Peakesiina

Peakesia hospita, copyright Paul Zborowski.


Belongs within: Catantopinae.

The Peakesiina are a group of grasshoppers characterised by a textured pronotum.

Characters (from Rentz 1996): Margins of fastigium of vertex carinate or ridged. Integument of pronotum wrinkled or rough. Tympanum present on abdomen. Furcula of male supra-anal plate usually present.

<==Peakesiina R96
    |--Desertaria R96
    |    |--D. fasciata K90
    |    `--D. lepida R96
    |--Cuprascula pictipes R96
    |--Cedarinia fuscotibialis R96, K90
    |--Testudinellia R96
    |--Lagoonia R96
    |--Perelytrana nana R96
    |--Caloptilla lutescens R96
    |--Curpilladia flavocarinata R96
    |--Xanterriaria mediocris R96
    `--Peakesia R96
         |--P. hospita R96
         |--P. rubescens K90
         |--P. straminea R96
         `--P. vitripennis R96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K90] Key, K. H. L. 1990. Host relations and distribution of species of Caeculisoma (Acarina: Erythraeidae) parasitising grasshoppers in Australia, with supplementary information for the genus Trombella (Trombellidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 38: 11-18.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Catantopinae

Gumleaf grasshopper Goniaea australasiae, from Brisbane Insects.


Belongs within: Acridoidea.
Contains: Peakesiina, Apotropina, Coryphistina.

The Catantopinae, spur-throated grasshoppers, are a diverse group of grasshoppers (particularly in the Australian region) characterised by the presence of a tubercle or spine on the prosternum, and the absence of an external apical spine on the hind tibia (Rentz 1996).

<==Catantopinae R96
    |--Urnisiella [Urnisiellini] R96
    |    `--U. rubropunctata R96
    |--Kakaduacris [Kakaduacridini] R96
    |    `--K. minuta R96
    |--Traulia [Trauliini] E00
    |    `--T. azureipennis E00
    |--Histrioacridini R96
    |    |--Scurra R96
    |    `--Histrioacrida [Histrioacridina] R96
    |         `--H. roseipennis R96
    `--Catantopini R96
         |--Peakesiina R96
         |--Apotropina R96
         |--Pyrgophistes [Pyrgophistina] R96
         |--Hepalicus [Hepalicina] R96
         |--Loiteria [Loiteriina] R96
         |--Coryphistina R96
         |--Urnisina R96
         |    |--Urnisa guttulosa R96
         |    `--Rhitzala modesta R96
         |--Ecphantina R96
         |    |--Ecphantus quadrilobus R96
         |    `--Happarana R96
         |--Maclystriina R96
         |    |--Maclystria planicosta R96
         |    `--Perloccia R96
         |--Micreolina R96
         |    |--Micreola R96
         |    `--Sumbilvia R96
         |--Macrazelotina R96
         |    |--Macrazelota cervina R96
         |    `--Rusurplia tristis R96
         |--Cirphulina R96
         |    |--Cirphula pyrrhocnemis R96
         |    |--Macrolopholia R96
         |    `--Chirotepica R96
         |--Russalpiina R96
         |    |--Truganinia R96
         |    |--Tasmanalpina clavata R96
         |    |--Russalpia R96
         |    `--Tasmaniacris tasmaniensis R96
         |--Cratilopina R96
         |    |--Typaya R96
         |    |--Capperala R96
         |    |--Cratilopus R96
         |    `--Exarhalltia R96
         |--Catantopina R96
         |    |--Catantops R96
         |    `--Stenocatantops R96
         |         |--S. angustifrons R96
         |         |--S. splendens E00
         |         `--S. vitripennis R96
         |--Buforaniina R96
         |    |--Buforania crassa R96
         |    |--Cuparessa R96
         |    |--Raniliella testudo R96
         |    |--Phanerocerus R96
         |    `--Tapesta carneipes R96
         |--Goniaea [Goniaeina] R96
         |    |--G. australasiae R96
         |    |--G. carinata K90
         |    |--G. furcifera R96
         |    |--G. hyalina S61
         |    |--G. opomaloides R96
         |    `--G. vocans R96
         |--Stropina R96
         |    |--Adlappa erythroptera R96
         |    |--Collitera variegata R96
         |    |--Parazelum rubripes R96
         |    `--Stropis R96
         |         |--S. glaucescens R96
         |         `--S. maculosa R96
         |--Aretzina R96
         |    |--Terpillaria pulchra R96
         |    |--Zebratula flavonigra R96
         |    |--Aretza R96
         |    |--Macrocara conglobata R96
         |    |--Exarna R96
         |    `--Brachyexarna lobipennis R96
         |--Macrotonina R96
         |    |--Theomoplus badius R96
         |    |--Xypechtia R96
         |    `--Macrotona [incl. Eumacrotona] R96
         |         |--M. australis R96
         |         |--M. lineosa K90
         |         |--M. picta K90
         |         `--M. securiformis R96
         |--Perbelliina R96
         |    |--Perbellia picta R96
         |    |--Minyacris nana R96
         |    |--Porraxia R96
         |    |--Ablectia R96
         |    |--Rectitropis R96
         |    |--Capraxa cinnamomea R96
         |    `--Phaulacridium R96
         |         |--P. marginale (Walker 1870) [=Caloptenus marginalis; incl. P. luteum Hutton 1897] B67
         |         `--P. vittatum R96
         `--Eumecistina R96
              |--Eumecistes gratiosus R96
              |--Pespulia R96
              |--Pardillana ampla R96
              |--Euomopalon R96
              |--Retuspia R96
              |--Erythropomala amaena R96
              |--Cervidia R96
              |--Microphistes R96
              `--Asoramea R96

Catantopinae incertae sedis:
  Arminda Krauss 1892 OK06
  Apoboleus affinis E00
  Serpusia succursor E00
  Paprides Hutton 1897 B67
    |--*P. nitidus Hutton 1897 [incl. P. furcifer Hutton 1898] B67
    `--P. dugdali Bigelow 1967 B67
  Sigaus Hutton 1897 [incl. Huttonacris Rehn 1953, Trigoniza Hutton 1897] B67
    |--*S. piliferus Hutton 1897 B67
    |--S. australis (Hutton 1897) (see below for synonymy) B67
    |--S. campestris (Hutton 1897) (see below for synonymy) B67
    |--S. minutus Bigelow 1967 B67
    |--S. obelisci Bigelow 1967 B67
    `--S. villosus (Salmon 1950) [=Brachaspis villosa] B67
  Brachaspis Hutton 1898 B67
    |--*B. nivalis (Hutton 1897) (see below for synonymy) B67
    |--B. collinus (Hutton 1897) [=Pezotettix collina] B67
    `--B. robustus Bigelow 1967 B67
  Alpinacris Bigelow 1967 B67
    |--*A. crassicauda Bigelow 1967 B67
    `--A. tumidicauda Bigelow 1967 B67
  Catespa K90
  Scotussa BM76

