Suchia

Reconstruction of Ornithosuchus with Hyperodapedon, copyright Dmitry Bogdanov.


Belongs within: Archosauria.
Contains: Stagonolepidae, Rauisuchidae, Crocodyliformes.

The Suchia are a clade of reptiles including the crocodilians and a number of related fossil taxa once classified as 'thecodontians' (Pseudosuchia), such as the aetosaurs, ornithosuchids and 'rauisuchians'. Higher relationships within the clade have differed between relationships though most recent authors have agreed that the 'rauisuchian' families (Rauisuchidae, Prestosuchidae and Poposauridae) do not form a single clade.

Synapomorphies (from Benton & Clark 1988): Septomaxilla absent; lower temporal fenestra reduced in size, triangular with a dorsal point, quadratojugal sloping forward towards postorbital; axial diapophysis reduced or absent; pubo-ischiadic plate absent, pubis and ischium long and narrow, pubis expanding distally into broad forward-facing plate; long distal process of pubis bent down into subvertical orientation; pubis longer than ischium; proximal head of femur turned inwards at about 45°; fully developed crocodile-normal tarsus, capable of rotation of 60–70°; digit V in foot reduced in length, shorter than digit I.

<==Suchia [Procrocodylomorpha, Rauisuchia, Rauisuchiformes] BC88
    |  i. s.: Wangisuchus Young 1974 G00
    |           `--W. tzeyii G00
    |         Turfanosuchus dabanensis G00
    |         Shuvosaurus Chatterjee 1993 G00, D07
    |           `--S. inexpectatus G00
    |--+--Revueltosaurus Hunt 1989 NS09, PI05
    |  |    |--R. callenderi Hunt 1989 NWW04
    |  |    `--R. hunti Heckert 2002 PI05
    |  `--Stagonolepidae CX04
    `--+--Ornithosuchidae B04
       |    |--Riojasuchus Bonaparte 1969 IN07, R72
       |    |    `--R. tenuisceps IN07
       |    |--Venaticosuchus B04
       |    |--Ornithosuchus Newton 1894 GQ01 [incl. Dasygnathoides R72]
       |    |    |--*O. longidens (Huxley 1877) [=Dasygnathus longidens; incl. O. woodwardi Newton 1894] GQ01
       |    |    `--O. rusconii P88
       |    |--Parringtonia R72
       |    `--Dyoplax R72
       `--+--+--Effigia okeeffeae NS09
          |  `--Arizonasaurus Welles 1947 NS09, G00
          |       `--A. babbitti NS09
          `--+--+--Rauisuchidae NS09
             |  `--Prestosuchidae [Ticinosuchinae] G00
             |       |--Prestosuchus chiniquensis Huene 1942 [incl. P. loricatus Huene 1942] G00
             |       |--Vytshegdosuchus zheshartensis Sennikov 1988 G00
             |       |--Dongusuchus efremovi Sennikov 1988 G00
             |       |--Energosuchus garjainovi Ochev 1986 G00
             |       |--Dongusia Huene 1940 G00
             |       |--Saurosuchus Reig 1959 G00, D07
             |       |    `--S. galilei Reig 1959 G00
             |       |--Ticinosuchus Krebs 1965 G00, D07 [incl. Mandasuchus Charig in Appleby et al. 1967 (n. n.)]
             |       |    `--T. ferox Krebs 1965 G00
             |       |--Tsylmosuchus G00
             |       |    |--T. donensis Sennikov 1990 G00
             |       |    |--T. jakovlevi Sennikov 1990 G00
             |       |    `--T. samariensis Sennikov 1990 G00
             |       `--Pallisteria R72
             `--+--Poposauridae G00
                |    |  i. s.: Lythrosuchus langstoni Long & Murray 1995 G00
                |    |--Postosuchus kirkpatricki Chatterjee 1985 CX04, G00
                |    `--+--Bromsgroveia walkeri Galton 1985 G00
                |       |--Teratosaurus suevicus v. Meyer 1861 G00
                |       |--Poposaurus gracilis Mehl 1915 G00
                |       `--+--Sillosuchus longicervix Alcober & Parrish 1997 G00
                |          `--Chatterjeea [Chatterjeeidae] G00
                |               `--C. elegans Long & Murray 1995 G00
                `--+--Erpetosuchus Newton 1894 CX04, D07 [=Herpetosuchus R72]
                   |    `--E. granti D07
                   |--Trialestes BC88
                   `--Crocodylomorpha [Paracrocodylia, Sphenosuchia] CX04
                        |  i. s.: Hallopus BC88
                        |         Calsoyasuchus Tykoski, Rowe et al. 2002 D07
                        |           `--C. valliceps D07
                        |--Pseudhesperosuchus CX04
                        |--Hesperosuchus agilis CX04, IN07
                        |--Saltoposuchus connectens CX04, BC88
                        |--Kayentasuchus CX04
                        |--Dromicosuchus grallator CX04, NS09
                        |--Litargosuchus CX04
                        |--Terrestrisuchus Crush 1984 CX04, D07
                        |    `--T. gracilis GPS06
                        `--+--Sphenosuchidae [Pedeticosauridae] R72
                           |    |--Sphenosuchus CX04
                           |    `--Pedeticosaurus R72
                           `--+--Dibothrosuchus elaphros CX04, GPS06
                              `--+--Crocodyliformes GPS06
                                 `--Junggarsuchus Clark, Xu et al. 2004 CX04
                                      `--*J. sloani Clark, Xu et al. 2004 CX04

