Myrmeleontiformia

Female spoonwing Chasmoptera hutti, copyright Jean & Fred Hort.


Belongs within: Neuroptera.
Contains: Ascalaphidae, Myrmeleontidae, Kalligrammatidae.

The Myrmeleontiformia are a lineage of lacewings including the ant-lions, owlflies and related taxa, united by the presence in larvae of a modified prementum resembling a labial palp segment, and by features of the adult genitalia (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

<==Myrmeleontiformia [Myrmeleontoidea] GE05
    |--+--Nymphitidae GE05
    |  |--Solenoptilidae GE05
    |  |--Brongniartiellidae GE05
    |  |--Petropsychops [Osmylopsychopidae] GE05
    |  |    `--P. superba GE05
    |  `--+--+--Babinskaiidae GE05
    |     |  |--Ascalaphidae GE05
    |     |  `--Myrmeleontidae GE05
    |     `--Nymphidae GE05
    |          |--Mesonymphes rohdendorfi P02
    |          |--Nymphes GE05
    |          |--Myiodactylus [Myiodactylidae] GE05
    |          `--Osmylops GE05
    `--+--Kalligrammatidae GE05
       `--+--Psychopsidae GE05
          |    |--Calopsychops extinctus P02
          |    |--Kagapsychops continentalis P02
          |    |--Notopsychops zebra (Brauer 1889) (see below for synonymy) HM55
          |    `--Psychopsis insolens ZS10
          `--Nemopteridae GE05
               |  i. s.: Marquettia americana GE05
               |         Nemopistha imperatrix (Westwood 1867) (see below for synonymy) HM55
               |--Laurhervasia [Crocinae] GE05
               |    `--L. setacea GE05
               `--Nemopterinae GE05
                    |--Nemoptera bipennis GE05
                    `--Chasmoptera Kirby 1900 K67
                         |--*C. hutti (Westwood 1848) [=Nemoptera huttii] K67
                         |--C. mathewsi Koch 1967 K67
                         `--C. superba Tillyard 1925 K67

Myrmeleontiformia incertae sedis:
  Siniphes Ren & Yin 2002 RY02
    `--*S. delicatus Ren & Yin 2002 RY02
  Panfilovia Makarkin 1980 [Panfilovidae] R02
  Grammolingiidae R02
    |--Grammolingia Ren 2002 R02
    |    `--*G. boi Ren 2002 R02
    |--Leptolingia Ren 2002 R02
    |    |--*L. jurassica Ren 2002 R02
    |    `--L. tianyiensis Ren 2002 R02
    `--Litholingia Ren 2002 R02
         |--*L. rhora Ren 2002 R02
         |--L. eumorpha Ren 2002 R02
         `--L. polychotoma Ren 2002 R02

Nemopistha imperatrix (Westwood 1867) [=Nemoptera imperatrix; incl. Halter remipennis Kirby 1900] HM55

Notopsychops zebra (Brauer 1889) [=Psychopsis zebra, Psychomorphe zebra, Zygophlebius zebra; incl. P. felina Navas 1912, Z. leoninus Navas 1910] HM55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HM55] Handschin, E. & W. Markl. 1955. Neuropteren aus Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 65–82.

[K67] Koch, L. E. 1967. The genus Chasmoptera (Neuroptera: Nemopteridae), with the description of a new species from Western Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society, London (B) 36 (9-10): 137–146.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Myrmeleontidea Latreille, 1802 (=Neuropteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P. & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 176–189. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R02] Ren D. 2002. A new lacewing family (Neuroptera) from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. Entomologica Sinica 9 (4): 53–67.

[RY02] Ren D. & Yin J.-C. 2002. A new genus and new species of lacewings in the Jurassic of China (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontoidea). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 27 (2): 269–273.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Periclystina

Glenoleon falsus, copyright Dhobern.


Belongs within: Myrmeleontidae.

The Periclystina are a group of ant-lions with generally large gonapophyses in the females.

See also: Ant-lions of Australia.

Characters (from New 1985): Tibial spurs usually absent or very small; claws not opposable on fifth tarsomere; female posterior gonapophyses usually very large, generally with thickened setae; anterior gonapophyses absent; gonapophysial plate usually transverse between bases of posterior gonapophyses; tergite IX usually with digitiform ventral processes.