*Brachaspis nivalis (Hutton 1897) [=Pezotettix nivalis; incl. P. petricola Hutton 1897, Brachaspis petricolus, P. terrestris Hutton 1897, B. terrestris] B67

Sigaus australis (Hutton 1897) [=Paprides australis; incl. P. armillatus Hutton 1898, P. torquatus Hutton 1898] B67

Sigaus campestris (Hutton 1897) [=Trigoniza campestris; incl. T. directa Hutton 1897, T. rugosa Hutton 1897] B67

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B67] Bigelow, R. S. 1967. The Grasshoppers (Acrididae) of New Zealand: their taxonomy and distribution. University of Canterbury: Christchurch.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[E00] Eades, D. C. 2000. Evolutionary relationships of phallic structures of Acridomorpha (Orthoptera). Journal of Orthoptera Research 9: 181-210.

[K90] Key, K. H. L. 1990. Host relations and distribution of species of Caeculisoma (Acarina: Erythraeidae) parasitising grasshoppers in Australia, with supplementary information for the genus Trombella (Trombellidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 38: 11-18.

[OK06] Özdikmen, H., & A. B. Kury. 2006. Three homonymous generic names in Araneae and Opiliones. Journal of Arachnology 34 (1): 279-280.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Notes on the genus Caeculisoma (Acarina: Erythraeidae) with comments on the biology of the Erythraeoidea. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 84: 163-178.

Pyrgomorphidae

Mating pair of Atractomorpha sinensis, from here.


Belongs within: Caelifera.

The Pyrgomorphidae are a family of grasshoppers characterised by the presence of a median longitudinal sulcus (groove) extending backwards along the fastigium of the vertex of the head (Rentz 1996). They are diverse in appearance, and some are brightly coloured.

<==Pyrgomorphidae [Pyrgomorphoidea]
    |  i. s.: Miopyrgomorpha fischeri Z02
    |         Brunniella [Brunniellini] K72
    `--Pyrgomorphinae R96
         |  i. s.: Pyrgomorpha conica (Olivier 1791) P05
         |         Omura congrua Walker 1870 R18
         |--Desmoptera [Desmopterini] R96
         |    `--D. truncatipennis R96
         |--Petasidini R96
         |    |--Petasida ephippigera R96
         |    `--Scutillya verrucosa R96
         |--Atractomorpha [Atractomorphini] R96
         |    |--A. aurivillii B01
         |    |--A. australis R96
         |    |--A. bedeli B01
         |    |--A. hypoestes R96
         |    |--A. similis R96
         |    `--A. sinensis E00
         |--Monistriini R96
         |    |--Yeelana R96
         |    |--Greyacris profundesulcata R96
         |    |--Parastria R96
         |    `--Monistria R96
         |         |--M. concinna R96
         |         |--M. discrepens R96
         |         `--M. pustulifera R96
         `--Psednurini R96
              |--Psednura Burr 1903 [=Pseudnura (l. c.), Betisca Sjöstedt 1921] K72
              |    |--*P. pedestris (Erichson 1842) (see below for synonymy) K72
              |    `--P. musgravei Rehn 1953 [incl. P. angustissima Rehn 1953] K72
              `--+--Psedna Key 1972 K72
                 |    `--*P. nana (Rehn 1953) [=Propsednura hesperus nana] K72
                 `--Propsednura Rehn 1953 K72
                      |--*P. eyrei Rehn 1953 [incl. P. hesperus Rehn 1953] K72
                      `--P. peninsularis Key 1972 K72

*Psednura pedestris (Erichson 1842) [=Mesops pedestris, *Betisca pedestris, M. pedestis (l. c.); incl. Psednura collina Rehn 1953, P. lanceolata Rehn 1953] K72

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 223-243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E00] Eades, D. C. 2000. Evolutionary relationships of phallic structures of Acridomorpha (Orthoptera). Journal of Orthoptera Research 9: 181-210.

[K72] Key, K. H. L. 1972. A revision of the Psednurini (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 14: 1-72.

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese ("southern Sporadhes) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3-11.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Apotropina

Goniaeoidea modesta, copyright Mr Smiley.


Belongs within: Catantopinae.

The Apotropina are a group of grasshoppers possessing a relatively stout hind femur, an auditory tympanum and a furcula on the male supra-anal plate (Rentz 1996).

<==Apotropina R96
    |--Apotropis vittata R96
    |--Burcatelia R96
    |--Epallia R96
    |--Azelota R96
    |--Perunga ochracea R96
    |--Schayera R96
    |--Fipurga crassa R96
    |--Percassa rugifrons R96
    |--Goniaeoidea modesta R96, K90
    `--Clepsydria histrio R96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K90] Key, K. H. L. 1990. Host relations and distribution of species of Caeculisoma (Acarina: Erythraeidae) parasitising grasshoppers in Australia, with supplementary information for the genus Trombella (Trombellidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 38: 11-18.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Blattaria

Wood roaches Cryptocercus, copyright David R. Maddison.


Belongs within: Blattoidea.
Contains: Blaberidae, Blattellidae, Polyzosteriinae, Pseudomopinae.

The Blattaria include the crown-group cockroaches, with some studies regarding the termites as derived from within this clade. The Blattaria are characterised by the production of eggs contained within a hard ootheca, that is deposited free on the ground.

Synapomorphies (from Vršanský 2010): Outer ovipositor valves completely internal, eggs laid in ootheca of cockroach type; central ocellus reduced.

