Calyptratae

Lesser house fly Fannia canicularis, copyright Rui Andrade.


Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Glossina, Hippoboscidae, Muscidae, Anthomyiidae, Oestroidea.

The Calyptratae include houseflies, blowflies and related taxa. The clade is named for the enlarged lower calypter on the wing, and members of the calyptrates are mostly very acrobatic fliers; however, some sublineages do lack a large calypter, and a more reliable synapomorphy of the group may be the presence of labellar pseudotracheae forming distinctive prestomal teeth on the proboscis (Kutty et al. 2010). A number of calyptrate families are parasitic either as adults or larvae; the members of one of the main clades of calyptrates, the Hippoboscoidea, are all ectoparasites and/or blood-feeders on vertebrates. The remaining calyptrates have generally been divided between the superfamilies Muscoidea and Oestroidea, but molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that the former forms a paraphyletic grade to the latter (Kutty et al. 2010).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Large, flaplike lower calypter present at base of wing; prestomal teeth present on labellum.

<==Calyptratae [Calypterae, Pupipara, Schizometopa]
    |--Hippoboscoidea KP10
    |    |--Glossina KP10
    |    `--Hippoboscidae KP10
    `--Muscoidea KP10
         |  i. s.: Setulia grisea BM76
         |         Mormotomyia GE05 [Mormotomyiidae CM91]
         |           `--M. hirsuta GE05
         |--+--Muscidae WT11
         |  `--+--Anthomyiidae WT11
         |     `--Oestroidea WT11
         `--Fanniidae [Fanniinae] WT11
              |--Australofannia C94
              |--Euryomma peregrinum S10
              |--Piezura [incl. Platycoenosia] S10
              `--Fannia [incl. Coelomyia, Homalomyia] S10
                   |  i. s.: F. albitarsis CM91
                   |         F. anthracina S10
                   |         F. benjamini S10
                   |         F. incisurata S10
                   |         F. scalaris S10
                   |         ‘Homalomyia’ serena K01
                   |         F. subpellucens HV87
                   |--F. manicata KP10
                   `--+--F. armata KP10
                      `--F. canicularis KP10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C94] Colless, D. H. 1994. A new family of muscoid Diptera from Australasia, with sixteen new species in four new genera (Diptera: Axiniidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 8: 471–534.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HV87] Huckett, H. C., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Muscidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1115–1131. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[S10] Savage, J. 2010. Fanniidae (fanniid flies, latrine flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1277–1280. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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