Reclinata

Phyllograptus angustifolius elongatus, from here.


Belongs within: Eugraptoloida.
Contains: Tetragraptinae, Isograptus, Bireclinata.

The Reclinata are a clade of graptoloids defined by Maletz et al. (2009) as the smallest clade including Tetragraptus serra and Exigraptus uniformis. Synapomorphies of the clade include the presence of a rutellum on the ventral side of the sicular aperture, serially homologous ventral projections on the proximal thecae (thecal rutellae), and a longer sicula than in outgroup taxa (Maletz et al. 2009).

<==Reclinata MCM09
    |--Tetragrapta [Pan-Tetragrapta] MCM09
    |    |  i. s.: Corymbograptus Obut & Sobolevskaya 1964 MCM09, B70
    |    |           `--*C. v-fractus (Salter 1863) [=Didymograptus v-fractus] B70
    |    |         Pseudotrigonograptus Mu & Lee 1958 MCM09, B70 [Pseudotrigonograptidae, Pseudotrigonograptinae]
    |    |           `--*P. uniformis Mu & Lee 1958 [=Tristichograptus uniformis] B70
    |    |--Tetragraptinae MCM09
    |    `--+--+--Perissograptus pygmaeus (Ruedemann 1904) MCM09
    |       |  `--Phyllograptus Hall 1858 MCM09, B70
    |       |       |--*P. typus Hall 1858 B70
    |       |       |--P. angustifolius B70
    |       |       |    |--P. a. angustifolius J79
    |       |       |    `--P. a. elongatus J79
    |       |       |--P. densus J79
    |       |       `--P. loringi White 1874 W77
    |       `--+--Bryograptus Lapworth 1880 FC86, B70
    |          |    |--*B. kjerulfi Lapworth 1880 B70
    |          |    `--B. patens B70
    |          `--+--Pseudobryograptus Mu 1957 FC86, B70
    |             |    `--*P. parallelus Mu 1957 B70
    |             `--Pendeograptus Bouček & Přibyl 1951 MCM09, B70
    |                  |--*P. pendens (Elles 1898) [=Tetragraptus pendens] B70
    |                  `--P. fruticosus (Hall 1858) MCM09 [=Tetragraptus fruticosus FC86]
    `--Pan-Bireclinata [Glossograptacea] MCM09
         |--Isograptus MCM09
         `--+--Parisograptus caduceus MCM09
            `--Bireclinata MCM09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B70] Bulman, O. M. B. 1970. Graptolithina with sections on Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia. In: Teichert, C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt V 2nd ed. pp. V1–V149. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and the University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[FC86] Fortey, R. A., & R. A. Cooper. 1986. A phylogenetic classification of the graptoloids. Palaeontology 29: 631–654.

[J79] Jaanusson, V. 1979. Ordovician. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A136–A166. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[MCM09] Maletz, J., J. Carlucci & C. E. Mitchell. 2009. Graptoloid cladistics, taxonomy and phylogeny. Bulletin of Geosciences 84 (1): 7–19.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

Monograptina

Specimen of Pristiograptus, copyright P. Skupien.


Belongs within: Bireclinata.
Contains: Cyrtograptinae, Linograptinae, Monograptus, Saetograptus.

The Monograptina are a group of graptolites known from the Lower Silurian to the Lower Devonian, characterised by the production of a uniserial rhabdosome with thecae along one side only of the central stipe (Bulman 1970).

Characters (from Bulman 1970): Scandent, uniserial; development monograptid, with sinus method of pore formation and initially upward direction of growth of th1.

Monograptina
    |--Cyrtograptidae BR70
    |    |--Cyrtograptinae BR70
    |    `--Linograptinae BR70
    `--Monograptidae BR70
         |  i. s.: Falcatograptus Hundt 1965 (n. d.) BR70
         |         Mystiograptus Hundt 1965 (n. d.) BR70
         |         Nodosograptus Hundt 1951 (n. d.) BR70
         |         Paragraptus Hundt 1965 (n. d.) BR70
         |--Monograptus BR70
         |--Pseudomonoclimacis Mikhailova 1975 ZL97
         |    `--P. dalejensis (Bouček 1936) [=Monograptus dalejensis; incl. M. haupti Kühne 1955] ZL97
         |--Cucullograptus Urbanek 1954 BR70
         |    |  i. s.: C. aversus (Eisenack 1942) [=Monograptus aversus] ZL97
         |    |           |--C. a. aversus B70
         |    |           `--C. a. rostratus B70
         |    |--*C. (Cucullograptus) pazdroi Urbanek 1954 BR70
         |    `--C. (Lobograptus Urbanek 1958) BR70
         |         |--C. (*L.) scanicus (Tullberg 1883) BR70, ZL97 [=Monograptus scanicus BR70]
         |         |    |--C. s. scanicus B70
         |         |    `--C. s. amphirostris B70
         |         |--‘Lobograptus’ expectatus ZL97
         |         |--C. (L.) parascanicus B70, ZL97 [=Cucullograptus scanicus parascanicus B70]
         |         |--C. (L.) progenitor (Urbanek 1966) [=Lobograptus progenitor] ZL97
         |         `--C. (L.) simplex [=Cucullograptus (Lobograptus) simplex] B70
         |--Monoclimacis Frech 1897 BR70
         |    |--*M. vomerina (Nicholson 1872) [=Graptolithus vomerinus] BR70
         |    |--M. crenulata B70
         |    |--M. griestoniensis B70
         |    `--M. micropoma BR70
         |--Rastrites Barrande 1850 BR70 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--*R. peregrinus Barrande 1850 BR70 [=*Rastrograptus peregrinus B70]
         |    |--R. longispinus B70
         |    |--R. maximus B70
         |    |--*Stavrites’ rossicus Obut & Sobolevskaya 1968 BR70
         |    `--*Corymbites’ sigmoidalis Obut & Sobolevskaya 1967 BR70
         |--Pristiograptus Jaekel 1889 [incl. Bohemograptus Příbyl 1967] BR70
         |    |--*P. frequens Jaekel 1889 BR70
         |    |--P. bohemicus (Barrande 1850) BR70, B70 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--P. b. bohemicus ZL97
         |    |    |--‘Bohemograptus’ b. garratti ZL97
         |    |    `--‘Bohemograptus’ b. tenuis (Bouček 1936) [=Monograptus bohemicus tenuis] ZL97
         |    |--P. dubius ZL97
         |    |--P. fecundus B70
         |    |--P. nudus M79
         |    |--‘Bohemograptus’ praecornutus ZL97
         |    |--P. regularis ZL97
         |    |--P. transgrediens B70
         |    |--P. tumescens ZL97
         |    `--P. ultimus B70
         |--Neomonograptus Mu & Ni 1975 NJ83
         |    |  i. s.: N. shidianensis Ni & Jiao 1983 NJ83
         |    |--N. falcarius NJ83
         |    |--N. hercynicus NJ83
         |    `--+--N. fanicus NJ83
         |       `--+--N. atopus NJ83
         |          |    |--N. a. atopus NJ83
         |          |    `--N. a. rigidus NJ83
         |          `--N. himalayensis NJ83
         |--Saetograptus BR70
         |--Metamonograptus Wang 1977 NJ83
         |    |  i. s.: M. arcuatus Ni & Jiao 1983 NJ83
         |    |         M. craigensis [=Monograptus craigensis] NJ83
         |    |         M. facetus Ni & Jiao 1983 NJ83
         |    |         M. giganteus Ni & Jiao 1983 NJ83
         |    |--M. birchensis [=Monograptus birchensis] NJ83
         |    `--+--M. praehercynicus NJ83
         |       `--+--M. hemiodon NJ83
         |          `--+--M. qinzhouensis [=Monograptus qinzhouensis] NJ83
         |             `--M. telleri NJ83
         `--Pernerograptus Přibyl 1941 NJ83
              |  i. s.: P. neotericus Ni & Jiao 1983 NJ83
              |         P. supernus Ni & Jiao 1983 NJ83
              |--*P. argenteus (Nicholson 1867) BR70 [=Graptolithus argenteus BR70, Monograptus argenteus NJ83, BR70]
              `--+--‘Monograptus’ ramstalensis NJ83
                 `--P. urbanus Ni & Jiao 1983 NJ83

