Archosauria

Skeletal mount of Postosuchus at the Museum of Texas Tech University, copyright Dallas Krentzel.


Belongs within: Archosauriformes.
Contains: Stagonolepidae, Crocodylomorpha, Ornithodira.

The Archosauria are a clade of reptiles commonly defined as the smallest clade including birds and crocodiles. As such, they also include the extinct dinosaurs and pterosaurs. The two basal lineages within the archosaurs have been distinguished in the past by the conformation of the ankle bones; however, the basal avemetatarsalian (stem-bird) Teleocrater rhadinus retains a plesiomorphic 'crocodile-normal' ankle (Nesbitt et al. 2017).

Synapomorphies (from Nesbitt et al. 2009): At least four premaxillary teeth present; Maxilla with palatal processes meeting in the midline; parabasisphenoid with plate absent, foramina for entrance of cerebral branches of internal carotid artery into braincase positioned laterally on surface, lateral surface of basal tubera lacking semilunar depression; lagenar/cochlea recess present, elongated and tubular; antorbital fossa present on lacrimal, dorsal process of maxilla and dorsolateral margin of posterior process of maxilla (ventral border of antorbital fenestra); postparietals absent; postaxial intercentra absent; coracoidwith posteroventral portion possessing a "swollen" tuber (biceps tuber); ulna with lateral tuber (radius tuber) present on proximal portion; ratio of longest metacarpal to longest metatarsal less than 0.5; metacarpal I with width at middle of shaft accounting for less than 0.35 of total length; proximal portion of femur bearing small, rounded anteromedial tuber; fibula with posterior part of proximal portion expanded posteriorly in lateral view; astragalus with tibial facet divided into posteromedial and anterolateral basins; calcaneum with ventral articular surface for distal tarsal IV and distal end of tuber separated by a clear gap, articular surfaces for fibula and distal tarsal IV continuous.

Archosauria [Avesuchia, Ornithosuchia] NS09
    |--Pseudosuchia (see below for synonymy) NS09
    |    |  i. s.: Belodon C77
    |    |         Strigosuchus R72
    |    |         Wangisuchus Young 1974 G00
    |    |           `--W. tzeyii G00
    |    |         Vytshegdosuchus zheshartensis Sennikov 1988 G00
    |    |         Energosuchus garjainovi Ochev 1986 G00
    |    |         Dongusia Huene 1940 G00
    |    |         Pallisteria R72
    |    |         Tsylmosuchus G00
    |    |           |--T. donensis Sennikov 1990 G00
    |    |           |--T. jakovlevi Sennikov 1990 G00
    |    |           `--T. samariensis Sennikov 1990 G00
    |    |         Episcoposaurus G00
    |    |         Dolichobrachium G00
    |    |         Chirotherium G00
    |    |         Vjushkovisaurini G00
    |    |           |--Vjushkovisaurus berdjanensis Ochev 1982 G00
    |    |           |--Jaikosuchus magnus Sennikov 1990 G00
    |    |           |--Jushatyria vjushkovi Sennikov in Kalandadze & Sennikov 1985 G00
    |    |           `--Youngosuchus Sennikov in Kalandadze & Sennikov 1985 G00
    |    |                `--*Y. sinensis (Young 1973) [=Vjushkovia sinensis] G00
    |    |         Stagonosuchus nyassicus Huene 1938 G00
    |    |         Zanclodon Plieninger 1846 G00
    |    |         Tikisuchus romeri Chatterjee & Majumdar 1987 G00
    |    |         Luperosuchus fractus Romer 1971 G00
    |    |         Hoplitosuchus raui Huene 1942 G00
    |    |         Procerosuchus Huene 1944 G00, R72
    |    |           `--P. celer Huene 1942 G00
    |    |         Heptasuchus clarki Dawley, Zawiskie & Cosgriff 1979 G00
    |    |         Lythrosuchus langstoni Long & Murray 1995 G00
    |    |         Bromsgroveia walkeri Galton 1985 G00
    |    |         Teratosaurus suevicus v. Meyer 1861 G00
    |    |         Chatterjeea [Chatterjeeidae] G00
    |    |           `--C. elegans Long & Murray 1995 G00
    |    |--Nundasuchus songeaensis NB17
    |    `--+--Ornithosuchidae B04
    |       |    |--Venaticosuchus B04
    |       |    |--Parringtonia gracilis R72, NB17
    |       |    |--Dyoplax R72
    |       |    |--Riojasuchus Bonaparte 1969 IN07, R72
    |       |    |    `--R. tenuisceps IN07
    |       |    `--Ornithosuchus Newton 1894 NB17, GQ01 [incl. Dasygnathoides R72]
    |       |         |--*O. longidens (Huxley 1877) [=Dasygnathus longidens; incl. O. woodwardi Newton 1894] GQ01
    |       |         `--O. rusconii P88
    |       `--+--+--Stagonolepidae NB17
    |          |  `--Revueltosaurus Hunt 1989 NS09, PI05
    |          |       |--R. callenderi Hunt 1989 NWW04
    |          |       `--R. hunti Heckert 2002 PI05
    |          `--+--Kollamasuchus gonzalezdiazi NB17
    |             `--+--+--Turfanosuchus dabanensis NB17
    |                |  `--+--Yonghesuchus sangbiensis NB17
    |                |     `--Gracilisuchus Romer 1972 NB17, D07
    |                |          `--G. stipanicicorum GPS06
    |                `--+--Ticinosuchus Krebs 1965 NB17, D07 (see below for synonymy)
    |                   |    `--T. ferox Krebs 1965 G00
    |                   `--+--+--Qianosuchus mixtus NB17
    |                      |  `--+--+--Arizonasaurus Welles 1947 NB17, G00
    |                      |     |  |    `--A. babbitti NS09
    |                      |     |  `--Xilousuchus sapingensis NB17
    |                      |     `--+--Poposaurus gracilis Mehl 1915 NB17, G00
    |                      |        `--+--Lotosaurus Zhang 1975 NB17, D07
    |                      |           |    `--L. adentus Zhang 1975 G00
    |                      |           `--+--Sillosuchus longicervix Alcober & Parrish 1997 NB17, G00
    |                      |              `--+--Shuvosaurus Chatterjee 1993 NB17, D07
    |                      |                 |    `--S. inexpectatus G00
    |                      |                 `--Effigia okeeffeae NB17
    |                      `--+--Prestosuchus chiniquensis Huene 1942 NB17, G00 [incl. P. loricatus Huene 1942 G00]
    |                         `--+--Saurosuchus Reig 1959 NB17, D07
    |                            |    `--S. galilei Reig 1959 G00
    |                            `--+--Batrachotomus kupferzellensis Gower 1999 NB17, G00
    |                               `--+--Fasolasuchus tenax Bonaparte 1978 NB17, G00
    |                                  `--+--+--Rauisuchus tiradentes Huene 1942 NB17, G00
    |                                     |  `--+--Postosuchus NB17
    |                                     |     |    |--P. alisonae NB17
    |                                     |     |    `--P. kirkpatricki Chatterjee 1985 G00
    |                                     |     `--Polonosuchus silesiacus NB17
    |                                     `--+--Trialestes BC88
    |                                        |--Erpetosuchus Newton 1894 CX04, D07 [=Herpetosuchus R72]
    |                                        |    `--E. granti D07
    |                                        `--Crocodylomorpha NB17
    `--Avemetatarsalia [Ornithosuchia, Ornithotarsi, Panaves] NB17
         |--Aphanosauria NB17
         |    |--Spondylosoma Huene 1942 NB17, L04
         |    |    `--S. absconditum Huene 1942 L04
         |    `--+--Teleocrater Nesbitt, Butler et al. 2017 [Aphanosauria] NB17
         |       |    `--*T. rhadinus Nesbitt, Butler et al. 2017 NB17
         |       |--Dongusuchus efremovi Sennikov 1988 NB17, G00
         |       `--Yarasuchus deccanensis Sen 2005 NB17
         `--Ornithodira NB17