<==Periclystina N85
    |--Chrysoleon Banks 1910 N85
    |    `--*C. punctatum Banks 1910 N85
    |--Franzenia Esben-Petersen 1929 N85
    |    `--*F. irrorata Esben-Petersen 1929 N85
    |--Ceratoleon Esben-Petersen 1917 N85
    |    |--*C. brevicornis Esben-Petersen 1917 N85
    |    `--C. mjobergi Esben-Petersen 1923 N85
    |--Compsoleon Banks 1913 N85
    |    |--*C. occultus (Walker 1853) [=Myrmeleon occultus] N85
    |    `--C. bembicidis New 1985 N85
    |--Periclystus Gerstaecker 1888 N85
    |    |--*P. laceratus Gerstaecker 1888 N85
    |    |--P. aureolatus Tillyard 1916 N85
    |    `--P. circuiter (Walker 1853) (see below for synonymy N85
    |--Austrogymnocnemia Esben-Petersen 1917 N85
    |    |--*A. bipunctata (Esben-Petersen 1915) [=Gymnocnemia bipunctata; incl. A. australis Esben-Petersen 1923] N85
    |    |--A. arcuata New 1985 N85
    |    |--A. cardaleae New 1985 N85
    |    |--A. edwardsi New 1985 N85
    |    |--A. emmae New 1985 N85
    |    |--A. forcipata New 1985 N85
    |    |--A. interrupta (Esben-Petersen 1915) [=Gymnocnemia interrupta] N85
    |    |--A. lineata New 1985 N85
    |    |--A. lulinguensis New 1985 N85
    |    |--A. maculata (Tillyard 1916) [=Gymnocnemia maculata] N85
    |    |--A. nigrescens New 1985 N85
    |    |--A. pallida New 1985 N85
    |    |--A. pentagramma (Gerstaecker 1884) [=Gymnocnemia pentagramma] N85
    |    |--A. procta New 1985 N85
    |    |--A. pygmaea New 1985 N85
    |    |--A. sarahae New 1985 N85
    |    |--A. striata New 1985 N85
    |    `--A. tindalei New 1985 N85
    `--Glenoleon Banks 1913 N85
         |--*G. pulchellus (Rambur 1842) [=Myrmeleon pulchellus, Glenurus pulchellus] N85
         |--G. annulatus Esben-Petersen 1918 N85
         |--G. aurora Tillyard 1916 N85
         |--G. banksi New 1985 N85
         |--G. berthoudi Tillyard 1916 N85
         |--G. brevigonarcus New 1985 N85
         |--G. cahillensis New 1985 N85
         |--G. conspersum Banks 1918 [incl. G. franzeni Esben-Petersen 1926] N85
         |--G. dannyae New 1985 N85
         |--G. dissolutus (Gerstaecker 1884) [=Myrmeleon dissolutus] N85
         |--G. drysdalensis New 1985 N85
         |--G. falsus (Walker 1853) [=Myrmeleon falsus, Glenurus falsus] N85
         |--G. gerstaeckeri New 1985 N85
         |--G. lesouefi New 1985 N85
         |--G. maculatus New 1985 N85
         |--G. mcalpinei New 1985 N85
         |--G. meteoricus (Gerstaecker 1884) [=Myrmeleon meteoricus] N85
         |--G. minutillus New 1985 N85
         |--G. mouldsorum New 1985 N85
         |--G. mulesi New 1985 N85
         |--G. nigristriatus New 1985 N85
         |--G. osmyloides (Gerstaecker 1884) [incl. G. annulicorne Esben-Petersen 1915] N85
         |--G. parviproctus New 1985 N85
         |--G. pictus New 1985 N85
         |--G. pingrupensis New 1985 N85
         |--G. radialis Banks 1913 N85
         |--G. roseipennis Tillyard 1916 N85
         |--G. rudda New 1985 N85
         |--G. secula New 1985 N85
         |--G. stigmatus Banks 1910 N85
         |--G. tergitus New 1985 N85
         `--G. tillyardi New 1985 N85

Periclystus circuiter (Walker 1853) [=Myrmeleon circuiter, Glenurus circuiter; incl. Periclystus callipeplus Gerstaecker 1888] N85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[N85] New, T. R. 1985. A revision of the Australian Myrmeleontidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). II. Dendroleontini. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 105: 1–170.

Myrmeleontidae

Heoclisis fundata, copyright Shaun Winterton.


Belongs within: Myrmeleontiformia.
Contains: Cymothales, Myrmeleontini, Distoleontini, Protoplectrini, Periclystina, Dendroleontina.

The Myrmeleontidae, ant-lions, are a group of lacewings found in arid and semi-arid regions, best known for the conical pits built by the larvae of many species. The larva lies buried in the base of its pit, feeding on any insects that fall in. Most myrmeleontids have antennae that are thickened distally but lack a sharply separated club. An exception is the subfamily Stilbopteryginae, whose members have strongly clubbed antennae, as well as relatively broad wings (New 1985a).

Characters (from New 1985a): Medium-sized to very large; costal area of wings with numerous crossveins and more or less well-defined pterostigma; usually one subcostal crossvein; Sc and R1 fused apically; trichosors absent; ocelli absent; face not markedly lengthened; hindwings not greatly narrowed at base; eyes not divided by transverse sulcus; antennae sometimes very short, always less than half forewing length, sometimes clubbed at or near apex.

<==Myrmeleontidae GE05
    |--Araraipeneurinae P02
    |--Echthromyrmex [Echthromyrmicinae] N85a
    |--Stilbopteryginae [Stilbopterygidae] N85a
    |    |--Stilbopteryx N85a
    |    `--Aeropteryx N85a
    |--Paleoleontinae [Palaeoleontidae] P02
    |    |--Metahemerobius P02
    |    |--Palaeoleon ferrogeneticus GE05
    |    `--Samsonileon P02
    |--Palpares HM55 [Palparinae N85a]
    |    |--P. latipennis Rambur 1842 (see below for synonymy) HM55
    |    |--P. obscuripennis Schmidt 1907 [=Palparellus obscuripennis] HM55
    |    |--P. obsoletus Gerstaecker 1887 (see below for synonymy) HM55
    |    `--P. weelei I92
    |--Acanthaclisinae [Acanthaclisini] N85c
    |    |--Mestressa Navás 1914 N85c
    |    |    `--M. subfasciata (Banks 1913) [=Acanthaclisis subfasciatus; incl. *M. misera Navás 1914] N85c
    |    |--Arcuaplectron New 1985 N85c
    |    |    `--*A. woocallensis New 1985 N85c
    |    |--Cosina Navás 1912 N85c
    |    |    |--*C. mclachlani (van der Weele 1904) [=Acanthaclisis mclachlani, Fadrina mclachlani] N85c
    |    |    |--C. annulata (Esben-Petersen 1915) [=Acanthaclisis annulata] N85c
    |    |    |--C. distivena New 1985 N85c
    |    |    |--C. maculata Esben-Petersen 1918 N85c
    |    |    |--C. nana New 1985 N85c
    |    |    `--C. vaga Navás 1914 N85c
    |    `--Heoclisis Navás 1923 N85c
    |         |--*H. fundata (Walker 1853) (see below for synonymy) N85c
    |         |--H. acuta (Kimmins 1939) [=Acanthaclisis acuta] N85c
    |         |--H. angustipennis New 1985 N85c
    |         |--H. conspurcata (Gerstaecker 1885) [=Acanthaclisis conspurcata, Fadrina conspurcata] N85c
    |         |--H. fulva (Esben-Petersen 1912) [=Acanthaclisis fulva; incl. A. peterseni Tillyard 1916] N85c
    |         |--H. fulvifusa (Kimmins 1939) [=Acanthaclisis fulvifusa] N85c
    |         |--H. ramosa New 1985 N85c
    |         `--H. tillyardi (Kimmins 1939) [=Acanthaclisis tillyardi] N85c
    `--Myrmeleontinae [Dendroleoninae, Dendroleontinae, Myrmeleoninae] N85c
         |--Myrmeleontini N85c
         |--Distoleontini N85c
         |--Protoplectrini N85a
         `--Dendroleontini [Dendroleonini] N85b
              |  i. s.: Anomaloplectron Esben-Petersen 1918 N85b
              |           `--*A. lineatipenne Esben-Petersen 1918 N85b
              |         Platyleon Esben-Petersen 1923 N85b
              |           `--*P. froggatti Esben-Petersen 1923 N85b
              |         Indoclystus Banks 1941 N85b
              |           `--*I. singularis [=Periclystus singularis] N85b
              |         Csiroleon New 1985 N85b
              |           `--*C. tumidipalpus New 1985 N85b
              |         Fusoleon New 1985 N85b
              |           `--*F. stigmatus New 1985 N85b
              |         Riekoleon New 1985 N85b
              |           |--*R. convergens New 1985 N85b
              |           `--R. furcatus New 1985 N85b
              |         Parvoleon New 1985 N85b
              |           `--*P. minimus New 1985 N85b
              |--Periclystina N85b
              |--Dendroleontina N85b
              `--Acanthoplectron Esben-Petersen 1918 [Acanthoplectrina, Acanthoplectrini] N85b
                   |--*A. tenellum Esben-Petersen 1918 N85b
                   `--A. umbratus New 1985 N85b