Pristiograptus bohemicus (Barrande 1850) BR70, B70 [=Graptolithus bohemicus ZL97, *Bohemograptus bohemicus B70, Monograptus bohemicus ZL97]

Rastrites Barrande 1850 BR70 [=Rastrograptus Hopkinson & Lapworth 1875 B70; incl. Corymbites Obut & Sobolevskaya 1967 BR70, Stavrites Obut & Sobolevskaya 1968 BR70]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B70] Bulman, O. M. B. 1970. Graptolithina with sections on Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia. In: Teichert, C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt V 2nd ed. pp. V1–V149. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and the University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[BR70] Bulman, O. M. B., & R. B. Rickards. 1970. Classification of the graptolite family Monograptidae Lapworth, 1873. In: Teichert, C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt V 2nd ed. pp. V149–V157. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and the University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[M79] Müller, A. H. 1979. Fossilization (taphonomy). In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A2–A78. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[NJ83] Ni Y.-N. & Jiao S.-D. 1983. Lower Devonian graptolites from Yunnan. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 22 (3): 295–307.

[ZL97] Zhang Y. & A. C. Lenz. 1997. Uppermost Wenlock and Ludlow graptolites from southern Yunnan, China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 34: 1220–1238.

Cyrtograptinae

Specimen of Cyrtograptus, from here.


Belongs within: Monograptidae.

The Cyrtograptinae are a group of uniserial graptolites known from the Middle Silurian, characterised by the regular production of thecal cladia (Bulman 1970).

Characters (from Bulman 1970): Main stipe (procladium) generally spirally coiled, helicoidally at proximal end, with one or more thecal cladia, sometimes bearing second- or higher-order cladia; production of cladia typically regular.

Cyrtograptinae
    |--Averianowograptus Obut 1949 B70
    |    `--*A. magnificus (Averianow 1931) [=Cyrtograptus magnificus] B70
    |--Barrandeograptus Bouček 1933 B70
    |    `--*B. pulchellus (Tullberg 1883) [=Cyrtograptus pulchellus] B70
    `--Cyrtograptus Carruthers 1867 (see below for synonymy) B70
         |--*C. murchisoni Carruthers 1867 [=Cyrtograpsus murchisoni] B70
         |--C. centrifugus B70
         |--C. ellesae B70
         |--C. grayi Lapworth 1876 [=*Lapworthograptus grayi] B70
         |--C. insectus K-D04
         |--‘*Uralograptus’ insuetus Koregn 1962 B70
         |--C. lapworthi K-D04
         |--C. linnarssoni B70
         |--C. lundgreni B70
         |--C. perneri B79
         |--C. radians B79
         |--C. rigidus B70
         `--C. spiralis Averianow 1931 [=*Damosiograptus spiralis] B70

Cyrtograptus Carruthers 1867 [=Cyrtograpsus; incl. Damosiograptus Obut 1950, Lapworthograptus Bouček & Přibyl 1952, Uralograptus Koregn 1962] B70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B79] Boucot, A. J. 1979. Silurian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A167–182. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[B70] Bulman, O. M. B. 1970. Graptolithina with sections on Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia. In: Teichert, C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt V 2nd ed. pp. V1–V149. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and the University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[K-D04] Kozłowska-Dawidziuk, A. 2004. Evolution of retiolitid graptolites—a synopsis. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (4): 505–518.

Gasterocomidae

Gasterocoma sp., from Steinkern.de.


Belongs within: Cyathocrinida.

The Gasterocomidae are a group of crinoids known from the Lower and Middle Devonian (Moore et al. 1978).

Characters (from Moore et al. 1978): Theca conical bowl shaped to globose; infrabasals five, three, or one; radial articular facets narrow horseshoe shaped; axial canal present; radianal absent, anal X present or absent, anal opening generally through side of cup below posterior radials. Anal sac absent. Moderately thick uniserial arms spread sideward, branching isotomously. Transversely round to quadrangular stem with axial and three or four peripheral canals.