<==Blattaria GE05
    |  i. s.: Naupheta cinerea GE05
    |         Loboptera decipiens BM76
    |         Neostylopyga rhombifolia BM76
    |         Shelfordella tartara BM76
    |         Latiblatella rehni BM76
    |         Eurycotis floridana BM76
    |         Tryonicus R96 [Tryonicidae BP10, Tryonicinae]
    |           `--T. parvus R96
    |--Cryptocercus Scudder 1862 [Cryptocercidae] V10
    |    |--C. clevelandi GE05
    |    |--C. darwini GE05
    |    |--C. garciai GE05
    |    |--C. primarius GE05
    |    |--C. punctulatus GE05
    |    |--C. relictus GE05
    |    `--C. wrighti GE05
    `--+--+--Lamproblatta GE05 [Lamproblattidae]
       |  `--Polyphagidae V10
       |       |  i. s.: Vitisma rasnitsyni VVR02
       |       |         Therea GE05
       |       |         Arenivaga C90
       |       |           |--A. apacha WL09
       |       |           |--A. grata C90
       |       |           `--A. investigata C90
       |       |         Eremoblatta subdiaphana C90
       |       |--Euthyrrhaphinae VVR02
       |       `--Lantindiinae VVR02
       `--+--Blaberoidea R96
          |    |--Nocticola [Nocticolidae] R96
          |    |    |--N. flabella Roth 1991 BP10
          |    |    `--N. termitophila V10
          |    |--Blaberidae GE05
          |    `--Blattellidae GE05
          `--Blattidae GE05
               |  i. s.: Stantoniella GE05
               |         Parcoblatta C90
               |           |--P. desertae C90
               |           |--P. pensylvanica BM76
               |           |--P. uhleriana BM76
               |           `--P. virginica BM76
               |         Stylopyga orientalis B01
               |--Macrocerca [Macrocercinae] R96
               |--Polyzosteriinae R96
               |--Melestora [Corydiinae] R18
               |    |--M. adspersipennis R18
               |    |--M. fulvella R18
               |    |--M. fuscella R18
               |    `--M. minutissima Rehn 1918 R18
               |--Blattinae R96
               |    |--Austrostylopyga R96
               |    |--Blatta TW05
               |    |    |--B. cincticollis Lucas 1847 E12
               |    |    `--B. orientalis TW05
               |    `--Periplaneta R18
               |         |--P. americana (Linnaeus 1758) [=Blatta americana] R18
               |         |--P. australasiae (Fabricius 1775) [=Blatta australasiae] R18
               |         |--P. brunnea R96
               |         |--P. fuliginosa BM76
               |         `--P. picea BM76
               `--Pseudomopinae R18

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BP10] Bohn, H., M. Picker, K.-D. Klass & J. Colville. 2010. A jumping cockroach from South Africa, Saltoblattella montistabularis, gen. nov., spec. nov. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 68 (1): 53-69.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 223-243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

[V10] Vršanský, P. 2010. Cockroach as the earliest eusocial animal. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 84 (4): 793-808.

[VVR02] Vršanský, P., V. N. Vishniakova & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Order Blattida Latreille, 1810. The cockroaches (=Blattodea Brunner von Wattenvill, 1882). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 263-270. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 233-420. Texas Tech University Press.

Blaberidae

Australian wood cockroach Panesthia cribrata, from Brisbane Insects.


Belongs within: Blattaria.

The Blaberidae are a diverse group of often stout, slow-moving cockroaches (Rentz 1996).

Characters (from Rentz 1996): Size medium to large. Antenna usually less than half body length. Legs short, stout, generally smooth. Cerci short, sometimes unsegmented, seldom reaching hind margin of supra-anal plate. Male styles present or absent; hood-like genital phallomeres on right side, median phallomere rod-like. Female with extensible brood sac or atrium.

<==Blaberidae GE05
    |--Perisphaeriinae BP10
    |    |--Perisphaerus Serville 1831 V10
    |    |--Compsagis Chopard 1952 BP10
    |    |    `--C. lesnei (Chopard 1952) V10
    |    |--Cyrtotria Stål 1871 BP10
    |    |--Bantua Shelford 1908 BP10
    |    `--Pilema Saussure 1873 BP10
    |--Parasphaeria [Zetoborinae] GE05
    |    `--P. boleiriana GE05
    |--Geoscapheinae R96
    |    |--Geoscapheus dilatatus R96
    |    |--Macropanesthia rhinoceros R96
    |    |--Neogeoscapheus R96
    |    `--Parapanesthia gigantea R96
    |--Oxyhaloinae R96
    |    |--Nauphoeta cinerea R96
    |    |--Paraneuphoeta rufipes R96
    |    `--Chorisoneura R18
    |         |--C. parishi Rehn 1918 R18
    |         `--C. texensis BM76
    |--Panesthiinae R96
    |    |--Salganea V10 [Salganeini R96]
    |    `--Panesthia [Panesthiini] R96
    |         |--P. australis R96
    |         |--P. cribrata R96
    |         `--P. tryoni S01
    |--Panchlora [Panchlorinae] V10
    |    |--P. bidentula Hebard 1916 R18
    |    `--P. exoleta Burmeister 1838 R18
    `--Epilamprinae R96
         |--Calolampra irrorata R96
         |--Neolaxta R96
         |--Ataxigamia R96
         |--Rhabdoblatta R96
         |--Molytria inquinata R96
         |--Laxta R96
         |    |--L. friedmani R96
         |    `--L. granicollis R96
         `--Epilampra R18
              |--E. conspersa Burmeister 1838 R18
              `--E. grisea (DeGeer 1773) [=Blatta grisea; incl. E. lucifuga Rehn 1903] R18

Blaberidae incertae sedis:
  Blaberus WL09
    |--B. craniifer WL09
    `--B. discoidalis TC01
  Diploptera GE05
    |--D. dytiscoides WL09
    `--D. punctata Erschscholz 1822 V10
  Gromphadorhina TW05
    |--G. laevigata MG06
    `--G. portentosa (Schaum 1853) V10
  Thorax porcellana Saussure 1862 V10
  Phlebonotus pallens (Serville 1831) V10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BP10] Bohn, H., M. Picker, K.-D. Klass & J. Colville. 2010. A jumping cockroach from South Africa, Saltoblattella montistabularis, gen. nov., spec. nov. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 68 (1): 53-69.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772-794.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[S01] Seeman, O. 2001. Myriad Mesostigmata associated with log-inhabiting arthropods. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 272-276. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[TC01] Taylor, DeM., & Y. Chinzei. 2001. Vitellogenin and its synthesis in the soft ticks. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 622-627. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

[V10] Vršanský, P. 2010. Cockroach as the earliest eusocial animal. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 84 (4): 793-808.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 233-420. Texas Tech University Press.

Healdiidae

(From left to right) Left, right, left interior, ventral and dorsal views of Healdia simplicissima, from Hoare & Merrill (2004).


Belongs within: Ostracoda.