Nomen nudum: Mandasuchus tanyauchen Charig in Appleby et al. 1967 G00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B04] Benton, M. J. 2004. Origin and relationships of Dinosauria. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 7–19. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BC88] Benton, M. J., & J. M. Clark. 1988. Archosaur phylogeny and the relationships of the Crocodylia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods vol. 1. Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds pp. 295–338. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[CX04] Clark, J. M., X. Xu, C. A. Forster & Y. Wang. 2004. A Middle Jurassic ‘sphenosuchian’ from China and the origin of the crocodylian skull. Nature 430: 1021–1024.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[GPS06] Gasparini, Z., D. Pol & L. A. Spalletti. 2006. An unusual marine crocodyliform from the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary of Patagonia. Science 311: 70–73.

[GQ01] Gauthier, J., & K. de Queiroz. 2001. Feathered dinosaurs, flying dinosaurs, crown dinosaurs, and the name "Aves". In: Gauthier, J., & L. F. Gall (eds) New Perspectives on the Origin and Early Evolution of Birds: Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom pp. 7–41. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University: New Haven.

[G00] Gower, D. J. 2000. Rauisuchian archosaurs (Reptilia, Diapsida): an overview. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 218 (3): 447–488.

[IN07] Irmis, R. B., S. J. Nesbitt, K. Padian, N. D. Smith, A. H. Turner, D. Woody & A. Downs. 2007. A Late Triassic dinosauromorph assemblage from New Mexico and the rise of dinosaurs. Science 317: 358–361.

[NS09] Nesbitt, S. J., N. D. Smith, R. B. Irmis, A. H. Turner, A. Downs & M. A. Norell. 2009. A complete skeleton of a Late Triassic saurischian and the early evolution of dinosaurs. Science 326: 1530–1533.

[NWW04] Norman, D. B., L. M. Witmer & D. B. Weishampel. 2004. Basal Ornithischia. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 325–334. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[PI05] Parker, W. G., R. B. Irmis, S. J. Nesbitt, J. W. Martz & L. S. Browne. 2005. The Late Triassic pseudosuchian Revueltosaurus callenderi and its implications for the diversity of early ornithischian dinosaurs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 272: 963–969.

[P88] Paul, G. S. 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World: A Complete Illustrated Guide. Simon & Schuster: New York.

[R72] Romer, A. S. 1972. The Chañares (Argentina) Triassic reptile fauna. XVI. Thecodont classification. Breviora 395: 1–24.

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