Myrmeleontidae incertae sedis:
  Porrerus GE05
  Brachynemurus [Brachynemurini] C90
  Cymothales HM55
  Centroclisis distincta (Rambur 1842) (see below for synonymy) HM55
    |--C. d. distincta HM55
    `--C. d. lineatipennis (Péringuey 1910) [=Acanthaclisis lineatipennis, Sogra lineatipennis] HM55
  Sograssa Navas 1924 HM55
    |--S. felina (Gerstaecker 1893) [=Acanthaclisis felina, Centroclisis felina, Sogra felina] HM55
    `--S. superba (Navas 1912) [=Sogra superba] HM55
  Avia nigrata (Navas 1912) [=Sogra nigrata] HM55
  Cueta HM55
    |--C. luteola Hölzel 1972 M03
    `--C. punctatissima (Gerstaecker 1893) [=Myrmeleon punctatissimus, Nesoleon punctatissimus] HM55
  Banyutus HM55
    |--B. balli HM55
    |--B. lethalis (Walker 1853) [=Myrmeleon lethalis, Formicaleo lethalis] HM55
    `--B. lituratus Navas 1936 HM55
  Nemoleon HM55
    |--N. filiformis (Gerstaecker 1885) [=Myrmeleon filiformis, Naldanus filiformis] HM55
    `--N. notatus (Rambur 1842) [=Myrmeleon notatus; incl. Ne. alcidice Banks 1911, Naldanus alcidice] HM55
  Gandulus iners Navas 1936 HM55
  Griala humeralis (Navas 1926) [=Naldanus humeralis, Landanus humeralis] HM55
  Vessa guttata Navas 1930 HM55

Centroclisis distincta (Rambur 1842) [=Acanthaclisis distincta, Sogra distincta; incl. S. iracunda Navas 1912, S. mordax Navas 1912, S. perversa Navas 1911] HM55

*Heoclisis fundata (Walker 1853) [=Myrmeleon fundatus, Acanthaclisis fundata; incl. M. subtendens Walker 1853, A. subtendens] N85b

Palpares latipennis Rambur 1842 [incl. Myrmeleon cephalotes Walker 1852, M. furfuraceus Walker 1852, M. inclemens Walker 1852, Palpares praetor Gerstaecker 1893, M. sollicitus Walker in McLachlan 1868, M. subducens Walker in McLachlan 1868] HM55

Palpares obsoletus Gerstaecker 1887 [incl. P. bayeri Navas 1913, P. longicornis Navas 1911, P. paucimaculatus Kirby in Johnston 1902] HM55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HM55] Handschin, E. & W. Markl. 1955. Neuropteren aus Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 65–82.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[M03] Mirmoayedi, A. 2003. Rearing the third stage larva of Cueta luteola Hölzel, 1972 (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) for the first time in Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 101–104.

[N85a] New, T. R. 1985a. A revision of the Australian Myrmeleontidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). I. Introduction, Myrmeleontini, Protoplectrini. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 104: 1–90.

[N85b] New, T. R. 1985b. A revision of the Australian Myrmeleontidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). II. Dendroleontini. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 105: 1–170.

[N85c] New, T. R. 1985c. A revision of the Australian Myrmeleontidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). III. Distoleontini and Acanthaclisinae. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 106: 1–159.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Myrmeleontidea Latreille, 1802 (=Neuropteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P. & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 176–189. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Chrysopidae

Dictyochrysa peterseni, copyright Shaun Winterton.


Belongs within: Hemerobiiformia.
Contains: Leucochrysini, Chrysopini, Belonopterygini.

The Chrysopidae, green lacewings, are a group of lightly-built lacewings with elongate, actively hunting larvae.

Characters (from Zborowski & Storey 2010): Body colour usually green, eyes metallic-coloured; antennae thin, filiform, tapering, longer than half length of forewing; wings with more vertical than longitudinal veins, outlining numerous, almost vertical, rectangular cells, which are usually clear.

