Archosauria

Skeletal mount of Rutiodon carolinensis, copyright Ryan Somma.


Belongs within: Archosauromorpha.
Contains: Suchia, Pterosauria, Dinosauria.

The Archosauria is a clade of reptiles usually treated at present as the smallest clade including birds and crocodiles. The Archosauria also include the extinct dinosaurs and pterosaurs.

Synapomorphies (from Nesbitt et al. 2009): At least four premaxillary teeth present; Maxilla with palatal processes meeting in the midline; parabasisphenoid with plate absent, foramina for entrance of cerebral branches of internal carotid artery into braincase positioned laterally on surface, lateral surface of basal tubera lacking semilunar depression; lagenar/cochlea recess present, elongated and tubular; antorbital fossa present on lacrimal, dorsal process of maxilla and dorsolateral margin of posterior process of maxilla (ventral border of antorbital fenestra); postparietals absent; postaxial intercentra absent; coracoidwith posteroventral portion possessing a "swollen" tuber (biceps tuber); ulna with lateral tuber (radius tuber) present on proximal portion; ratio of longest metacarpal to longest metatarsal less than 0.5; metacarpal I with width at middle of shaft accounting for less than 0.35 of total length; proximal portion of femur bearing small, rounded anteromedial tuber; fibula with posterior part of proximal portion expanded posteriorly in lateral view; astragalus with tibial facet divided into posteromedial and anterolateral basins; calcaneum with ventral articular surface for distal tarsal IV and distal end of tuber separated by a clear gap, articular surfaces for fibula and distal tarsal IV continuous.

<==Archosauria [Avesuchia, Ornithosuchia]
    |--Pseudosuchia [Crocodylotarsi, Crurotarsi] NS09
    |    |  i. s.: Belodon C77
    |    |         Teleocrater R72
    |    |         Strigosuchus R72
    |    |--Suchia B04
    |    `--+--Gracilisuchus Romer 1972 B04, D07
    |       |    `--G. stipanicicorum GPS06
    |       `--Parasuchia [Phytosauria, Phytosauridae]
    |            |--*Parasuchus hislopi WU03
    |            |--Paleorhinus bransoni B04
    |            |--‘Palaeornis’ Emmons 1857 non Vigors 1825 P88
    |            |--Arganarhinus D07
    |            |--Brachysuchus D07
    |            |--Redondosaurus D07
    |            |--Angistorhinus D07
    |            |--Pseudopalatus D07
    |            |--Smilosuchus Long & Murray 1995 D07
    |            |    `--S. gregorii D07
    |            |--Mystriosuchus Von Meyer 1863 D07
    |            |    |--M. planirostris B04
    |            |    `--M. westphali D07
    |            |--Nicrosaurus Fraas 1866 D07
    |            |    |--N. buceros D07
    |            |    |--N. gregorii J94
    |            |    |--N. kapffi D07
    |            |    `--N. meyeri D07
    |            |--Mesorhinus R72
    |            `--Rutiodon Emmons 1856 D07
    |                 |--R. carolinensis D07
    |                 |--R. crosbiensis D07
    |                 |--R. grandis D07
    |                 |--R. gregorii D07
    |                 |--R. lepturus D07
    |                 |--R. manhattensis D07
    |                 `--R. megalodon D07
    `--Ornithodira [Avemetatarsalia, Ornithosuchia, Ornithotarsi, Panaves] IN07
         |--Pterosauromorpha [Pterosauridae] A08
         |    |--Pterosauria IN07
         |    `--Scleromochlus Woodward 1907 [Scleromochlidae] A08
         |         `--S. taylori Woodward 1907 K03
         `--Dinosauromorpha [Lagosuchia, Paleodinosauria] NS09
              |--Lagerpetidae [Lagerpetonidae] NS10
              |    |--Lagerpeton Romer 1971 NS09, P88
              |    |    `--L. chanarensis Romer 1971 IN07, P88
              |    `--Dromomeron Irmis, Nesbitt et al. 2007 IN07
              |         |--*D. romeri Irmis, Nesbitt et al. 2007 IN07, BNB17, IN07
              |         `--+--D. gigas BNB17
              |            `--D. gregorii BNB17
              `--Dinosauriformes [Lagosuchidae, Staurikosauria, Staurikosauridae] NS09
                   |  i. s.: Lagosuchus Romer 1971 J94, P88 [Lagosuchinae]
                   |--Marasuchus Sereno & Arcucci 1994 NS09, D07
                   |    |--M. lilloensis NS09 [=Lagosuchus lilloensis P88]
                   |    `--M. talampayensis (Romer 1971) B04, P88 [=Lagosuchus talampayensis GQ01]
                   `--+--Dinosauria NS09
                      |--Saltopus Huene 1910 BNB17, L04
                      |    `--S. elginensis Huene 1910 L04
                      `--Silesauridae NS10
                           |  i. s.: Technosaurus Chatterjee 1984 NS10, NWW04
                           |           `--T. smalli Chatterjee 1984 NS10
                           |--Agnosphitys cromhallensis Fraser, Padian et al. 2002 (n. d.) BNB17, L04
                           |--+--Lewisuchus Romer 1972 NS10, P88 [Lewisuchinae]
                           |  |    `--L. admixtus Romer 1972 NS10
                           |  `--Pseudolagosuchus Arcucci 1987 NS10, P88
                           |       `--P. major Arcucci 1987 NS10
                           `--+--+--Asilisaurus Nesbitt, Sidor et al. 2010 NS10
                              |  |    `--*A. kongwe Nesbitt, Sidor et al. 2010 NS10
                              |  `--Ignotosaurus fragilis BNB17
                              `--+--Sacisaurus agudoensis BNB17, NS10
                                 `--+--Diodorus scytobrachion BNB17
                                    `--+--Eucoelophysis Sullivan & Lucas BNB17, D07
                                       |    `--E. baldwini Sullivan & Lucas 1999 TR04
                                       `--+--Lutungutali sitwensis BNB17
                                          `--Silesaurus Dzik 2003 BNB17, D07
                                               `--S. opolensis Dzik 2003 NS10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A08] Averianov, A. O. 2008. Superorder Pterosauria. In: Ivakhnenko, M. F., & E. N. Kurochkin (eds) Fossil Vertebrates of Russia and Adjacent Territories. Fossil Reptiles and Birds. Part 1 pp. 319–342. GEOS: Moscow.