The Healdiidae are a group of ostracods known from the Devonian to the Lower Cretaceous (Benson et al. 1961).

Characters (from Benson et al. 1961): Carapace convex-backed, with suboblong to subtriangular outlines and nearly straight venters in lateral view, commonly with posterior, and less commonly with anterior sculpturing in ridges and spines; valves hinged posterodorsally; left valve larger than right valve, overlap and overreach (where present) left valve over right valve. Without separated calcified inner lamellae but with hinges and contact margins simply ridged and grooved or shouldered in platycopine fashion; adductor muscle scar circular, consisting of numerous spots generally arranged in concentric rings or rows. Most genera probably exhibit moderate sexual dimorphism.

<==Healdiidae
    |--Seminolites Coryell 1928 HM04
    |    |--S. ovalis Cooper 1941 HM04
    |    |--S. perforatus Harlton 1933 HM04
    |    |--S. porosus Robinson 1978 HM04
    |    |--S. symmetricus Cooper 1941 HM04
    |    `--S. truncatus Coryell 1928 HM04
    |--Cribroconcha Cooper 1941 HM04
    |    |--C. alabamensis (Erlich 1964) HM04
    |    |--C. conspicua (Harlton 1929) HM04
    |    |--C. costata Cooper 1941 HM04
    |    |--C. fornicata Cooper 1941 HM04
    |    |--C. perplexa Robinson 1959 HM04
    |    `--C. prolixa Hoare & Merrill 2004 HM04
    |--Microcheilinella Geis 1933 HM04
    |    |--M. acuta Shi 1987 ZL87
    |    |--M. cordata Cooper 1941 S82
    |    |--M. monospinosa Zhang in Zhang & Liang 1987 ZL87
    |    |--M. postspinosa Chen 1958 ZL87
    |    |--M. speciosa Chen 1958 CB86
    |    |--M. subreniformis Chen 1958 ZL87
    |    `--M. venusta Chen 1958 ZL87
    `--Healdia Roundy 1926 HM04
         |--H. ampla Roundy 1926 HM04
         |--H. asper Cooper 1946 HM04
         |--H. caneyensis Harlton 1927 HM04
         |--H. cornigera (Jones & Kirby 1867) HM04
         |--H. glennensis Harlton 1927 HM04
         |--H. marginata Harlton 1928 HM04
         |--H. oblonga Bradfield 1935 HM04
         |--H. oklahomaensis Harlton 1927 HM04
         |--H. simplicissima Harlton 1933 HM04
         `--H. sulcata Cooper 1947 S82

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan et al. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99-Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[CB86] Chen D.-Q. & Bao H. 1986. Lower Permian ostracodes from the Chihsia Formation of Jurong and Longtan, Jiangsu Province. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 3 (2): 107-132.

[HM04] Hoare, R. D., & G. K. Merrill. 2004. A Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) ostracode fauna from Texas. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 185-204.

[S82] Shi C.-G. 1982. Some early Carboniferous ostracodes from Nylam, Xizang (Tibet). Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 21 (3): 309-314.

[ZL87] Zhang X.-J. & Liang X.-Y. 1987. Ostracoda from the Taiyuan Formation of Xingyang and Gong Xian districts, Henan. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 4 (3): 293-312.

Cytherideinae

Cyprideis torosa, from here.


Belongs within: Cytheroidea.

The Cytherideinae are a group of ostracods known from the Permian to the present day (Benson et al. 1961). The outline of the shell may be smooth overall or there may be denticulations at the anterior and/or posterior ends.

Characters (from Benson et al. 1961): Surface smooth, pitted or reticulate. Hinge antimerodont or holomerodont, some genera containing species with reversed valves, normal left valve hinge appearing in right valve and vice verse; marginal areas widest anteriorly where inner margin usually departs from line of concrescence (with similar but smaller departure common posteriorly); radial canals variable in number but usually rather abundant; muscle scars in vertical row of four, usually with two equally spaced ovate scars in front and commonly additional scars above and below.

<==Cytherideinae [Perissocytherideinae]
    |--Basslerella Kellett 1935 CB86
    |    |--B. crassa Kellett 1935 CB86
    |    |--B. gongxianensis Zhang in Zhang & Liang 1987 ZL87
    |    |--B. obesa Kellett 1935 ZL87
    |    |--B. ola Chen & Bao 1986 ZL87
    |    `--B. tota Chen & Bao 1986 CB86
    |--Cytheridea moorei F71
    |--Cyprideis Jones 1857 S-VC91
    |    |--C. currayi Swain 1967 S-VC91
    |    |--C. limbocostata Hartmann 1974 G83
    |    `--C. torosa (Jones 1850) G83
    |--Pumilocytheridea van den Bold 1963 S-VC91
    |    `--P. vermiculoidea Swain 1967 S-VC91
    `--Perissocytheridea Stephenson 1938 NT02
         |--*P. matosoni (Stephenson 1935) NT02
         |--P. japonica Ishizaki 1968 [=Clithrocytheridea japonica] NT02
         `--P. meyerabichi (Hartman 1953) S-VC91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan et al. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[CB86] Chen D.-Q. & Bao H. 1986. Lower Permian ostracodes from the Chihsia Formation of Jurong and Longtan, Jiangsu Province. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 3 (2): 107–132.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G83] Gottwald, J. 1983. Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos. XXX. Podocopida 1 (Ostracoda). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 90: 1–187.

[NT02] Nakao, Y., & A. Tsukagoshi. 2002. Brackish-water Ostracoda (Crustacea) from the Obitsu River estuary, central Japan. Species Diversity 7 (1): 67–115.

[S-VC91] Segura-Vernis, L. R., & A. L. Carreño. 1991. Foraminíferos y ostrácodos de la Laguna de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Inv. Mar. CICIMAR 6 (1): 195–224.

[ZL87] Zhang X.-J. & Liang X.-Y. 1987. Ostracoda from the Taiyuan Formation of Xingyang and Gong Xian districts, Henan. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 4 (3): 293–312.

Bairdia

Bairdia, copyright Moorea Biocode.


Belongs within: Bairdiidae.

Bairdia is a genus of ostracods with a fossil record extending from the Ordovician to the present day (Benson et al. 1961).