<==Chrysopidae
    |  i. s.: Mesypochrysa P02
    |           |--M. intermedia P02
    |           `--M. reducta P02
    |         Leucochrysini FP01
    |         Mallada traviatus ZS10
    |         Paralembochrysa splendida Nel, Delclòs & Hutin 2005 P-FD12
    |--Apochrysinae N80
    |    |--Oligochrysa Esben-Petersen 1914 N80
    |    |    `--O. lutea (Walker 1853) (see below for synonymy) N80
    |    `--Synthochrysa Needham 1909 N80
    |         |--*S. stigma [=Hemerobius stigma] N80
    |         `--S. evanida [=Apochrysa evanida] N80
    |--Nothochrysinae [Dictyochrysinae, Nothochrysini, Nothochrysinos] N80
    |    |--Triplochrysa Kimmins 1952 N80
    |    |    |--*T. pallida Kimmins 1952 N80
    |    |    `--T. kimminsi New 1980 N80
    |    `--Dictyochrysa Esben-Petersen 1917 N80
    |         |--*D. fulva Esben-Petersen 1917 N80
    |         |--D. latifascia Kimmins 1952 N80
    |         `--D. peterseni Kimmins 1952 N80
    `--Chrysopinae N80
         |  i. s.: Sencera Navás 1924 N80
         |           |--*S. scioneura N80
         |           |--S. anomala N80
         |           |--S. exquisita N80
         |           |--S. feae N80
         |           `--S. fezzanina N80
         |         Nothancyla Navás 1910 N80
         |           `--*N. verreauxi Navás 1910 N80
         |         Ankylopteryx Brauer 1864 N80
         |           |--*A. venusta [=Chrysopa venusta] N80
         |           |--A. basalis Kimmins 1952 N80
         |           |--A. immaculata Brauer 1864 N80
         |           |--A. pallida Banks 1910 N80
         |           |--A. picilabris Kimmins 1952 N80
         |           `--A. rieki New 1980 N80
         |         Calochrysa Banks 1943 N80
         |           `--*C. extranea (Esben-Petersen 1917) [=Chrysopa extranea] N80
         |         Glenochrysa Esben-Petersen 1920 N80
         |           |--*G. typica Esben-Petersen 1920 N80
         |           |--G. franzeni Kimmins 1952 N80
         |           |--G. irregularis (Banks 1910) [=Chrysopa irregularis] N80
         |           |--G. opposita (McLachlan 1863) [=Chrysopa opposita] N80
         |           |--G. regularis (Banks 1910) [=Chrysopa regularis] N80
         |           |--G. splendida N80
         |           `--G. tillyardi New 1980 N80
         |--Chrysopini FP01
         `--Belonopterygini N80

Oligochrysa lutea (Walker 1853) [=Chrysopa lutea, Apochrysa lutea, Synthochrysa lutea; incl. *Oligochrysa gracilis Esben-Petersen 1914] N80

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FP01] Freitas, S. de, & N. D. Penny. 2001. The green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) of Brazilian agro-ecosystems. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 52: 245–395.

[N80] New, T. R. 1980. A revision of the Australian Chrysopidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 77: 1–143.

[P-FD12] Pérez-de la Fuente, R., X. Delclòs, E. Peñalver, M. Speranza, J. Wierzchos, C. Ascaso & M. S. Engel. 2012. Early evolution and ecology of camouflage in insects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (52): 21414–21419.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Myrmeleontidea Latreille, 1802 (=Neuropteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P. & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 176–189. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Paguroidea

Specimen of wood-dwelling hermit crab Xylopagurus rectus, together with its home, copyright IRD-Poupin.


Belongs within: Anomala.
Contains: Pagurus.

The Paguroidea is a group of marine crustaceans including the hermit crabs of the Paguridae, Parapaguridae and Pylojacquesia colemani, together with the stone crabs of the Lithodidae. Most paguroids have the third maxillipeds widely separated, though they are more closely approximated in Pylojacquesia. The two larger hermit crab families are distinguished by the exopod of the first maxilliped, which bears a flagellum in Paguridae but not in Parapaguridae (McLaughlin & Lemaitre 2001).

<==Paguroidea
    |  i. s.: Pagurixus jerviensis McLaughlin & Haig 1984 ML01
    |         Discorsopagurus schmitti (Stevens 1925) L95
    |         Orthopagurus minimus (Homes 1900) L95
    |--Pylojacquesia McLaughlin & Lemaitre 2001 [Pylojacquesidae] ML01
    |    `--*P. colemani McLaughlin & Lemaitre 2001 ML01
    |--Lithodidae ML01
    |    |--Dermaturus mandtii Brandt 1850 ML01
    |    |--Hapalogaster dentata (de Haan 1844) ML01
    |    |--Paralomis ML01
    |    |    |--P. hirta B64
    |    |    |--P. histrix (de Haan 1846) ML01
    |    |    `--P. poorei Ahyong 2010 MG-H11
    |    `--Lithodes MG-H11
    |         |--L. antarctica W81
    |         |--L. rachelae Ahyong 2010 MG-H11
    |         `--L. santolla (Molina 1782) DAS03
    |--Parapaguridae ML01
    |    |--Strobopagurus MG-H11
    |    |--Paragiopagurus ML01
    |    |    |--P. boletifer (de Saint Laurent 1972) MG-H11
    |    |    |--P. diogenes (Whitelegge 1900) MG-H11
    |    |    `--P. insolitus Lemaitre 1997 ML01
    |    |--Oncopagurus MG-H11
    |    |    |--O. indicus (Alcock 1905) MG-H11
    |    |    |--O. minutus (Henderson 1896) MG-H11
    |    |    `--O. monstrosus (Alcock 1894) MG-H11
    |    |--Parapagurus ML01
    |    |    |--P. alaminos Lemaître 1989 DAS03
    |    |    |--P. andreui L95
    |    |    |--P. latimanus Henderson 1888 MG-H11
    |    |    `--P. pilosimanus Smith 1879 ML01
    |    `--Sympagurus MG-H11
    |         |--S. brevipes (de Saint Laurent 1972) MG-H11
    |         |--S. dimorphus (Studer 1883) MG-H11
    |         |--S. planimanus (de Saint Laurent 1972) MG-H11
    |         `--S. villosus Lemaitre 1996 MG-H11
    `--Paguridae [Pagurinae] ML01
         |--Pylopagurus Milne-Edwards & Bouvier 1891 ML01
         |--Solitariopagurus Türkay 1986 ML01
         |--Alainopagurus McLaughlin 1997 ML01
         |--Phimochirus McLaughlin 1981 ML01
         |--Tomopagurus wassi L95
         |--Munidopagurus Milne Edwards & Bouvier 1893 L95
         |--Tomopaguroides Balss 1912 L95
         |--Tomopaguropsis Alcock 1905 L95
         |--Lithopagurus Provenzano 1968 L95
         |--Paguritta TSH09
         |--Anapagrides MG-H11
         |--Bathypaguropsis yaldwyni McLaughlin 1994 MG-H11
         |--Cestopagurus timidus (Roux 1830) MG-H11, KK03
         |--Hemipagurus MG-H11
         |--Michelopagurus MG-H11
         |--Nematopagurus MG-H11
         |--Propagurus haigae (McLaughlin 1997) MG-H11
         |--Spiropagurus fimbriatus Lewinsohn 1982 MG-H11
         |--Pagurus ML01
         |--Pylopaguropsis Alcock 1905 ML01
         |    `--P. zebra (Henderson 1893) MG-H11
         |--Catapagurus Milne-Edwards 1880 ML01
         |    `--C. sharreri L95
         |--Labidochirus Benedict 1892 ML01
         |    `--L. splendescens L95
         |--Porcellanopagurus Filhol 1885 ML01
         |    |--P. edwardsi B64
         |    `--P. filholi de Saint Laurent & McLaughlin 2000 MG-H11
         |--Turleana MG-H11
         |    |--T. albatrossae (McLaughlin & Haig 1996) MG-H11
         |    `--T. multispina McLaughlin 1997 MG-H11
         |--Lophopagurus MG-H11
         |    |--L. nanus (Henderson 1888) MG-H11
         |    `--L. triserratus (Ortmann 1892) [=Australeremus triserratus] ML01
         `--Xylopagurus Milne-Edwards 1880 ML01
              |--*X. rectus Milne Edwards 1880 L95
              |--X. anthonii Lemaitre 1995 L95
              |--X. cancellarius Walton 1950 ML01 [=Xilopagurus (l. c.) cancellarius L95]
              |--X. tayrona Lemaitre & Campos 1993 L95
              `--X. tenuis Lemaitre 1995 L95