Gasterocomidae [Gastrocomidae, Schultzicrinidae]
    |--Scoliocrinus Jaekel 1895 ML78
    |    `--*S. eremita Jaekel 1895 ML78
    |--Nanocrinus Müller 1856 ML78
    |    `--*N. paradoxus Müller 1856 ML78
    |--Schultzicrinus Springer 1911 ML78
    |    `--*S. typus Springer 1911 ML78
    |--Kopficrinus Goldring 1954 ML78
    |    `--*K. pustuliferus Goldring 1954 ML78
    |--Mictocrinus Goldring 1923 ML78
    |    `--*M. robustus Goldring 1923 ML78
    |--Gasterocoma Goldfuss 1839 (see below for synonymy) ML78
    |    |--*G. antiqua Goldfuss 1839 [=*Gastrocoma antiqua] ML78
    |    `--G. bicaula N79
    `--Myrtillocrinus Sandberger & Sandberger 1856 [incl. Tripleurocrinus Wood 1904] ML78
         |--*M. elongatus Sandberger & Sandberger 1856 ML78
         |--M. americanus ML78
         `--‘*Tripleurocrinus’ levis Wood 1904 ML78

Gasterocoma Goldfuss 1839 [=Gastrocoma Beyrich 1871; incl. Ceramocrinus Müller 1855, Epactocrinus Müller 1855] ML78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ML78] Moore, R. C., N. G. Lane, H. L. Strimple, J. Sprinkle & R. O. Fay. 1978. Inadunata. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 2 pp. T520–T759. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[N79] Norris, A. W. 1979. Devonian in the Western Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A218–A253. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

Dermabacteraceae

Culture of Brachybacterium muris, copyright LG1.


Belongs within: Micrococcineae.

The Dermabacteraceae are a group of Gram-positive bacteria found in a range of habitats, including soils and in association with animals as commensals or facultative pathogens.

<==Dermabacteraceae
    |--Dermabacter hominis BS03
    `--Brachybacterium BS03
         |--+--B. muris Buczolits, Schumann et al. 2003 BS03
         |  `--+--B. nesterenkovii BS03
         |     `--B. rhamnosum BS03
         `--+--+--B. fresconis BS03
            |  `--B. sacelli BS03
            `--+--+--B. alimentarium BS03
               |  `--B. tyrofermentans BS03
               `--+--B. faecium BS03
                  `--+--B. conglomeratum BS03
                     `--B. paraconglomeratum BS03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS03] Buczolits, S., P. Schumann, G. Weidler, C. Radax & H.-J. Busse. 2003. Brachybacterium muris sp. nov., isolated from the liver of a laboratory mouse strain. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1955–1960.

Cellulomonas

False-coloured micrograph of Cellulomonas, from here.


Belongs within: Micrococcineae.

Cellulomonas is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria commonly isolated from soil with the ability to hydrolyse cellulose (Rivas et al. 2003).

<==Cellulomonas
    |--+--C. humilata RS03
    |  `--+--C. hominis RS03
    |     `--+--‘Promicromonospora’ enterophila RS03
    |        `--C. turbata RS03
    `--+--+--C. fermentans RS03
       |  `--+--C. cellasea RS03
       |     `--+--C. biazotea RS03
       |        `--C. fimi RS03
       `--+--+--C. flavigena RS03
          |  `--C. persica RS03
          `--+--C. iranensis RS03
             `--+--C. gelida RS03
                `--C. uda RS03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[RS03] Rivas, R., M. Sánchez, M. E. Trujillo, J. L. Zurdo-Piñeiro, P. F. Mateos, E. Martínez-Molina & E. Velázquez. 2003. Xylanimonas cellulosilytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium isolated from a decayed tree (Ulmus nigra). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 99–103.

Arthrobacter

Colony of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus, from the United States Department of Energy.


Belongs within: Micrococcineae.

Arthrobacter is a widely distributed genus of bacteria, found primarily in soils. They appear as Gram-negative rods in young cultures and as Gram-positive cocci in mature cultures (Storms et al. 2003).

<==Arthrobacter
    |  i. s.: A. lutens GM96
    |--A. flavus SD03
    `--+--+--+--A. agilis SD03
       |  |  `--+--A. gandavensis Storms, Devriese et al. 2003 SD03
       |  |     `--+--A. citreus SD03
       |  |        `--A. luteolus SD03
       |  `--+--A. atrocyaneus SD03
       |     `--+--A. nasiphocae SD03
       |        `--+--A. albus SD03
       |           `--A. cumminsii SD03
       `--+--+--+--A. woluwensis SD03
          |  |  `--+--A. crystallopoletes Sd03
          |  |     `--+--*A. globiformis [=Bacterium globiforme] SD03
          |  |        `--+--A. pascens SD03
          |  |           `--A. ramosus SD03
          |  `--+--A. creatinolyticus SD03
          |     `--+--+--A. rhombi SD03
          |        |  `--A. sulfureus SD03
          |        `--+--A. protophormiae SD03
          |           `--+--A. nicotianae SD03
          |              `--A. uratoxydans SD03
          `--+--A. methylotrophus Borodina, Kelly et al. 2002VP SD03, IJSEM02
             `--+--+--A. ureafaciens SD03
                |  `--+--+--A. aurescens SD03
                |     |  `--A. ilicis SD03
                |     `--+--A. histidinolovorans SD03
                |        `--A. nicotinovorans SD03
                `--+--+--A. chlorophenolicus SD03
                   |  `--+--A. oxydans SD03
                   |     `--A. polychromogenes SD03
                   `--+--A. sulfonivorans Borodina, Kelly et al. 2002VP SD03, IJSEM02
                      `--+--A. psychrolactophilus SD03
                         `--A. roseus SD03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GM96] Griffiths, A. J. F., J. H. Miller, D. T. Suzuki, R. C. Lewontin & W. M. Gelbart. 1996. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis 6th ed. W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[IJSEM02] IJSEM. 2002. Validation list no. 85: Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 685–690.

[SD03] Storms, V., L. A. Devriese, R. Coopman, P. Schumann, F. Vyncke & M. Gillis. 2003. Arthrobacter gandavensis sp. nov., for strains of veterinary origin. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1881–1884.

Neospathodus

Platform element of Neospathodus, from Sweet (1988).


Belongs within: Gondolellidae.

Neospathodus is a genus of conodonts known from the early Triassic represented only by segminate platform (Pa) elements, the remaining positions of the standard apparatus perhaps lacking mineralised elements (Sweet 1988).

Neospathodus Mosher 1968 S88
    |--N. arcucristatus RR79
    |--N. bransoni CB86
    |--N. collinsoni S88
    |--N. conservativus K79
    |--N. constricta TE01
    |--N. cristagalli K79
    |--N. dieneri TE01
    |--N. divergens RR79
    |--N. homeri TE01
    |--N. hungaricus TE01
    |--N. kummeli K79
    |--N. newpassensis K79
    |--N. pakistanensis TE01
    |--N. timorensis K79
    |--N. triangularis TE01
    `--N. waageni S88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CB86] Chen D.-Q. & Bao H. 1986. Lower Permian ostracodes from the Chihsia Formation of Jurong and Longtan, Jiangsu Province. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 3 (2): 107–132.