Characters (from Benson et al. 1961): Carapace mostly elongate fusiform in lateral view, with broadly arched dorsum that becomes concave terminally, especially at the rear; venter centrally straight but curved upward terminally so that extremities are nearly at mid-height, anterior end generally higher and better rounded than posterior, which is generally acuminate; in dorsal view, lateral outlines symmetrically convex and extremities acuminate; surface of valves smooth, punctate, or rarely with protuberances; left valve larger than right valve, mostly overreaching it around entire margin and overlapping it, especially ventrally, around contact margin. Short ridge-and-groove hingement commonly marked by prominent cardinal angles, especially in right valve; contact margins complex, with wide duplicature, vestibule, and associated structures; adductor-muscle scar pattern of several discrete spots.

<==Bairdia M’Coy 1844 HM04
    |--B. acuminata Cooper 1946 HM04
    |--B. aliger (Guseva 1971) ZL87
    |--B. altiacuta CB86
    |--B. beedei CB86
    |--B. bicornis Bradfield 1935 ZL87
    |--B. calida CB86
    |--B. citriformis CB86
    |--B. crassa Harlton 1929 HM04
    |--B. cristata CB86
    |--B. deloi (Bradfield 1935) ZL87
    |--B. demissa CB86
    |--B. eissensis Upson 1933 ZL87
    |--B. firmata ZL87
    |--B. garrisonensis Upson 1933 S82
    |--B. girtyi Sohn 1960 HM04
    |--B. grahamensis Harlton 1928 HM04
    |--B. guanxiensis Guan 1978 CB86
    |--B. harltoni Cooper 1946 HM04
    |--B. hassi Sohn 1960 ZL87
    |--B. kwanshanensis CB86
    |--B. lungtanensis CB86
    |--B. mandelstami CB86
    |--B. marginicompressa Chen & Bao 1986 CB86
    |--B. menardensis Harlton 1929 ZL87
    |--B. modica CB86
    |--B. monstrabilis Cooper 1946 ZL87
    |--B. permagna Geis 1932 HM04
    |--B. piscariformis CB86
    |--B. pompilioides Harlton 1928 HM04
    |--B. postacuta CB86
    |--B. radlerae Kellett 1934 ZL87
    |--B. seminalis (Kellett 1934) ZL87
    |--B. symmetrica ZL87
    |--B. trianguliformis CB86
    |--B. verdesensis LeRoy 1943 S-VC91
    |--B. verwiebei ZL87
    |--B. whitesidei Bradfield 1935 HM04
    `--B. zhongyingensis Wang 1978 CB86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan et al. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99-Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[CB86] Chen D.-Q. & Bao H. 1986. Lower Permian ostracodes from the Chihsia Formation of Jurong and Longtan, Jiangsu Province. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 3 (2): 107-132.

[HM04] Hoare, R. D., & G. K. Merrill. 2004. A Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) ostracode fauna from Texas. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 185-204.

[S-VC91] Segura-Vernis, L. R., & A. L. Carreño. 1991. Foraminíferos y ostrácodos de la Laguna de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Inv. Mar. CICIMAR 6 (1): 195-224.

[S82] Shi C.-G. 1982. Some early Carboniferous ostracodes from Nylam, Xizang (Tibet). Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 21 (3): 309-314.

[ZL87] Zhang X.-J. & Liang X.-Y. 1987. Ostracoda from the Taiyuan Formation of Xingyang and Gong Xian districts, Henan. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 4 (3): 293-312.

Bairdiidae

Anchistrocheles, from here.


Belongs within: Ostracoda.
Contains: Bairdia.

The Bairdiidae are a family of marine ostracods with a convex-backed carapace and wide duplicature (Benson et al. 1961).

Characters (from Benson et al. 1961): Carapace convex-backed, mostly with asymmetrical, angulated, convex and concave, round and acuminate "bairdian" shape in lateral view; lateral outlines mostly symmetrically convex and terminally acuminate in dorsal view; left valve larger than right valve, both overreaching and overlapping it; with short, ridge-and-groove hingement and prominent duplicature and vestibule; muscle-scar pattern composed of several discrete spots.

<==Bairdiidae [Bairdiacea, Bairdiocyprididae, Bairdioidea]
    |--Pussellinae DH86
    |    |--Pussella Danielopol 1976 DH86
    |    |    |--P. botosaneanui Danielopol 1976 DH86
    |    |    `--P. danielopoli Maddocks 1976 DH86
    |    `--Anchistrocheles (Brady & Norman 1889) DH86
    |         |--A. barnharti Maddocks 1976 DH86
    |         |--A. bensoni Maddocks 1969 DH86
    |         |--A. bradyi (Scott 1905) DH86
    |         |--A. fumata (Brady 1890) DH86
    |         |--A. hartmanni Maddocks 1976 DH86
    |         `--A. mcquadei Maddocks 1976 DH86
    `--Bairdiinae DH86
         |--Bairdia HM04
         |--Bairdoppilata Coryell, Sample & Jennings 1935 DH86
         |    `--B. cratericola Maddocks 1969 DH86
         |--Paranesidea Maddocks 1969 DH86
         |    |--P. algicola Maddocks 1969 DH86
         |    |--P. fracticorallicola Maddocks 1969 DH86
         |    `--P. spongicola Maddocks 1969 DH86
         |--Triebelina van den Bold 1964 DH86
         |    |--T. bradyi (Triebel 1948) DH86
         |    |--T. raripila (Müller 1894) DH86
         |    `--T. sertata (Triebel 1948) DH86
         `--Neonesidea Maddocks 1969 DH86
              |--N. aregina Maddocks 1969 DH86
              |--N. maddocksae Hartmann 1974 DH86
              |--N. michaelseni Hartmann 1982 DH86
              |--N. pateriformes Maddocks 1969 DH86
              `--N. schulzi (Hartmann 1964) DH86

