularis Lea 1917, L. propinquus Macleay 1886] B80
    |    |--L. rugatus Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. seclusus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. tridentatus Macleay 1871 [incl. L. acutidens Macleay 1886] B80
    |--L. striatus group B80
    |    |--L. brevipes Blackburn 1905 [incl. L. leai Blackburn 1905] B80
    |    |--L. incertus Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. insularis Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. jenkinsi Britton 1959 B80
    |    |--L. lividipennis Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. merredinensis Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. mulurus Britton 1959 B80
    |    |--L. obscurior Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. plautus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. striatus Blanchard 1851 (see below for synonymy) B80
    |    |--L. sylvicola (Fabricius 1775) B80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--L. tibialis Lea 1924 B80
    |--L. fulvohirtus group B80
    |    |--L. albosetosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. andersoni Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. ater Macleay 1886 [incl. L. nitidipennis Macleay 1886] B80
    |    |--L. fulvohirtus Macleay 1871 (see below for synonymy) B80
    |    |--L. karallus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. kennedyi Macleay 1886 [incl. L. majorinus Lea 1919] B80
    |    |--L. niger Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. pandus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. phoenicopterus Germar 1848 B80
    |    |--L. urbulus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. vastus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. wanamarus Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. concolor group B80
    |    |--L. analis Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. collaris Macleay 1886 [incl. L. maurus Blackburn 1892] B80
    |    |--L. concolor Erichson 1842 B80
    |    |--L. consanguineus Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. fimbriatus Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. karinus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. kreuslerae Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. lugens Blackburn 1892 [incl. L. tarsalis Lea 1924] B80
    |    |--L. ovipennis Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. pectinatus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. rubefactus Macleay 1886 B80
    |    `--L. septuosus Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. marginipennis group B80
    |    |--L. criniger Macleay 1886 [incl. L. perplexus Blackburn 1888] B80
    |    |--L. flavicornis Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. germari Macleay 1886 [incl. L. insignis Lea 1917, L. mastersi Macleay 1886] B80
    |    |--L. insolitus Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. marginipennis Blanchard 1851 (see below for synonymy) B80
    |    |--L. nigrinus Germar 1848 [incl. L. rugosus Macleay 1886] B80
    |    |--L. paryphus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. pimbus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. trichotus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. umbrosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. villosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. xanthotrichus Blanchard 1851 B80
    |--L. flavus group B80
    |    |--L. arenosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. aridus Blackburn 1895 B80
    |    |--L. ascius Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. assitus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. cerinus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. cinnameus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. flavidus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. flavus Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. furfurosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. luteus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. medius Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. pallidulus (Macleay 1888) [=Scitala pallidula; incl. L. bilobus Lea 1924] B80
    |    |--L. paulus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. pulvereus Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. lanaticollis group B80
    |    |--L. cantrelli Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. castaneus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. cinctipennis Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. commoni Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. demarzi Britton 1959 B80
    |    |--L. halei Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. lanaticollis Macleay 1888 [incl. L. albovillosus Lea 1917] B80
    |    |--L. minimus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. minusculus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. minutus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. obesus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. occidentalis Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. pallens Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. palmerstoni Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. pholiotus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. semiflavus Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. simulator Lea 1926 B80
    |    |--L. tanami Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. tatakus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. uptoni Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. gracilipes group B80
    |    |--L. abnormalis Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. atrox Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. aulax Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. comes Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. convexiusculus Macleay 1883 [incl. L. acutangulus Lea 1919] B80
    |    |--L. finitimus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. fumosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. gracilipes Blackburn 1888 [incl. L. tuberculatus Lea 1895] B80
    |    |--L. ithonus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. kungarus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. laeticulus Blackburn 1889 B80
    |    |--L. mimus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. nigrifrons Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. obscurus Blanchard 1846 B80, HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--L. parvus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. robustus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. satanus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. simillimus Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. tenebrosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. tulanus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. vespertinus Britton 1980 B80
    `--L. rufipennis group B80
         |--L. atriceps Macleay 1864 [incl. L. fallax Blackburn 1888, L. micans Macleay 1886] B80
         |--L. badius Macleay 1888 B80
         |--L. bituberculatus Macleay 1886 [incl. L. melaleucae Lea 1917, L. piliceps Lea 1924] B80
         |--L. carpentariae Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. compositus Lea 1917 B80
         |--L. crassus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. distans Blackburn 1905 B80
         |--L. distinctus Blackburn 1895 B80
         |--L. glauerti Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. globulus Macleay 1886 [incl. L. mysticus Blackburn 1889] B80
         |--L. hilli Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. impressicollis Macleay 1886 B80
         |--L. kiatanus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. laciniatus Lea 1917 B80
         |--L. malara Britton 1959 B80
         |--L. melallus Britton 1959 B80
         |--L. melanocephalus Blackburn 1895 B80
         |--L. merus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. nigricollis Hope 1842 B80
         |--L. nudus Lea 1917 B80
         |--L. opacicollis Macleay 1886 [incl. L. clypealis Lea 1924] B80
         |--L. orsinus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. periosus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. perkinsi Blackburn 1905 B80
         |--L. pezus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. politus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. posticalis Blackburn 1888 B80
         |--L. quinquelobatus Lea 1919 B80
         |--L. rubrus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. rufipennis Macleay 1864 B80
         |--L. semiatriceps Lea 1917 B80
         |--L. semicastaneus Lea 1917 [incl. L. apicalis Lea 1917] B80
         |--L. validus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. vestjensi Britton 1980 B80
         `--L. waningus Britton 1980 B80