[K79] Kummel, B. 1979. Triassic. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A351–A389. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[RR79] Ross, C. A., & J. R. P. Ross. 1979. Permian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A291–A350. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[S88] Sweet, W. C. 1988. The Conodonta: Morphology, taxonomy, paleoecology, and evolutionary history of a long extinct animal phylum. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[TE01] Tong, J., & D. H. Erwin. 2001. Triassic gastropods of the southern Qinling Mountains, China. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 92: 1–47.

Neogondolella

Pa element of Neogondolella, from Sweet (1988).


Belongs within: Gondolellidae.

Neogondolella is a genus of conodonts known from the Late Permian and Triassic, at least some species of which possessed an apparatus with ramiform elements in the S and M positions and segminiplanate elements in the Pa position (Sweet 1988).

Neogondolella Bender & Stoppel 1965 S88
    |--*N. mombergensis S88
    |--N. bifurcata S88
    |--N. bisselli RR79
    |--N. bitteri S88
    |--N. bulgarica S88
    |--N. carinata RR79
    |--N. carpathica S88
    |--N. clarki S88
    |--N. constricta K79
    |--N. excelsa TE01
    |--N. gracilis S88
    |--N. idahoensis RR79
    |--N. jubata K79
    |--N. leveni S88
    |--N. longa S88
    |--N. milleri K79
    |--N. navicula TE01
    |--N. noah S88
    |--N. orientalis S88
    |--N. phosphoriensis S88
    |--N. praebisselli S88
    |--N. regale S88
    |--N. rosenkrantzi RR79
    |--N. serrata DX84
    |    |--N. s. serrata RR79
    |    `--N. s. postserrata RR79
    |--N. shoshonensis S88
    |--N. subcarinata S88
    |--N. timorensis S88
    |--N. transita S88
    `--N. triangularis S88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DX84] Ding Y., Xia G., Duan C., Li W., Liu X. & Liang Z. 1984. Study on the early Permian stratigraphy and fauna in Zhesi district, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu (Inner Mongolia). Bulletin Tianjin Institure Geol. Min. Res. 10.

[K79] Kummel, B. 1979. Triassic. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A351–A389. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[RR79] Ross, C. A., & J. R. P. Ross. 1979. Permian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A291–A350. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[S88] Sweet, W. C. 1988. The Conodonta: Morphology, taxonomy, paleoecology, and evolutionary history of a long extinct animal phylum. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[TE01] Tong, J., & D. H. Erwin. 2001. Triassic gastropods of the southern Qinling Mountains, China. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 92: 1–47.

Drepanoistodontidae

Element of Drepanoistodus suberectus, copyright Olle Hints.


Belongs within: Conodonti.

The Drepanoistodontidae are a group of conodonts known from the Ordovician possessing apparatus composed of recurved and/or geniculate coniform elements (Sweet 1988). Members of this family comprise the core of what has been recognised as the form-family Distacodontidae; however, the use of this latter name was discouraged by Sweet (1988) due to the type genus Distacodus being a nomen dubium of uncertain affinities.

<==Drepanoistodontidae [Distacodontacea, Distacodontidae] S88
    |--Acodina Stauffer 1940 H62
    |    `--A. cuspidata (Stauffer 1940) WSQ86
    |--Proacodus Müller 1959 M62
    |    `--*P. obliquus Müller 1959 M62
    |--Acontiodus Pander 1856 H62
    |    |--*A. latus Pander 1856 H62
    |    `--A. franconicus LM05
    |--Distacodus Pander 1856 (n. d.) S88 [=Machairodus Pander 1856 non Kaup 1833 H62; incl. Machairodia Smith 1907 H62]
    |    |--*D. incurvus (Pander 1856) [=*Machairodus incurvus] H62
    |    `--D. ensiformis H62
    |--Furnishina Müller 1959 M62
    |    |--*F. furnishi Müller 1959 M62, DJ71 [=Sagittodontus furnishi DJ71]
    |    |--F. alata Szaniawski 1971 RNP03
    |    `--F. polonica Szaniawski 1971 RNP03
    |--Paltodus Pander 1856 S88, H62
    |    |--*P. subequalis Pander 1856 H62
    |    |--P. deltifer J79
    |    |--P. jemtlandicus PBJ03
    |    |--P. spurius LM05
    |    `--P. truncatus H62
    |--Paroistodus Lindström 1971 S88
    |    |--P. horridus (Barnes & Poplawski 1973) S88
    |    |--P. numarcuatus S88
    |    |--P. originalis PBJ03
    |    |--P. parallelus PBJ03
    |    `--P. proteus PBJ03
    `--Drepanoistodus Lindström 1971 SS05
         |--*D. forceps (Lindström 1955) [=Oistodus forceps] SS05
         |--D. angulensis PBJ03
         |--D. basiovalis PBJ03
         |--D. concavus PBJ03
         |--D. latus PBJ03
         |--D. lucidus PBJ03
         `--D. suberectus (Branson & Mehl 1933) SS05 (see below for synonymy)

Drepanoistodus suberectus (Branson & Mehl 1933) SS05 [=Oistodus suberectus SS05, Drepanodus suberectus DJ71; incl. D. homocurvatus DJ71, Oistodus inclinatus DJ71]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DJ71] Druce, E. C., & P. J. Jones. 1971. Cambro-Ordovician conodonts from the Burke River Structural Belt, Queensland. Commonwealth of Australia, Bureau of National Development, Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Bulletin 110: 1–159.

[H62] Hass, W. H. 1962. Conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W3–W69. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[J79] Jaanusson, V. 1979. Ordovician. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A136–A166. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[LM05] Lehnert, O., J. F. Miller, S. A. Leslie, J. E. Repetski & R. L. Ethington. 2005. Cambro-Ordovician sea-level fluctuations and sequence boundaries: the missing record and the evolution of new taxa. Special Papers in Palaeontology 73: 117–134.

[M62] Müller, K. J. 1962. Supplement to systematics of conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W246–W249. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[PBJ03] Pyle, L. J., C. R. Barnes & Z. Ji. 2003. Conodont fauna and biostratigraphy of the Outram, Skoki, and Owen Creek Formations (Lower to Middle Ordovician), Wilcox Pass, Alberta, Canada. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 958–976.

[RNP03] Robson, S. P., G. S. Nowlan & B. R. Pratt. 2003. Middle to Upper Cambrian linguliformean brachiopods from the Deadwood Formation of subsurface Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. Journal of Paleontology 77 (2): 201–211.

[SS05] Sansom, I. J., & M. P. Smith. 2005. Late Ordovician vertebrates from the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming, USA. Palaeontology 48 (1): 31–48.