Nomen nudum: Mandasuchus tanyauchen Charig in Appleby et al. 1967 G00

Pseudosuchia [Crocodylotarsi, Crurotarsi, Dromaeosuchia, Poposauridae, Prestosuchidae, Procrocodylomorpha, Rauisuchia, Rauisuchidae, Rauisuchiformes, Rauisuchinae, Rauisuchini, Suchia] NS09

Ticinosuchus Krebs 1965 NB17, D07 [incl. Mandasuchus Charig in Appleby et al. 1967 (n. n.); Ticinosuchinae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B04] Benton, M. J. 2004. Origin and relationships of Dinosauria. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 7–19. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BC88] Benton, M. J., & J. M. Clark. 1988. Archosaur phylogeny and the relationships of the Crocodylia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods vol. 1. Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds pp. 295–338. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[CX04] Clark, J. M., X. Xu, C. A. Forster & Y. Wang. 2004. A Middle Jurassic ‘sphenosuchian’ from China and the origin of the crocodylian skull. Nature 430: 1021–1024.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[GPS06] Gasparini, Z., D. Pol & L. A. Spalletti. 2006. An unusual marine crocodyliform from the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary of Patagonia. Science 311: 70–73.

[GQ01] Gauthier, J., & K. de Queiroz. 2001. Feathered dinosaurs, flying dinosaurs, crown dinosaurs, and the name "Aves". In: Gauthier, J., & L. F. Gall (eds) New Perspectives on the Origin and Early Evolution of Birds: Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom pp. 7–41. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University: New Haven.

[G00] Gower, D. J. 2000. Rauisuchian archosaurs (Reptilia, Diapsida): an overview. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 218 (3): 447–488.

[IN07] Irmis, R. B., S. J. Nesbitt, K. Padian, N. D. Smith, A. H. Turner, D. Woody & A. Downs. 2007. A Late Triassic dinosauromorph assemblage from New Mexico and the rise of dinosaurs. Science 317: 358–361.

[L04] Langer, M. C. 2004. Basal Saurischia. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 25–46. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[NB17] Nesbitt, S. J., R. J. Butler, M. D. Ezcurra, P. M. Barrett, M. R. Stocker, K. D. Angielczyk, R. M. H. Smith, C. A. Sidor, G. Niedźwiedzki, A. G. Sennikov & A. J. Charig. 2017. The earliest bird-line archosaurs and the assembly of the dinosaur body plan. Nature 544: 484–487.

[NS09] Nesbitt, S. J., N. D. Smith, R. B. Irmis, A. H. Turner, A. Downs & M. A. Norell. 2009. A complete skeleton of a Late Triassic saurischian and the early evolution of dinosaurs. Science 326: 1530–1533.

[NWW04] Norman, D. B., L. M. Witmer & D. B. Weishampel. 2004. Basal Ornithischia. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 325–334. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[PI05] Parker, W. G., R. B. Irmis, S. J. Nesbitt, J. W. Martz & L. S. Browne. 2005. The Late Triassic pseudosuchian Revueltosaurus callenderi and its implications for the diversity of early ornithischian dinosaurs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 272: 963–969.

[P88] Paul, G. S. 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World: A Complete Illustrated Guide. Simon & Schuster: New York.

[R72] Romer, A. S. 1972. The Chañares (Argentina) Triassic reptile fauna. XVI. Thecodont classification. Breviora 395: 1–24.

Last updated: 3 August 2017.

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