Liparetrus atratus Burmeister 1855 B80 [incl. L. intermedius Lea 1919 B80, L. obtusidens Macleay 1886 B80, L. orthodoxus Lea 1924 HW92, L. parvidens Macleay 1886 HW92]

Liparetrus convexus Boisduval 1835 [incl. L. basalis Blanchard 1851, L. macleayi Blackburn 1888, L. salebrosus Macleay 1886] B80

*Liparetrus discipennis Guérin-Méneville 1831 B80, HW92 [incl. L. assimilis Macleay 1886 B80, L. canescens Macleay 1886 B80, L. montanus Macleay 1886 B80, L. puncticeps Lea 1917 B80]

Liparetrus fulvohirtus Macleay 1871 [incl. L. adelaidae Blackburn 1892, L. comatus Macleay 1886, L. flavopilosus Macleay 1871, L. mitchelli Macleay 1886, L. pilosus Macleay 1871, L. rufiventris Macleay 1871, L. villosicollis Macleay 1886] B80

Liparetrus laevis Blanchard 1851 [incl. L. agrestis Blackburn 1888, L. nigriceps Macleay 1886, L. nigriclavus Lea 1917] B80

Liparetrus marginipennis Blanchard 1851 [=L. marginicollis (l. c.); incl. L. callosus Macleay 1886, L. hirsutus Burmeister 1855, L. nigrohirtus Macleay 1886] B80

Liparetrus monticola (Fabricius 1775) [=Melolontha monticola; incl. L. blanchardi Blackburn 1905, L. gagaticeps Macleay 1888] B80

Liparetrus obscurus Blanchard 1846 B80, HW92 [incl. L. carus Lea 1917 B80, L. holosericeus Macleay 1886 B80, L. iridipennis Germar 1848 B80, L. senex Blackburn 1888 B80, L. sylvicola Blanchard 1853 non Melolontha sylvicola Fabricius 1775 B80]

Liparetrus striatus Blanchard 1851 [incl. L. glabratus Burmeister 1855, L. ovatus Macleay 1886, L. picipennis Macleay 1886 non Germar 1848] B80

Liparetrus sylvicola (Fabricius 1775) B80 [=Melolontha sylvicola B80, *Liparetra sylvicola HW92; incl. Liparetrus juvenis Blackburn 1888 B80, Liparetrus vicarius Blackburn 1905 B80]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B80] Britton, E. B. 1980. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 3. Tribe Liparetrini: genus Liparetrus. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 76: 1–209.

[HW92] Houston, W. W. K., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Melolonthinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 174–358. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 21–126.