[S88] Sweet, W. C. 1988. The Conodonta: Morphology, taxonomy, paleoecology, and evolutionary history of a long extinct animal phylum. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[WSQ86] Wang C.-Y., Shi C.-G. & Qu G.-S. 1986. Conodonts and ostracodes from the Devonian “Heitai Formation” of Mishan County, Heilongjiang Province. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 3 (2): 205–214.

Myxococcoides

Myxococcoides minor, from here.


Belongs within: Cyanobacteria.

Myxococcoides is a form genus of single-walled cell-like units from the Middle to Late Proterozoic. Members of this genus are spherical to ellipsoidal in shape and solitary or colonial (Kumar & Srivastava 1992).

See also: Life before it had facial features.

<==Myxococcoides Schopf 1968 KS92
    |--*M. minor Schopf 1968 KS92
    |--M. cantabrigiensis KS92
    |--M. cracens KS92
    |--M. grandis KS92
    |--M. guyangensis KS92
    |--M. indicus T84
    |--M. inornata Schopf 1968 KS92
    |--M. kingii KS92
    |--M. konzalovae KS92
    |--M. minuta KS92
    |--M. muricata KS92
    |--M. ovata KS92
    |--M. reniformis KS92
    |--M. reticulata KS92
    `--M. staphylidion Lo 1980 KS92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[KS92] Kumar, S., & P. Srivastava. 1992. Middle to late Proterozoic microbiota from the Deoban Limestone, Garhwal Himalaya, India. Precambrian Research 56: 291–318.

[T84] Tewari, V. C. 1984. Stromatolites and Precambrian-Lower Cambrian biostratigraphy of the Lesser Himalaya. Proc. Vth India Geophytol. Conf., Lucknow (1983), Spec. Publ. 1984: 71–97.

Gnathodus

Platform element of Gnathodus delicatus, copyright University of Iowa Paleontology Repository.


Belongs within: Spathognathodontidae.

Gnathodus is a genus of conodonts known from the Lower Carboniferous (Sweet 1988).

Characters (from Sweet 1988): Pa elements conspicuously asymmetric; anterior end of cup on concave ("inner") side of element invariably joining blade well anterior to anterior end of cup on convex ("outer") side; nodes on upper surface of inner cup segment commonly joining to form distinctive ridge- or comblike parapet; outer cup commonly more broadly expanded than inner one.

Gnathodus Pander 1856 H62 [incl. Dryphenotus Cooper 1939 H62, Westfalicus Schmidt in Moore & Sylvester-Bradley 1957 M62]
    |--G. cuneiformis S88
    `--+--G. delicatus S88
       `--+--G. typicus Cooper 1939 S88, WM03
          `--+--G. punctatus S88
             `--+--G. semiglaber S88
                `--+--G. pseudosemiglaber S88
                   `--G. texanus S88

Gnathodus incertae sedis:
  *G. bilineatus S88
  G. austini Belka 1985 S88
  G. girtyi R79
    |--G. g. girtyi R79
    `--G. g. simplex R79
  G. integer Schmidt 1934 [=*Westfalicus integer] M62
  G. mosquensis Pander 1856 M62
  G. praebilineatus Belka 1985 S88
  G. pustulosus H62
  G. scotiaensis S88
  G. simplicatus S88
  G. subblineatus S88
  G. symmutatus S88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H62] Hass, W. H. 1962. Conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W3–W69. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[M62] Müller, K. J. 1962. Supplement to systematics of conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W246–W249. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[R79] Ross, C. A. 1979. Carboniferous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A254–A290. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[S88] Sweet, W. C. 1988. The Conodonta: Morphology, taxonomy, paleoecology, and evolutionary history of a long extinct animal phylum. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[WM03] Webster, G. D., C. G. Maples, R. Mawson & M. Dastanpour. 2003. A cladid-dominated Early Mississippian crinoid and conodont fauna from Kerman Province, Iran and revision of the glossocrinids and rhenocrinids. Journal of Paleontology 77 (Suppl. 3): 1–35.

Palaeonisciformes

Platysomus, from here.


Belongs within: Actinopteri.

The Palaeonisciformes are an early group of heavily scaled ray-finned fishes known from the Devonian to the Cretaceous (Bond 1996).

Characters (from Bond 1996): Body form varying from fusiform to compressiform; usually covered by ganoid scales. Head large, bony; mouth generally long, teeth conical; maxillary large, probably not movable.

Palaeonisciformes [Platysomiformes]
    |  i. s.: Pygopteridae P99
    |           |--Watsonichthys pectinatus (Traquair 1877) P99
    |           |--Nematoptychius Traquair 1875 P99
    |           |    `--*N. greenocki Traquair 1875 P99
    |           `--Progyrolepis Fritsch 1895 P99
    |                |--*P. speciosus (Fritsch 1875) P99
    |                |--P. heyleri Poplin 1999 P99
    |                `--P. tricessimalaris Dunkle 1946 P99
    |--Redfieldioidei B96
    |--Dorypteroidei B96
    |--Palaeoniscus M79 [Palaeoniscidae, Palaeoniscoidei B96]
    |    `--P. macropomus M79
    `--Platysomoidei B96
         |--Chirondontidae B96
         `--Platysomidae PL00
              |--Kargalichthys TT05
              |    |--K. efremovi Minikh 1986 TT05
              |    `--K. pritokensis Minikh 1992 TT05
              `--Platysomus PL00
                   |--P. bashkirus Minikh 1992 TT05
                   |--P. biarmicus Von Eichwald 1861 TT05
                   |--P. soloduchi Minikh 1992 TT05
                   `--P. superbus PL00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[M79] Müller, A. H. 1979. Fossilization (taphonomy). In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A2–A78. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[P99] Poplin, C. 1999. Un paléoniscoïde (Pisces, Actinopterygii) de Buxières-les-Mines, témoin des affinités fauniques entre Massif central et Bohême au passage Carbonifère-Permien. Geodiversitas 21 (2): 147–155.

[PL00] Poplin, C., & R. Lund. 2000. Two new deep-bodied palaeoniscoid actinopterygians from Bear Gulch (Montana, USA, Lower Cretaceous). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20 (3): 428–449.

[TT05] Tverdokhlebov, V. P., G. I. Tverdokhlebova, A. V. Minikh, M. V. Surkov & M. J. Benton. 2005. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia. Earth-Science Reviews 69: 27–77.

Anolis

Displaying Carolina anole Anolis carolinensis, copyright Jefferson Heard.


