Calyptratae

Lesser house fly Fannia canicularis, copyright Rui Andrade.


Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Glossina, Hippoboscidae, Muscidae, Anthomyiidae, Oestroidea.

The Calyptratae include houseflies, blowflies and related taxa. The clade is named for the enlarged lower calypter on the wing, and members of the calyptrates are mostly very acrobatic fliers; however, some sublineages do lack a large calypter, and a more reliable synapomorphy of the group may be the presence of labellar pseudotracheae forming distinctive prestomal teeth on the proboscis (Kutty et al. 2010). A number of calyptrate families are parasitic either as adults or larvae; the members of one of the main clades of calyptrates, the Hippoboscoidea, are all ectoparasites and/or blood-feeders on vertebrates. Females of this group retain their larvae within the body to an advanced stage of development, feeding them by means of internal 'milk glands', and only deposit their offspring when the latter is ready to pupate.

The remaining calyptrates have generally been divided between the superfamilies Muscoidea and Oestroidea, but molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that the former forms a paraphyletic grade to the latter (Kutty et al. 2010). They include the Fanniidae, a group of medium-sized to small, usually darkly coloured flies previously classified in the Muscidae but distinguished by having the subcostal vein diverging from vein R1 at a point near its base, and having a middorsal bristle on the hind tibia (Savage 2010).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Large, flaplike lower calypter present at base of wing; prestomal teeth present on labellum.

<==Calyptratae [Calypterae, Calyptrata, Pupipara, Schizometopa]
    |--Hippoboscoidea KP10
    |    |--Glossina KP10
    |    `--Hippoboscidae KP10
    `--Muscoidea KP10
         |  i. s.: Setulia grisea BM76
         |         Mormotomyia GE05 [Mormotomyiidae CM91]
         |           `--M. hirsuta GE05
         |--+--Muscidae WT11
         |  `--+--Anthomyiidae WT11
         |     `--Oestroidea WT11
         `--Fanniidae [Fanniinae] WT11
              |--Australofannia C94
              |--Euryomma peregrinum S10
              |--Piezura [incl. Platycoenosia] S10
              `--Fannia [incl. Coelomyia, Homalomyia] S10
                   |  i. s.: F. albitarsis CM91
                   |         F. anthracina S10
                   |         F. benjamini S10
                   |         F. incisurata S10
                   |         F. scalaris S10
                   |         ‘Homalomyia’ serena K01
                   |         F. subpellucens HV87
                   |--F. manicata KP10
                   `--+--F. armata KP10
                      `--F. canicularis KP10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C94] Colless, D. H. 1994. A new family of muscoid Diptera from Australasia, with sixteen new species in four new genera (Diptera: Axiniidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 8: 471–534.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HV87] Huckett, H. C., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Muscidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1115–1131. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[S10] Savage, J. 2010. Fanniidae (fanniid flies, latrine flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1277–1280. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 12 August 2017.

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