Bairdiidae incertae sedis:
  Rectobairdia Sohn 1960 ZL87
    |--R. jinchengensis Shi 1987 ZL87
    |--R. legumen (Jones & Kirkby 1886) [=Bairdia legumen; incl. B. angulatiformis Posner 1951] S82
    `--R. subsymmetrica Zhang in Zhang & Liang 1987 ZL87
  Pustulobairdia Sohn 1960 ZL87
    |--P. pruniseminata (Sohn 1954) ZL87
    `--P. subpruniseminata Zhang in Zhang & Liang 1987 ZL87
  Petasobairdia CB86
  Lobobairdia Kollmaun 1963 ZL87
    `--L. ventriconcava (Chen 1958) [=Bairdia ventriconcava] ZL87
  Abrobairdia Chen 1982 CB86
    |--A. brevicosta CB86
    `--A. monocosta Chen & Bao 1986 CB86
  Healdianella Posner 1951 CB86
    |--H. miaohuangensis Wang 1983 CB86
    `--H. subcuneola Posner 1951 S82
  Cryptobairdia Sohn 1960 ZL87
    |--C. coryelli (Roth & Skinner 1931) (see below for synonymy) CB86
    |--C. submanifesta Zhang in Zhang & Liang 1987 ZL87
    |--C. subseminalis Zhang in Zhang & Liang 1987 ZL87
    `--C. xiaodonggouensis Shi 1987 ZL87
  Bairdiacypris Bradfield 1935 HM04
    |--B. glennensis (Harlton 1927) HM04
    |--B. longirobusta CB86
    |--B. reniformis CB86
    |--B. sinensis CB86
    |--B. ventralis CB86
    `--B. yui Shi 1960 ZL87
  Acratia Delo 1939 ZL87
    |--A. bicornis Shi 1987 ZL87
    |--A. comisa Zhang in Zhang & Liang 1987 ZL87
    |--A. deloi (Geis 1932) ZL87
    |--A. olivifera CB86
    |--A. pulchra Posner 1951 CB86
    `--A. siratchoica Egorov 1953 CB86
  Orthobairdia Sohn 1960 ZL87
    |--O. cestriensis (Ulrich 1891) [=Bairdia cestriensis] S82
    |--O. chasae (Kellett 1934) [=Bairdia chasae] ZL87
    |--O. florenaensis (Upson 1933) [=Bairdia florenaensis] ZL87
    |--O. insolens (Cooper 1941) [=Bairdia insolens] CB86
    |--O. ponderosa (Chen 1958) [=Bairdia ponderosa] CB86
    |--O. powersi (Kellett 1934) [=Bairdia powersi; incl. B. perincerta Cordell 1952] CB86
    |--O. texana (Harlton 1927) CB86
    `--O. xingyangensis Zhang in Zhang & Liang 1987 ZL87

Cryptobairdia coryelli (Roth & Skinner 1931) [=Bairdia coryelii; incl. B. ventricosa Roth & Skinner 1930 non Kirkby 1858] CB86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan et al. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99-Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press. [CB86] Chen D.-Q. & Bao H. 1986. Lower Permian ostracodes from the Chihsia Formation of Jurong and Longtan, Jiangsu Province. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 3 (2): 107-132.

[DH86] Danielopol, D. L., & G. Hartmann. 1986. Ostracoda. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 265-294. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[HM04] Hoare, R. D., & G. K. Merrill. 2004. A Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) ostracode fauna from Texas. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 185-204.

[S82] Shi C.-G. 1982. Some early Carboniferous ostracodes from Nylam, Xizang (Tibet). Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 21 (3): 309-314.

[ZL87] Zhang X.-J. & Liang X.-Y. 1987. Ostracoda from the Taiyuan Formation of Xingyang and Gong Xian districts, Henan. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 4 (3): 293-312.

Candonidae

Cyclocypris globosa, from Zoologische Staatssammlung Muenchen.


Belongs within: Cypridocopina.
Contains: Pseudocandona, Mixtacandona, Candonopsini.

The Candonidae is a group of ostracods including the marine Paracypridinae and the non-marine Cyclocypridinae and Candoninae.

Characters (from Athersuch et al. 1989): Surface smooth or weakly ornamented; sulci and tubercles absent. Hinge adont. Muscle scars comprise an elongate scar beneath which there is an anterior row of three scars and a posterior row of two scars. First endopodite podomere of antenna with a single club-shaped seta (possibly aesthetasc). Palp of maxilliped transformed into clasping organ in male. Seventh limb inverted, leg-like, with three terminal setae. Furca with two terminal chelate setae. Zenker's organ with five to eight rosettes of chitinous spines; testes and ovaries entering duplicature.

Candonidae
    |  i. s.: Areacandona EHH05
    |         Deminutiocandona EHH05
    |         Humphreyscandona EHH05
    |         Meridiescandona EHH05
    |         Neocandona EHH05
    |         Notacandona EHH05
    |         Origocandona EHH05
    |         Pilbaracandona EHH05
    |--Paracypridinae [Paracyprididae] NT02
    |    |--Paracypris regularis RR03
    |    |--Phlyctenophora mesembria Wouters 1999 PH13
    |    |--Coralliaglaia Hartmann 1974 DH86
    |    |    `--C. corallicola Hartmann 1974 DH86
    |    |--Macrocyprina Triebel 1960 S-VC91
    |    |    `--M. pacifica S-VC91
    |    `--Dolerocypria Tressler 1937 [Thalassocypridini] NT02
    |         |--D. mukaishimensis Okubo 1980 NT02
    |         `--D. taalensis (Tressler 1937) NT02
    |--Cyclocypridinae F08
    |    |--Physocypria Vavra 1898 DH86
    |    |    |--P. dumonti Martens 1982 DH86
    |    |    `--P. kraepelini F08
    |    |--Cypria Zenker 1854 DH86
    |    |    |--C. karamani Petkovski 1976 DH86
    |    |    |--C. ophthalmica D01
    |    |    `--C. stygia Klie 1935 DH86
    |    `--Cyclocypris Brady & Norman 1889 F08
    |         |--C. globosa F08
    |         |--C. laevis D01
    |         |--C. ovoides Alm 1914 [=C. globosa var. ovoides] F08
    |         `--C. serena (Koch 1838) F08
    `--Candoninae K08
         |  i. s.: Pseudocandona DH86
         |         Mixtacandona DH86
         |         Danielocandona Broodbakker 1983 DH86
         |           `--D. lieshoutae Broodbakker 1983 DH86
         |         Phreatocandona Danielopol 1978 DH86
         |           `--P. motasi Danielopol 1978 DH86
         |         Nannocandona Ekman 1914 DH86
         |           |--N. faba Ekman 1914 F08
         |           `--N. stygia Sywula 1976 DH86
         |         Cryptocandona Kaufmann 1900 DH86
         |           |--C. brehmi (Klie 1934) DH86
         |           |--C. dudichi (Klie 1930) DH86
         |           |--C. juvavi (Brehm 1954) DH86
         |           |--C. kieferi (Klie 1938) DH86
         |           |--C. leruthi (Klie 1936) DH86
         |           |--C. matris (Sywula 1976) DH86
         |           `--C. phreaticola (Klie 1927) DH86
         |         Eucandona van Daday 1900 [incl. Fabaeformiscandona Krstic 1972] PK04
         |           |--*E. balatonica (van Daday 1893) PK04
         |           |--E. acuminata [=Fabaeformiscandona acuminata] PK04
         |           |--‘Fabaeformiscandona’ brevicornis F08
         |           |--E. csikii Daday 1901 D01
         |           |--E. fabaeformis (Fischer 1851) (see below for synonymy) PK04
         |           |--E. forma Karanovic 1999 PK04
         |           |--E. holzkampfi (Hartwig 1900) [=Candona holzkampfi, Fabaeformiscandona holzkampfi] PK04
         |           |--E. krstici (Petkovski 1969) [=Candona krstici] PK04
         |           |--‘Fabaeformiscandona’ latens (Klie 1940) DH86
         |           |--E. pubescens D01
         |           |--E. svetozari Petkovski & Karanovic 2004 PK04
         |           `--‘Fabaeformiscandona’ wegelini (Petkovski 1962) DH86
         |         Candona Baird 1845 PK04
         |           |--C. abrupta NG13
         |           |--C. altoides F08
         |           |--C. angulata F08
         |           |--C. candida D01
         |           |--C. lindneri F08
         |           |--C. natronophila F08
         |           |--C. neglecta F08
         |           `--C. vernalis Fuhrmann 2008 F08
         `--Candonopsini K08