[BNB17] Baron, M. G., D. B. Norman & P. M. Barrett. 2017. A new hypothesis of dinosaur relationships and early dinosaur evolution. Nature 543: 501–506.

[B04] Benton, M. J. 2004. Origin and relationships of Dinosauria. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 7–19. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[GPS06] Gasparini, Z., D. Pol & L. A. Spalletti. 2006. An unusual marine crocodyliform from the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary of Patagonia. Science 311: 70–73.

[GQ01] Gauthier, J., & K. de Queiroz. 2001. Feathered dinosaurs, flying dinosaurs, crown dinosaurs, and the name "Aves". In: Gauthier, J., & L. F. Gall (eds) New Perspectives on the Origin and Early Evolution of Birds: Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom pp. 7–41. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University: New Haven.

[IN07] Irmis, R. B., S. J. Nesbitt, K. Padian, N. D. Smith, A. H. Turner, D. Woody & A. Downs. 2007. A Late Triassic dinosauromorph assemblage from New Mexico and the rise of dinosaurs. Science 317: 358–361.

[J94] Juul, L. 1994. The phylogeny of basal archosaurs. Palaeontologia Africana 31: 1–38.

[K03] Kellner, A. W. A. 2003. Pterosaur phylogeny and comments on the evolutionary history of the group. In: Buffetaut, E., & J.-M. Mazin (eds) Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society Special Publications 217: 105–137. The Geological Society: London.

[L04] Langer, M. C. 2004. Basal Saurischia. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 25–46. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[NS10] Nesbitt, S. J., C. A. Sidor, R. B. Irmis, K. D. Angielczyk, R. M. H. Smith & L. A. Tsuji. 2010. Ecologically distinct dinosaurian sister group shows early diversification of Ornithodira. Nature 464: 95–98.

[NS09] Nesbitt, S. J., N. D. Smith, R. B. Irmis, A. H. Turner, A. Downs & M. A. Norell. 2009. A complete skeleton of a Late Triassic saurischian and the early evolution of dinosaurs. Science 326: 1530–1533.

[NWW04] Norman, D. B., L. M. Witmer & D. B. Weishampel. 2004. Basal Ornithischia. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 325–334. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[P88] Paul, G. S. 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World: A Complete Illustrated Guide. Simon & Schuster: New York.

[R72] Romer, A. S. 1972. The Chañares (Argentina) Triassic reptile fauna. XVI. Thecodont classification. Breviora 395: 1–24.

[TR04] Tykoski, R. S., & T. Rowe. 2004. Ceratosauria. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 47–70. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[WU03] Wilson, J. A., & P. Upchurch. 2003. A revision of Titanosaurus Lydekker (Dinosauria—Sauropoda), the first dinosaur genus with a ‘Gondwanan’ distribution. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 1 (3): 125–160.

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