Belongs within: Polychrotidae.

Anolis, the anoles, is a diverse genus of more or less elongate lizards found in warmer parts of the Americas. Members of the genus possess a distinct dewlap under the throat that may be inflated for display. There has been much debate in recent years whether this genus should be defined as including the entire diversity of anoles, or whether it should be restricted to a smaller group centred around the type species A. carolinensis.

See also: Anole, anole, anole, anole.

Anolis Daudin 1802 GS86 [incl. Eupristis Fitzinger 1843 GS92]
    |--+--+--A. angusticeps GS92
    |  |  `--+--A. alutaceus GS92
    |  |     |--A. lucius GS92
    |  |     `--A. monticola GS92
    |  |--+--A. chlorocyanus GS92
    |  |  |--A. coelestinus GS92
    |  |  `--A. darlingtoni GS92
    |  `--+--A. hendersoni GS92
    |     `--+--A. bahorucoensis GS92
    |        `--A. etheridgei GS92
    `--+--A. olssoni GS92
       |--A. semilineatus GS92
       `--+--*A. carolinensis Voigt 1832 GS86, GS92, GS86
          `--Norops Wagler 1830 GS92, GS86
               |  i. s.: N. biporcatus GS92
               |--+--N. sagrei [=Anolis sagrei] GS92
               |  `--+--N. homolechis [=Anolis homolechis] GS92
               |     `--N. ophiolepis [=Anolis ophiolepis] GS92
               |--+--‘Anolis’ fuscoauratus GS92 [incl. A. bocourti DS86]
               |  |--+--*N. auratus (Daudin 1802) GS86, GS92, KS08 [=Anolis auratus GS86]
               |  |  `--‘Anolis’ onca GS92
               |  `--+--‘Anolis’ meridionalis GS92
               |     `--‘Anolis’ petersi GS92
               `--+--N. garmani [=Anolis garmani] GS92
                  |--N. grahami [=Anolis grahami] GS92
                  |--N. lineatopus [=Anolis lineatopus] GS92
                  |--N. opalinus [=Anolis opalinus] GS92
                  `--N. valencienni [=Anolis valencienni] GS92

Anolis incertae sedis:
  A. allogus GH01
  A. altitudinalis Garrido 1985 [=A. isolepis altitudinalis] GH01
  A. argenteolus GH01
  A. argillaceous GH01
  A. bombiceps DS86
  A. centralis GH01
  A. chamaeleonides GH01
  A. chrysolepis DS86
    |--A. c. chrysolepis DS86
    `--A. c. scypheus DS86
  A. dunni DD61
  A. electrum M79
  A. equestris [=*Eupristis equestris] GS92
  A. fungosus Myers 1971 KS08
  A. gadovi DD61
  A. guazuma GH01
  A. heteropholidotus Mertens 1952 SVK08
  A. incredulus Garrido & Moreno 1998 GH01
  A. insolitus C96
  A. isolepis GH01
  A. liogaster DD61
  A. loysianus GH01
  A. megapholidotus DD61
  A. microlepidotus DD61
  A. microtus Cope 1871 KS08
  A. muralla (Köhler, McCranie & Wilson 1999) SVK08
  A. nebuloides DD61
  A. nebulosus DD61
  A. noblei GH01
  A. occultus GS92
  A. omiltemanus DD61
  A. oporinus Garrido & Hedges 2001 GH01
  A. ortoni Cope 1868 [incl. A. bouvierii Bocourt 1873] K07
  A. polylepis Peters 1873 KS08
  A. porcatus GH01
  A. porcus GH01
  A. principalis F15
  A. rejectus GH01
  A. sagrae F15
  A. salvini Boulenger 1885 [incl. A. vociferans Myers 1971] K07
  A. smallwoodi GH01
  A. sminthus Dunn & Emlen 1932 SVK08
  A. subocularis DD61
  A. trachyderma DS86
  A. transversalis DS86
  A. vanidicus GH01
  A. wermuthi (Köhler & Obermeier 1998) [=Norops wermuthi] SVK08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology 4th ed. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[DD61] Davis, W. B., & J. R. Dixon. 1961. Reptiles (exclusive of snakes) of the Chilpancingo Region, Mexico. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 37–56.

[DS86] Dixon, J. R., & P. Soini. 1986. The Reptiles of the Upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos Region, Peru. Milwaukee Public Museum: Milwaukee.

[F15] Fowler, H. W. 1915. Cold-blooded vertebrates from Florida, the West Indies, Costa Rica, and eastern Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 243–269.

[GH01] Garrido, O. H., & S. B. Hedges. 2001. A new anole from the northern slope of the Sierra Maestra in eastern Cuba (Squamata: Iguanidae). Journal of Herpetology 35 (3): 378–383.

[GS86] Guyer, C., & J. M. Savage. 1986. Cladistic relationships among anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae). Systematic Zoology 35 (4): 509–531.

[GS92] Guyer, C., & J. M. Savage. 1992. Anole systematics revisited. Systematic Biology 41 (1): 89–110.

[K07] Köhler, G. 2007. Assessing the status of Anolis salvini Boulenger 1885 and A. bouvierii Bocourt 1873 based on the primary types (Reptilia, Squamata, Polychrotidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 125–130.

[KS08] Köhler, G., J. Sunyer, M. Ponce & A. Batista. 2008. Noteworthy records of amphibians and reptiles in Panama (Amphibia: Plethodontidae, Craugastoridae, Hylidae; Reptilia: Polychrotidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 329–333.

[M79] Müller, A. H. 1979. Fossilization (taphonomy). In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A2–A78. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[SVK08] Sunyer, J., M. Veselý & G. Köhler. 2008. Morphological variation in Anolis wermuthi (Köhler & Obermeier 1998), a species endemic to the highlands of north-central Nicaragua (Reptilia, Squamata, Polychrotidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 335–343.

Hydrozoa

Rhizophysa, copyright L. Madin.


Belongs within: Medusozoa.
Contains: Halammohydra, Limnomedusae, Narcomedusae, Trachymedusae, Capitata, Filifera, Thecata, Codonophora.

The Hydrozoa is a group of cnidarians ancestrally exhibiting a life-cycle alternating between a medusoid and a polypoid phase, though one or the other of these phases has been lost in a number of derived subgroups.

Characters (from Daly et al. 2007): Gametogenic tissue usually of ectodermal origin and location. Medusae, if present, possessing velum and two nerve rings; budded laterally from polyps. Polyps, if present, lacking septae.