Eucandona fabaeformis (Fischer 1851) [=Cypris fabaeformis, Candona (Eucandona) fabaeformis, Fabaeformiscandona fabaeformis] PK04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Athersuch, J., D. J. Horne & J. E. Whittaker. 1989. Marine and Brackish Water Ostracods. E. J. Brill.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 375-470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DH86] Danielopol, D. L., & G. Hartmann. 1986. Ostracoda. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 265-294. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[EHH05] Eberhard, S. M., S. A. Halse & W. F. Humphreys. 2005. Stygofauna in the Pilbara region, north-west Western Australia: a review. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 167-176.

[K08] Karanovic, I. 2008. A new species of the genus Candonopsis (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (4): 411-419.

[NT02] Nakao, Y., & A. Tsukagoshi. 2002. Brackish-water Ostracoda (Crustacea) from the Obitsu River estuary, central Japan. Species Diversity 7 (1): 67-115.

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60-64.

[PK04] Petkovski, T. K., & I. Karanovic. 2004. Eucandona svetozari sp. n., a frehwater ostracod from Macedonia (SE Europe) (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Candoninae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 103-111.

[PH13] Poore, G. C. B. & W. F. Humphreys. 2013. Bunderanthura bundera gen. et sp. nov. from Western Australia, first anchialine Leptanthuridae (Isopoda) from the Southern Hemisphere. Records of the Western Australian Museum 28 (1): 21-29.

[RR03] Rossi, A., J. Rey, B. Andreu & K. Taj-Eddine. 2003. Apport des ostracodes à l’interprétation séquentielle du Crétacé inférieur (Berriasien–Valanginien) du bassin d’Essaouira-Agadir (Maroc). Comptes Rendus Palevol 2: 133-141.

[S-VC91] Segura-Vernis, L. R., & A. L. Carreño. 1991. Foraminíferos y ostrácodos de la Laguna de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Inv. Mar. CICIMAR 6 (1): 195-224.

Cyprididae

Likely individual of Eucypris virens, copyright Ukwildlifeo.


Belongs within: Cypridocopina.
Contains: Stenocypridini.

The Cyprididae are a group of ostracods found in marine and fresh waters, with a generally smooth carapace lacking interlocking teeth in the dorsal hinge (Benson et al. 1961).

Characters (from Benson et al. 1961): Carapace variable in shape and size (to several mm in length), typically subovoid to subtriangular, with greatest height median to anteromedian, posterior end more pointed than anterior; left valve generally larger than right valve; surface commonly with tiny pits, pustules, or reticulations. Hinge line curved or rarely long and straight, consisting of groove in larger valve for reception of simple edge of smaller valve; muscle scars comprising rather compact median to anteromedian groups of four or five spots and one or two additional anteroventral spots.

