Chrysidoidea

Female Gonatopus, copyright Vida van der Walt.


Belongs within: Aculeata.
Contains: Chrysididae.

The Chrysidoidea are a group of sting-bearing, mostly small wasps with parasitoid or cleptoparasitic larvae.

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Femora inflated; first metasomal tergum narrowed and fused with sternum; Cu2 reduced.

<==Chrysidoidea [Bethyloidea, Cleptiosa]
    |  i. s.: Sparasion Latreille 1802 L02
    |           `--*S. cephalotes L02
    |--Plumarius BM76 [Plumariidae GE05]
    `--+--Scolebythidae GE05
       |    |--Ycaploca evansi GE05
       |    |--Pristapenesia [incl. Dominibythus] GE05
       |    `--Clystopsenella GE05
       `--+--+--Chrysididae GE05
          |  `--Bethylidae GE05
          |       |--Mesitiinae N91
          |       |--Pristocerinae N91
          |       |    |--Apenesia MC13
          |       |    |--Pseudisobrachium N91
          |       |    `--Dissomphalus N91
          |       |--Bethylinae N91
          |       |    |--Sierola N91
          |       |    |--Eupsenella N91
          |       |    |--Bethylus Latreille 1802 L02
          |       |    |    `--*B. hemipterus [=Tiphia hemiptera] L02
          |       |    `--Goniozus N91
          |       |         |--G. claripennis MS01
          |       |         |--G. emigratus NS91
          |       |         `--G. legneri NS91
          |       `--Epyrinae N91
          |            |--Cephalonomiini N91
          |            |    |--Cephalonomia tarsalis Z93
          |            |    |--Plastanoxus N91
          |            |    |--Sclerodermus N91
          |            |    `--Lepidosternopsis N91
          |            `--Epyrini N91
          |                 |--Rhabdepyris N91
          |                 |--Holepyris N91
          |                 `--Epyris K62
          |                      |--E. brachypterus K62
          |                      |--E. pulchellus Lucas 1849 E12
          |                      `--E. vierecki Krombein 1962 K62
          `--+--Sclerogibbidae GE05
             |    |--Probethylus schwarzi R00
             |    `--Sclerogibba N91
             `--+--Embolemus N91 [Embolemidae GE05]
                `--Dryinidae GE05
                     |  i. s.: Dicondylus bicolor K91
                     |--Transdryininae N91
                     |--Thaumatodryinus [Thaumatodryininae] N91
                     |--Bocchus [Bocchinae] N91
                     |--Biaphelopinae N91
                     |--Conganteoninae N91
                     |--Apodryininae N91
                     |--Anteon [Anteoninae] N91
                     |    `--A. flavicorne A71
                     |--Aphelopus [Aphelopinae] GE05
                     |    |--A. melaleucus MS01
                     |    `--A. theliae A71
                     |--Mesodryinus [Dryininae] N91
                     |    |--M. alatus K62
                     |    |--M. americanus K62
                     |    `--M. crawfordi Krombein 1962 K62
                     `--Gonatopodinae N91
                          |--Echthrodelphax N91
                          |--Neodryinus N91
                          |    |--N. koebelei Perkins 1905 GM79
                          |    `--N. semipolita Girault 1925 G25
                          `--Gonatopus K62
                               |--G. ashmeadi K62
                               |--G. curriei Krombein 1962 K62
                               `--G. sepsoides K91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G25] Girault, A. A. 1925. Some gem-like or marvellous inhabitants of the woodlands heretofore unknown and by most never seen or dreamt of. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 191–193).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K91] Kathirithamby, J. 1991. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 684–695. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[K62] Krombein, K. V. 1962. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XIII. Descriptions of new wasps from Plummers Island, Maryland, (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 1–18.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[NS91] Nagelkerke, C. J., & M. W. Sabelis. 1991. Precise sex-ratio control in the pseudo-arrhenotokous phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus occidentalis Nesbitt. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 193–207. Chapman & Hall: London.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia. Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1–53, 1–36.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

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