Hydrozoa [Craspedotae, Hydroida, Hydroidomedusae, Hydromedusae]
    |--Trachylina DB07
    |    |--Actinulida [Halammohydrida, Halammohydrina] DB07
    |    |    |--Halammohydra DB07
    |    |    `--Otohydra Swedmark & Teissier 1958 CS-P86 [Otohydridae DB07]
    |    |         |--O. tremulans Lacassagne 1973 CS-P86
    |    |         `--O. vagans Swedmark & Teissier 1958 CS-P86
    |    |--Limnomedusae DB07
    |    |--Narcomedusae DB07
    |    `--Trachymedusae DB07
    `--Hydroidolina DB07
         |--Anthoathecata [Anthomedusae, Athecata] DB07
         |    |  i. s.: Gemmaria McCrady 1857 H04, RL03
         |    |           `--G. sagittaria H04
         |    |         Tiara pileata H04
         |    |         Stomotoca pterophylla H04
         |    |         Thamnostylus dinema H04
         |    |--Capitata P79
         |    `--Filifera P79
         |--Thecata DB07
         `--Siphonophorae [Physophorae, Physophorina, Siphonantha, Siphonophora] DB07
              |  i. s.: Diphyopsis B26
              |           |--D. dispar B26
              |           `--D. major B26
              |         Anthophysa formosa B26
              |--Codonophora DPH05
              `--Cystonectae DPH05
                   |--Epibulia ritteriana H04
                   |--Cystalia monogastrica H04
                   |--Salacia polygastrica H04
                   |--Physalia [Physaliidae] DPH05
                   |    |--P. pelagica C45
                   |    `--P. physalis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Holothuria physalis] DB07
                   `--Rhizophysa [Rhizophysidae] DPH05
                        |--R. eysenhardti DPH05
                        `--R. filiformis DPH05

Hydrozoa incertae sedis:
  Rhabdohydra tridens BU02
  Chaunograptus Hall 1883 BU02, B70 [Chaunograptidae]
    `--*C. novellus (Hall 1883) [=Dendrograptus (Chaunograptus) novellus] B70
  Conchopeltidae [Tetradialomorpha] IF02
    |--Conchopeltis Walcott 1879 KC60
    `--Conomedusites Glaessner & Wade 1966 IF02, G79
         `--*C. lobatus Glaessner & Wade 1966 G79
  Heterastridium Reuss 1865 [Heterastridiidae] SG-M98
    `--*H. conglobatum Reuss 1865 SG-M98
         |--H. c. conglobatum SG-M98
         `--H. c. disciforme SG-M98
  Plumaria undulata B79
  Stephanidium H15
  Perigonimus cidaridis BK77
  Cuspidella BK77
  Distichopora violacea VV77
  Radiotrabeculopora Fan, Rigby & Zhang 1991 (see below for synonymy) RLS04
    |--*R. xiangboensis Fan, Rigby & Zhang 1991 RLS04
    `--R. reticulata Fan, Rigby & Zhang 1991 RLS04
  Cassiniastraea Volz 1896 RS01
  Parkeria sphaerica S02
  ‘Turris’ neglectus Lesson 1837 F27
  Phialidium B26
    |--P. hemisphericum D56
    `--P. languidum B26
  Staurophora mertensii [incl. S. falklandica Browne 1902] B26
  Ptychogena lactea B26
  Cambrohydra EL11
  Keramosphaerina Stache 1913 [=Bradya Stache 1889 nec Boeck 1872 nec Carter 1877] LT64
    `--*K. tergestina (Stache 1889) [=*Bradya tergestina] LT64
  Rhaptapagis cantacuzenei CS-P86
  Ceratella Gray 1868 B86
    `--C. fusca Gray 1868 B86
  Dehitella atrorubens B86

Radiotrabeculopora Fan, Rigby & Zhang 1991 [incl. Flabellisclera Wu 1991, Fungispongia Wu 1991, Gigantosclera Wu 1991, Tubulispongia Wu 1991; Disjectoporidae] RLS04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[BU02] Bates, D. E. B., & A. Urbanek. 2002. The ultrastructure, development, and systematic position of the graptolite genus Mastigograptus. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47 (3): 445–458.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[B86] Brazier, J. 1886. Notes on the distribution of Ceratella fusca, Gray. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 575–576.

[B70] Bulman, O. M. B. 1970. Graptolithina with sections on Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia. In: Teichert, T. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt V 2nd ed. pp. V1–V149. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and the University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[B79] Buss, L. W. 1979. Habitat selection, directional growth and spatial refuges: why colonial animals have more hiding places. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 459–497. Academic Press: London.

[CS-P86] Clausen, C., & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Cnidaria. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 33–42. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[C45] Colenso, W. 1845. Memoranda of an excursion, made in the Northern Island of New Zealand, in the summer of 1841–2; intended as a contribution towards the natural productions of the New Zealand groupe: with particular reference to their botany (concluded). Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science 2: 241–308.

[DB07] Daly, M., M. R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A. G. Collins, M. N. Dawson, D. G. Fautin, S. C. France, C. S. McFadden, D. M. Opresko, E. Rodriguez, S. L. Romano & J. L. Stake. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[DPH05] Dunn, C. W., P. R. Pugh & S. H. D. Haddock. 2005. Molecular phylogenetics of the Siphonophora (Cnidaria), with implications for the evolution of functional specialization. Systematic Biology 54 (6): 916–935.

[EL11] Erwin, D. H., M. Laflamme, S. M. Tweedt, E. A. Sperling, D. Pisani & K. J. Peterson. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science 334: 1091–1097.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H15] Harmer, S. F. 1915. The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition—Part I. Entoprocta, Ctenostomata and Cyclostomata. E. J. Brill: Leyden.

[IF02] Ivantsov, A. Yu., & M. A. Fedonkin. 2002. Conulariid-like fossil from the Vendian of Russia: A metazoan clade across the Proterozoic/Palaeozoic boundary. Palaeontology 45 (6): 1219–1229.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[P79] Petersen, K. W. 1979. Development of coloniality in Hydrozoa. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 105–139. Academic Press: London.

[RLS04] Rigby, J. K., G. A. Linder & C. H. Stevens. 2004. A new occurrence of the “hydrozoan” Radiotrabeculopora reticulata Fan, Rigby, and Zhang, 1991 in the Permian of California. Journal of Paleontology 78 (2): 410–413.

[RS01] Roniewicz, E., & J. Stolarski. 2001. Triassic roots of the amphiastraeid scleractinian corals. Journal of Paleontology 75 (1): 34–45.