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B64] Bennett, E. W. 1964. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Crustacea Brachyura. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 153: 1–120.

[DAS03] Dixon, C. J., S. T. Ahyong & F. R. Schram. 2003. A new hypothesis of decapod phylogeny. Crustaceana 76: 935–975.

[KK03] Kocataş, A., & T. Katağan. 2003. The decapod crustacean fauna of the Turkish seas. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 63–74.

[L95] Lemaitre, R. 1995. A review of the hermit crabs of the genus Xylopagurus A. Milne Edwards, 1880 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Paguridae), including descriptions of two new species. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 570: 1–27.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O'Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[ML01] McLaughlin, P. A., & R. Lemaitre. 2001. A new family for a new genus and new species of hermit crab of the superfamily Paguroidea (Decapoda: Anomura) and its phylogenetic implications. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (4): 1062–1076.

[TSH09] Titelius, M. A., A. Sampey & C. G. Hass. 2009. Crustaceans of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 145–176.

[W81] Watson, L. 1981. Sea Guide to Whales of the World. Hutchinson: London.

Sphaeromatidae

Dynamene bidentata, copyright David Fenwick.


Belongs within: Sphaeromatidea.
Contains: Monolistrini.

The Sphaeromatidae are a group of marine isopods capable of rolling into a compact ball (Menzies & Kruczynski 1983). They have been divided into subfamilies based on the structure of pleopods 4 and 5, with Dynameninae and Sphaeromatinae having thickened folds and ridges on the pleopods that are absent in Cassidininae, but the monophyly of these taxa is uncertain.

Characters (from Menzies & Kruczynski 1983, as Sphaeromidae): First pleonite distinct; second to fifth fused, forming vault with pleotelson containing pleopods. Males with uropodal endopod fused to peduncle; exopod movable.

<==Sphaeromatidae [Sphaeromidae]
    |--Cassidininae BP03
    |    |  i. s.: Cassidina Milne Edwards 1840 BP03
    |    |           `--C. typa Milne Edwards 1840 BP03
    |    |         Cassidinidea Hansen 1905 BP03
    |    |           |--C. korpie Bruce 1993 BP03
    |    |           |--C. lunifrons (Richardson 1900) MK83
    |    |           `--C. ovalis (Say 1818) MK83
    |    |         Paraleptosphaeroma Buss & Iverson 1981 BP03
    |    |           |--P. brucei Kussakin & Malyutina 1993 BP03
    |    |           `--P. indica Müller 1990 BP03
    |    `--Monolistrini S86
    `--+--Dynamene Leach 1814 [Dynameninae] BP03
       |    |--D. bidentata B78
       |    |--D. bifida PP64
       |    |--D. curalii Holdich & Harrison 1980 BP03
       |    |--D. dilatata H47
       |    |--D. edwardsi BBB-S95
       |    |--D. glabra H47
       |    `--D. sheareri Hatch 1947 H47
       `--Sphaeroma Bosc 1802 [Sphaeromatinae] BP03
            |--*S. serratum (Fabricius 1787) MK83, BP03 [=Oniscus serratus MK83, Talitrus serratus L02]
            |--S. globator [=Oniscus globator] L02
            |--S. hookeri PP64
            |--S. quadridentata Say 1818 [=S. quadridentatum] MK83
            |--S. quoianum Milne Edwards 1840 BP03
            |--S. rugicauda D01
            |--S. terebrans Bate 1866 [incl. S. destructor Richardson 1897] MK83
            `--S. walkeri Stebbing 1904 MK83