Cyprididae
    |--Megalocypris M03 [Megalocypridinae K08]
    |--Diacypridinae K08
    |--Ngarawinae K08
    |--Scottiinae K08
    |--Liocypris Sars 1924 [Liocypridinae] M03
    |    |--*L. grandis Sars 1924 M03
    |    `--L. crassa Grekoff 1957 M03
    |--Cyprettinae [Cyprettini] K08
    |    |--Cypretta Vavra 1895 DH86
    |    |    `--C. fontinalis Hartmann 1964 DH86
    |    `--Batucypretta Victor & Fernando 1980 DH86
    |         `--B. paradoxa Victor & Fernando 1980 DH86
    |--Isocypridinae M01
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Ilyodromus’ amplicollis de Deckker 1981 M01
    |    |         ‘Ilyodromus’ dikrus de Deckker 1981 M01
    |    `--Isocypris M03
    |         |--I. perangusta M03
    |         `--I. priomena M03
    |--Cypricercinae K08
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Cyprinotus’ trispinosus Pinto & Purper 1965 K08
    |    |--Astenocypris Müller 1912 M01
    |    |--Strandesia Stuhlmann 1888 [Cypricercini] DH86
    |    |    |--S. botosaneanui Broodbakker 1983 DH86
    |    |    `--S. cavernicola Broodbakker 1983 DH86
    |    `--Bradleystrandesia Broodbakker 1983 PF09
    |         |--B. affinis (Fischer 1851) (see below for synonymy) PF09
    |         |--B. fuscata (Jurine 1820) (see below for synonymy) PF09
    |         `--B. hirsuta (Fischer 1851) [=Cypris hirsuta, Cypricercus hirsutus, Eucypris affinis hirsuta] PF09
    |--Cyprinotinae K08
    |    |--Hemicypris Sars 1903 K08
    |    |--Homocypris Sars 1924 K08
    |    |    `--H. conoidea M03
    |    |--Heterocypris Claus 1892 K08
    |    |    |--H. incongruens D51
    |    |    `--H. rotundata (Bronstein 1928) F08
    |    `--Cyprinotus Brady 1886 [Cyprinotinae] K08
    |         |--*C. cingalensis Brady 1886 (see below for synonymy) K08
    |         |--C. carinatus (King 1855) K08
    |         |--C. fuscus Henry 1919 K08
    |         `--C. subtriangularis NG13
    |--Cypridopsinae [Cypridopsini] K08
    |    |--Cavernocypris Hartmann 1964 DH86
    |    |    |--C. lindbergi Hartmann 1964 DH86
    |    |    `--C. subterranea (Wolf 1920) F08
    |    |--Neocypridopsis Klie 1940 DH86
    |    |    |--N. mexicana Furtos 1936 DH86
    |    |    `--N. yucatanensis Furtos 1936 DH86
    |    `--Cypridopsis Brady 1868 DH86
    |         |--C. coreana McKenzie 1972 DH86
    |         |    |--C. c. coreana DH86
    |         |    `--C. c. elongata McKenzie 1972 DH86
    |         `--C. vidua (Müller 1776) RS04
    |--Cypridinae K08
    |    |--Cypris Müller 1785 W77
    |    |    |--C. bispinosa Lucas 1846 E12
    |    |    |--C. henanensis NG13
    |    |    |--C. leidyi W77
    |    |    |--C. pagei NG13
    |    |    |--C. phaseolus Lucas 1846 E12
    |    |    `--C. pubera D01
    |    `--Bennelongia De Deckker & McKenzie 1981 K08
    |         |--*B. harpago De Deckker & McKenzie 1981 K08
    |         |--B. australis (Brady 1886) [=Chlamydotheca australis] K08
    |         |--B. barangaroo De Deckker 1981 K08
    |         |--B. nimala De Deckker 1981 K08
    |         |--B. pinpi De Deckker 1981 K08
    |         `--B. tunta De Deckker 1982 K08
    |--Herpetocypridinae K08
    |    |--Stenocypridini M01
    |    |--Herpetocypridini M01
    |    |    |--Candonocypris Sars 1896 M01
    |    |    |    `--C. novaezelandiae (Baird 1843) (see below for synonymy) M01
    |    |    |--Herpetocypris Brady & Norman 1889 M01
    |    |    |    `--*H. reptans (Baird 1835) [=Cypris reptans] M01
    |    |    `--Ilyodromus Sars 1894 M01
    |    |         `--*I. stanleyana (King 1855) [=Candona stanleyana] M01
    |    `--Psychrodromini M01
    |         |--Psychrodromus Danielopol & McKenzie 1977 M01
    |         |    `--*P. olivacea (Brady & Norman 1889) [=Herpetocypris olivacea] M01
    |         |--Humphycypris Martens 1997 M01
    |         |    `--‘Stenocypris’ condarensis Akatova 1950 (see below for synonymy) M01
    |         `--Somalicypris Martens 1997 M01
    |              `--*S. uegitia (Masi 1925) [=Acocypris uegitia] M01
    `--Eucypridinae K08
         |--Alboa De Deckker 1981 K08
         |--Prionocypris Brady & Norman 1896 K08
         |--Tonnacypris Diebel & Pietrzeniuk 1975 K08
         |--Trajancypris Martens 1989 K08
         |    `--T. laevis (Müller 1900) F08
         |--Riocypris Klie 1935 K08
         |    |--*R. uruguayensis Klie 1935 K08
         |    |--R. fitzroyi (McKenzie 1966) [=Candonocypris fitzroyi] K08
         |    |--R. fontana (Graf 1931) [=Eucypris fontana] K08
         |    |--R. hinzeae Karanovic 2008 [=R. hinzei] K08
         |    `--R. oblonga (Sars 1896) [=Eucypris oblonga] K08
         `--Eucypris Vávra 1891 K08
              |--E. clavata D01
              |--E. conchacea D01
              |--E. fasciata D01
              |--E. fischeri D01
              |--E. incongruens D01
              |--E. inflata F08
              `--E. virens (Jurine 1820) K08

Cyprididae incertae sedis:
  Pseudostenocypria Schneider 1962 M01
  Amphicypris Sars 1901 [incl. Cypriconcha Sars 1926] M03
  Pattersoncypris M03
  Koencypris Meisch 2000 K08
    `--*K. ornata (Müller 1776) [=Eucypris ornata] K08
  Mytilocypridini K08
  Chlamydotheca Saussure 1858 K08
  Potamocypris [incl. Candonella] D01
    |--P. fulva D01
    |--P. gregaria D01
    `--P. newtoni [=Cypridopsis newtoni] D01

Bradleystrandesia affinis (Fischer 1851) [=Cypris affinis, Cypricercus affinis; incl. Cypris fuscata var. minor Müller 1900, Cypris reticulata Zaddach 1844 (n. d.), Bradleystrandesia reticulata] PF09

Bradleystrandesia fuscata (Jurine 1820) [=Monoculus fuscatus, Cypricercus fuscatus, Cypris fuscata; incl. Cypris fuscata var. major Müller 1900] PF09

Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Baird 1843) [incl. Cypris candonioides King 1855, *Candonocypris candonioides] M01

*Cyprinotus cingalensis Brady 1886 [incl. C. dahli Sars 1896, C. edwardi McKenzie 1978, C. kimberleyensis McKenzie 1966, C. uenoi Brehm 1936] K08

‘Stenocypris’ condarensis Akatova 1950 [=S. subterranea Hartmann 1964, *Humphycypris subterranea] M01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan et al. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99-Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 375-470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DH86] Danielopol, D. L., & G. Hartmann. 1986. Ostracoda. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 265-294. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F08] Fuhrmann, R. 2008. Die Ostrakoden- und Molluskenfauna des Auelehmprofils Zeitz (Landkreis Burgenland) und ihre Aussage zum Klima sowie zur Landnutzung im jüngeren Holozän Mitteldeutschlands. Mauritiana 20 (2): 253-281.

[K08] Karanovic, I. 2008. Three interesting Cyprididae (Ostracoda) from Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 267-287.

[M01] Martens, K. 2001. Taxonomy of the Herpetocypridinae (Ostracoda, Cyprididae). Crustaceana 74 (3): 295-308.

[M03] Martens, K. 2003. On a remarkable South African giant ostracod (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Cyprididae) from temporary pools, with additional appendages. Hydrobiologia 500: 115-130.

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60-64.

[PF09] Petkovski, T. & R. Fuhrmann. 2009. Die Gattung Bradleystrandesia Broodbakker (Crustacea, Ostracoda) in Europa. Mauritiana 20 (3): 587-600.

[RS04] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, R. E. Kambic & D. R. Nelson. 2004. Robust support for tardigrade clades and their ages from three protein-coding nuclear genes. Invertebrate Biology 123 (2): 93-100.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1-219, pls 211-221.