[RL03] Ryland, J. S., & J. E. Lancaster. 2003. Revision of methods for separating species of Protopalythoa (Hexacorallia: Zoanthidea) in the tropical West Pacific. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 407–428.

[SG-M98] Schäfer, P., & J. A. Grant-Mackie. 1998. Revised systematics and palaeobiogeography of some Late Triassic colonial invertebrates from the Pacific region. Alcheringa 22 (2): 87–122.

[S02] Scott, R. W. 2002. Albian caprinid rudists from Texas re-evaluated. Journal of Paleontology 76 (3): 408–423.

[VV77] Vervoort, W., & P. Vasseur. 1977. Hydroids from French Polynesia with notes on distribution and ecology. Zoologische Verhandelingen 159: 1–98.

Scyphozoa

Helmet jelly Periphylla periphylla, copyright Erling Svensen.


Belongs within: Medusozoa.
Contains: Ulmaridae.

The Scyphozoa are a group of cnidarians including the typical jellyfish and related taxa, united by the presence of polydisc strobilation in metamorphosing polyps (further modified in some rhizostomes), rhopalia and ephyrae. Most scyphozoans have a life-cycle alternating between a sexually reproducing planktonic medusa and an asexually reproducing benthic polyp (Daly et al. 2007).

Scyphozoa
    |  i. s.: Stylocoronella Salvini-Plawen 1966 CS-P86
    |           |--S. riedli Salvini-Plawen 1966 CS-P86
    |           `--S. variabilis Salvini-Plawen 1984 CS-P86
    |         Phacellophora ornata B26
    |         Dactylometra quinquecirrha B26
    |         Brachina Wade 1972 G79
    |           `--*B. delicata Wade 1972 G79
    |--Coronatae [Cannostomae] W79
    |    |  i. s.: Palephyra primigenia H04
    |    |         Zonephyra zonaria H04
    |    |         Strobila Sars 1829 H04, BR05
    |    |           `--S. monodisca H04
    |    |         Nauphanta challengeri H04
    |    |--Linuchidae W79
    |    |    |--Linuche unguiculata (Schwartz 1788) [incl. Stephanoscyphus komaii Leloup 1937] W79
    |    |    `--Linantha lunulata DB07, H04
    |    |--Nausithoidae W79
    |    |    |--Nausithoe W79
    |    |    |    |--N. punctata Kölliker 1853 [incl. Stephanoscyphus mirabilis Allman 1874] W79
    |    |    |    `--N. sorbei Jarms, Tiemann & Prados 2003 F05
    |    |    `--Stephanoscyphus Allman 1874 W79
    |    |         |--S. allmani Kirkpatrick 1890 W79
    |    |         |--S. corniformis Komai 1936 W79
    |    |         |--S. racemosus Komai 1936 W79
    |    |         `--S. simplex Kirkpatrick 1890 [incl. S. bianconis, S. sibogae, S. striatus] W79
    |    |--Atolla H04 [Atollidae DB07]
    |    |    |--A. vanhoeffeni DM01
    |    |    `--A. wyvillei DM01
    |    |--Atorellidae DB07
    |    |--Paraphyllinidae DB07
    |    `--Periphylla DM01 [Periphyllidae DB07, Peromedusae]
    |         |--*P. periphylla DM01
    |         |--P. hyacinthina [=Charybdea hyacinthina] B26
    |         |--P. mirabilis H04
    |         `--P. peronii H04
    `--Discomedusae DB07
         |--Rhizostomeae W79
         |    |  i. s.: Pilema giltschii H04
         |    |         Brachiolophus collaris H04
         |    |         Cannorrhiza connexa H04
         |    |         Rhopilema H04
         |    |           |--R. frida H04
         |    |           `--R. hispidum BK77
         |    |         Toreuma H04
         |    |           |--T. bellagemma H04
         |    |           `--T. thamnostoma H04
         |    |--Kolpophorae DB07
         |    |    |--Cassiopea W79 [Cassiopeidae DB07]
         |    |    |    |--C. andromeda W79
         |    |    |    `--C. cyclobalia H04
         |    |    |--Mastigias MH96 [Mastigiidae DB07]
         |    |    |    `--M. quinquecirrha MH96
         |    |    |--Thysanostomatidae DB07
         |    |    `--Versurigidae DB07
         |    `--Daktyliophorae DB07
         |         |--Lychnorhizidae DB07
         |         |--Catostylus G75 [Catostylidae DB07]
         |         |    `--C. mosaicus G75
         |         |--Lobonematidae DB07
         |         |--Rhizostomatidae DB07
         |         `--Stomolophus DM01 [Stomolophidae DB07]
         |              `--S. meleagris DM01
         `--Semaeostomeae RM04
              |  i. s.: Desmonema annasethe H04
              |         Floscula promethea H04
              |         Chrysaora H04
              |           |--C. mediterranea H04
              |           `--C. quinquecirrha CH97
              |         Floresca parthenia H04
              |         Drymonema victoria H04
              |         Procyanea protosema H04
              |--Ulmaridae RM04
              |--Cyanea DM01 [Cyaneidae DB07]
              |    `--C. capillata DM01 (see below for synonymy)
              `--Pelagia H04 [Pelagiidae DB07]
                   |--P. cyanella B26
                   |--P. noctiluca (Forsskål 1775) P79
                   `--P. perla H04

Cyanea capillata DM01 [incl. C. capillata var. arctica B26, C. capillata var. fulva B26, C. versicolor B26]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[CS-P86] Clausen, C., & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Cnidaria. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 33–42. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[DB07] Daly, M., M. R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A. G. Collins, M. N. Dawson, D. G. Fautin, S. C. France, C. S. McFadden, D. M. Opresko, E. Rodriguez, S. L. Romano & J. L. Stake. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182.

[DM01] Dawson, M. N., & L. E. Martin. 2001. Geographic variation and ecological adaptation in Aurelia (Scyphozoa, Semaeostomeae): some implications from molecular phylogenetics. Hydrobiologia 451: 259–273.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General's Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[P79] Petersen, K. W. 1979. Development of coloniality in Hydrozoa. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 105–139. Academic Press: London.

[RM04] Raskoff, K. A., & G. I. Matsumoto. 2004. Stellamedusa ventana, a new mesopelagic scyphomedusa from the eastern Pacific representing a new subfamily, the Stellamedusinae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84: 37–42.

[W79] Werner, B. 1979. Coloniality in the Scyphozoa: Cnidaria. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 81–103. Academic Press: London.