Sphaeromatidae incertae sedis:
  Thermosphaeroma thermophilum S86, F01
  Gnorimosphaeroma S86
  Exosphaeroma BP03
    |--E. alba Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
    |--E. amplicauda (Stimpson 1857) BP03
    |--E. chilensis HS01
    |--E. crenulata (Richardson 1902) MK83
    |--E. diminuta Menzies & Frankenberg 1966 MK83
    |--E. gigas BP03
    |--E. obtusum (Dana 1853) FZA07
    |--E. oregonensis H47
    `--E. productatelson Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
  Cymodoce Leach 1814 MK83
    |--*C. truncata Leach 1814 MK83
    |--C. faxoni (Richardson 1905) (see below for synonymy) MK83
    |--C. japonica H47
    `--C. rubropunctata PP64
  Paradynemene benjamensis Richardson 1905 MK83
  Geocerceis barbarae Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
  Cerceis carinata Glynn 1970 MK83
  Discerceis linguicauda (Richardson 1901) MK83
  Paracerceis Hansen 1905 MK83
    |--*P. caudata (Say 1818) (see below for synonymy) MK83
    |--P. edithae Boone 1930 MK83
    |--P. nuttingi (Boone 1921) MK83
    `--P. sculpta (Holmes 1904) HJ08
  Dynamenella MK83
    |--D. acutitelson Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
    |--D. angulata (Richardson 1901) MK83
    |--D. barnardi Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
    |--D. dianae (Menzies 1962) MK83
    |--D. perforata (Moore 1902) [incl. D. moorei Richardson 1905] MK83
    |--D. plicatura Glynn 1970 MK83
    |--D. quadripunctata Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
    `--D. tumidicauda Glynn 1970 MK83
  Dies barnardi Carvacho 1977 MK83
  Paradella dianae (Menzies 1962) HJ08
  Lekanesphaera teissieri (Bocquet & Lejuez 1967) BP03
  Zuzara venosa BP03

Cymodoce faxoni (Richardson 1905) [=Exosphaeroma faxoni; incl. E. antillense Richardson 1912, E. barrerae Boone 1918] MK83

*Paracerceis caudata (Say 1818) [=Naesa caudata, Ciliceae caudata, Cymodocea caudata; incl. Cy. bermudensis Ives 1892, Dynamene bermudensis, Paracerceis tomentosa Schultz & McCloskey 1967, Exosphaeroma yucatanum Richardson 1905] MK83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d'Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[BP03] Brandt, A., & G. C. B. Poore. 2003. Higher classification of the flabelliferan and related Isopoda based on a reappraisal of relationships. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 893–923.

[B78] Brusca, R. C. 1978. Studies on the cymothoid fish symbionts of the eastern Pacific (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) II. Systematics and biology of Lironeca vulgaris Stimpson 1857. Occasional Papers of the Allan Hancock Foundation New Series 2: 1–19.

[D01] Dollfus, A. 1901. Isopodák [Isopodes]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 371–374. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[F01] Fashing, N. J. 2001. Morphological adaptations associated with mate-guarding behaviour in the genus Hericia (Acari: Algophagidae). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 176–179. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[FZA07] Fiege, D., H. Zibrowius & P. M. Arnaud. 2007. New deep-water records of cocoons of undescribed species of Fecampiidae from Antarctica to the Bay of Biscay (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Rhabdocoela). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 1–6.

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MK83] Menzies, R. J., & W. L. Kruczynski. 1983. Isopod Crustacea (exclusive of Epicaridea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (1): 1–126.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[S86] Sket, B. 1986. Isopoda: Sphaeromatidae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 423–427. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

Last updated: 29 October 2017.

Sphaeromatidea

Male Serolis bromleyana, from Beddard (1884).


Belongs within: Scuticoxifera.
Contains: Sphaeromatidae.

The Sphaeromatidea are a clade of marine isopods with the underside of the pleotelson vaulted, defining a branchial chamber (Brandt & Poore 2003).

Characters (from Brandt & Poore 2003): Pleonites variously fused (rarely 1–5 free), pleonite 1 narrower than others (similar in Plakarthrium). Pleotelson underside vaulted, branchial chamber defined by ridges along mesial margin of lateral edge. Antenna 1 without scale. Mandibular lacinia mobilis present on left side, reduced and fused with spine row on right or absent. Mandibular molar a cylindrical process with triturative flat end. Maxillipedal endite reaching at least distal margin of palp article 2, usually distally truncate and setose. Pleopod 3 endopod roughly triangular or at least with inner angle sharper than outer. Dorsal coxal plate 7 similar to others (rarely shorter). Uropodal rami lateral to margin of pleotelson, articulating along longitudinal axis and folding down alongside branchial space.

<==Sphaeromatidea BP03
    |--Sphaeromatoidea BP03
    |    |--Paravireia Chilton 1925 BP03
    |    |    `--P. holdichi Brökeland, Wägele & Bruce 2001 BP03
    |    `--+--Sphaeromatidae BP03
    |       `--+--Tecticeps Richardson 1897 [Tecticipitidae] BP03
    |          |    |--T. alascensis H47
    |          |    |--T. convexus H47
    |          |    |--T. marginalis Gurjanova 1935 BP03
    |          |    `--T. pugettensis Hatch 1947 H47
    |          `--Ancinidae BP03
    |               |--Bathycopea Tattersall 1905 BP03
    |               |    `--B. typhlops Tattersall 1905 BP03
    |               `--Ancinus Milne Edwards 1840 BP03
    |                    |--A. belizensis Kensley & Schotte 1987 BP03
    |                    `--A. depressus (Say 1818) MK83
    `--Seroloidea BP03
         |--Plakarthrium Chilton 1883 [Plakarthriidae] BP03
         |    `--P. australiense Poore & Brandt 2001 BP03
         `--+--Schweglerella [Schweglerellidae] BP03
            |    `--S. strobli Polz 1998 BP03
            `--+--Bathynataliidae BP02
               |    |--Biremia Bruce 1985 BP03
               |    |    `--B. ambocerca Bruce 1985 BP03
               |    `--+--Naudea Kensley 1979 BP03
               |       |    `--N. louwae Kensley 1979 BP03
               |       `--Bathynatalia Kensley 1978 BP03
               |            `--B. gilchristi Barnard 1957 BP03
               `--+--Basserolis Poore 1985 [Basserolidae] BP03
                  |    `--B. kimblae Poore 1985 BP03
                  `--Serolidae BP03
                       |--Serolina holia Poore 1987 BP03
                       `--Serolis Leach 1818 BP03
                            |--*S. paradoxus (Fabricius 1775) [=Oniscus paradoxus; incl. S. fabricii Leach 1818] MK83
                            |--S. bouvieri Richardson 1909 BP03
                            |--S. bromleyana BH88
                            |--S. carinata Lockington 1877 MK83
                            `--S. mgrayi Menzies & Frankenberg 1966 MK83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BH88] Boxshall, G. A., & K. Harrison. 1988. New nicothoid copepods (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) from an amphipod and from deep-sea isopods. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology series 54 (6): 285–299.

[BP03] Brandt, A. & G. C. B. Poore. 2003. Higher classification of the flabelliferan and related Isopoda based on a reappraisal of relationships. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 893–923.

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[MK83] Menzies, R. J., & W. L. Kruczynski. 1983. Isopod Crustacea (exclusive of Epicaridea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (1): 1–126.

Leptocheliidae

Leptochelia sp., copyright Magdalena Błażewicz-Paszkowycz.


Belongs within: Tanaidacea.

The Leptocheliidae are a family of tanaidaceans characterised by a relatively high number of articles in the uropod endopod (Larsen & Wilson 2002).

Characters (from Larsen & Wilson 2002): Female with medium body calcification. No plates in carapace. Eyes present (except in Mesotanais). Pereonite 1 not reduced. Pleon with five free pleonites, as wide as pereon, no articulated setae on pleonites. Antennule with three to five articles. Antenna with six articles, article 3 with or without (Heterotanaoides) dorsal spiniform setae. Molar process broad. Labium with four lobes, medial spiniform setae absent. Maxilliped basis and endites not fused, endites narrower than basis and with two, or (frequently) three flat setae. Cheliped attachment via sclerite. Marsupium (where known) with four pairs of oostegites. Pereopod coxa present on P1–3 but absent on P4–6. P4–6 dactylus and terminal setae fused to a hook. Pleopods well developed. Uropod endopod with three to six articles, exopod with one or two articles. Male (where known) with body shorter than female. Eyes larger than females. Antennule with more than four articles and aesthetascs. Mouthparts reduced. Cheliped always significantly enlarged and elongated. Pleopods well developed.

<==Leptocheliidae
    |--Heterotanaidinae LW02
    |    |--Heterotanaoides Sieg 1976 LW02
    |    |    `--H. meridionalis Sieg 1986 LW02
    |    |--Mesotanais Dollfus 1897 LW02
    |    |    `--M. dubius Dollfus 1897 LW02
    |    `--Heterotanais Sars 1882 LW02
    |         |--H. melacephala H47
    |         `--H. oerstedii (Kroyer 1842) LW02
    `--Leptocheliinae LW02
         |--‘Hargeria’ Lang 1973 non Lucas 1903 LW02
         |    `--H. rapax (Harger 1879) LW02
         |--Intermedichelia Gutu 1996 LW02
         |    `--I. gracilis Gutu 1996 LW02
         |--Pseudoleptochelia Lang 1973 LW02
         |    `--P. antarctica (Lang 1953) LW02
         |--Pseudonototanais Lang 1973 LW02
         |    `--P. werthi (VanHoeffen 1914) LW02
         `--Leptochelia Dana 1852 LW02
              |--L. dubia (Kroyer 1842) LW02
              `--L. filum H47

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[LW02] Larsen, K., & G. D. F. Wilson. 2002. Tanaidacean phylogeny, the first step: the superfamily Paratanaidoidea. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 40: 205–222.

Cymothoida

Parasitic isopod Anilocra physodes, copyright Txomin Rivera.


Belongs within: Scuticoxifera.
Contains: Cirolaninae, Eurydicinae, Gnathiidae, Anthuroidea, Corallanidae, Aegidae, Epicaridea, Lironeca, Nerocila, Cymothoa.

The Cymothoida is a diverse group of mostly marine isopods, including both free-living and parasitic forms.

Characters (from Brandt & Poore 2003): Pleonites 1–5 free, pleonite 1 similar to others (some pleonites fused in some species). Pleotelson underside flat, without ventrolateral ridges; pleopods not enclosed laterally. Antenna 1 without scale (except in Bathynomus). Mandibular lacinia mobilis absent (present in some Anthuroidea as part of lacinia mobilis). Mandibular molar flat blade-like or conical process (sometimes absent). Maxillipedal endite, if present, rarely longer than palp article 1, distally tapering and with few setae. Dorsal coxal plate 7 similar to others. Pleopods 3–5 endopods more or less oval or rectangular, rounded dorsally. Uropodal rami ventral to pleotelson, articulating from side to side along vertical axis inside branchial spine.

<==Cymothoida BP03
    |--Cirolanidae [Cirolanoidea] BP03
    |    |  i. s.: Ceratolana BBN86
    |    |         Kensleylana Bruce & Herrando-Pérez 2005 F05
    |    |           `--*K. briani Bruce & Herrando-Pérez 2005 F05
    |    |--Cirolaninae BBN86
    |    |--Eurydicinae BBN86
    |    `--+--Conilorpheus BBN86
    |       |--Orphelana BBN86
    |       |--Politolana concharum BBN86, M02
    |       |--Conilera Leach 1818 BBN86, T08
    |       |    |--C. cylindracea Montagu 1804 T08
    |       |    `--C. stygia Packard 1894 BBN86
    |       `--Natatolana Bruce 1986 BBN86, BP03
    |            |--N. albinota BP03
    |            |--N. caeca BBN86
    |            |--N. californiensis BBN86
    |            `--N. woodjonesi (Hale 1924) BP03
    `--Cymothooidea BP03
         |--Anuropus Beddard 1886 [Anuropidae] BP03
         |    |--A. kussakini Vasina 1998 BP03
         |    `--A. pacificus Lincoln & Jones 1973 BP03
         `--+--Protognathia Wägele & Brandt 1988 [Protognathiidae] BP03
            |    |--P. bathypelagica Wägele & Brandt 1988 BP03
            |    `--P. waegeli Kussakin & Rybakov 1995 BP03
            `--+--+--Gnathiidae BP03
               |  `--Anthuroidea BP03
               `--+--Corallanidae BP03
                  `--+--Tridentella Richardson 1905 [Tridentellidae] BP03
                     |    |--T. benguela Brandt & Poore 2001 BP03
                     |    `--T. namibia Brandt & Poore 2001 BP03
                     `--+--Aegidae BP03
                        `--+--Epicaridea BP03
                           `--Cymothoidae BP03
                                |--Lironeca B78
                                |--Aegathoa MK83
                                |--Olencira praegustator (Latrobe 1802) MK83
                                |--Agarna cumulus (Haller 1880) [incl. A. carinata Schiödte & Meinert 1883] MK83
                                |--Telotha henselii (von Martens 1869) MK83
                                |--Nerocila T08
                                |--Renocila ovata Bruce 1987 BP03
                                |--Ourozeuktes Milne Edwards 1840 T08
                                |    `--O. bopyroides (Lesueur 1814) [incl. O. owenii Milne Edwards 1840] T08
                                |--Cteatessa Schioedte & Meinert 1883 T08
                                |    `--C. retusa (Schioedte & Meinert 1878) T08
                                |--Cterissa Schioedte & Meinert 1884 T08
                                |    `--C. pterygota (Koelbel 1878) T08
                                |--Emetha Schioedte & Meinert 1883 T08
                                |    `--E. audouini (Milne Edwards 1840) T08
                                |--Glossobius Schioedte & Meinert 1883 T08
                                |    `--G. impressa (Say 1818) T08
                                |--Lobothorax Bleeker 1856 T08
                                |    `--L. typus Bleeker 1857 (see below for synonymy) T08
                                |--Norileca Bruce 1990 T08
                                |    `--N. indica (Milne Edwards 1840) [=Livoneca indica] T08
                                |--Meinertia MK83
                                |    |--M. deplanata (Bovallius 1885) MK83
                                |    `--M. transversa Richardson 1900 MK83
                                |--Elthusa Schioedte & Meinert 1884 T08
                                |    |--E. raynaudii (Milne Edwards 1840) T08
                                |    `--E. vulgaris (Stimpson 1857) [=Livoneca vulgaris] T08
                                |--Ichthyoxenus Herklots 1870 T08
                                |    |--I. fushanensis Tsai & Dai 1999 TD03
                                |    `--I. jellinghausi Herklots 1870 T08
                                |--Livoneca Leach 1818 T08
                                |    |--L. californica H47
                                |    |--L. redmanii Leach 1818 T08
                                |    `--L. sinuata Koelbel 1878 T08
                                |--Mothocya Costa 1851 T08
                                |    |--M. epimerica Costa 1851 T08
                                |    |--M. longicopa C02
                                |    |--M. nana (Schiödte & Meinert 1884) [=Irona nana] MK83
                                |    |--M. plagulophora (Haller 1880) [incl. Irona vatia Schioedte & Meinert 1884] T08
                                |    |--M. renardi (Bleeker 1857) T08
                                |    `--M. sajori Bruce 1986 T08
                                |--Ceratothoa Dana 1852 T08
                                |    |--C. carinata Bianconi 1869 T08
                                |    |--C. imbricata (Fabricius 1775) [=Codonophilus imbricatus] T08
                                |    |--C. impressa (Say 1818) MK83
                                |    |--C. italica Schioedte & Meinert 1883 T08
                                |    |--C. oestroides (Risso 1826) T08
                                |    |--C. oxyrrhynchaena Koelbel 1878 T08
                                |    `--C. parallela (Otto 1828) T08
                                |--Anilocra Leach 1818 T08
                                |    |--A. acuta Richardson 1910 MK83
                                |    |--A. capensis Leach 1818 T08
                                |    |--A. frontalis Milne Edwards 1840 T08
                                |    |--A. holocentri Williams & Williams 1981 T08
                                |    |--A. laticauda Milne Edwards 1840 MK83
                                |    |--A. leptosoma Bleeker 1857 T08
                                |    |--A. physodes (Linnaeus 1758) T08
                                |    |--A. plebia Schiödte & Meinert 1883 MK83
                                |    `--A. vittata Lucas 1846 E12
                                `--Cymothoa T08

Lobothorax typus Bleeker 1857 [incl. Saophra aurita Schioedte & Meinert 1883, L. aurita] T08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BBN86] Botosaneanu, L., N. Bruce & J. Notenboom. 1986. Isopoda: Cirolanidae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 412–422. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[BP03] Brandt, A. & G. C. B. Poore. 2003. Higher classification of the flabelliferan and related Isopoda based on a reappraisal of relationships. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 893–923.

[B78] Brusca, R. C. 1978. Studies on the cymothoid fish symbionts of the eastern Pacific (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) II. Systematics and biology of Lironeca vulgaris Stimpson 1857. Occasional Papers of the Allan Hancock Foundation New Series 2: 1–19.

[C02] Collette, B. B. 2002. Needlefishes. Family Belonidae. In: Collette, B. B. & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 287–289. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[MK83] Menzies, R. J., & W. L. Kruczynski. 1983. Isopod Crustacea (exclusive of Epicaridea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (1): 1–126.

[M02] Musick, J. A. 2002. Sturgeons. Family Acipenseridae. In: Collette, B. B. & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 83–88. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[T08] Trilles, J.-P. 2008. Some marine isopods from the Senckenberg Research Institute (Frankfurt am Main, Germany) (Crustacea, Isopoda: Cymothoidae, Aegidae, Corallanidae, Cirolanidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 21–28.

[TD03] Tsai, M.-L., & C.-F. Dai. 2003. Cannibalism within mating pairs of the parasitic isopod, Ichthyoxenus fushanensis. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 662–668.